MCID: ACH005
MIFTS: 52

Achalasia malady

Categories: Rare diseases, Gastrointestinal diseases, Cardiovascular diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Achalasia

Aliases & Descriptions for Achalasia:

Name: Achalasia 12 29 52 14 69
Hypertensive Lower Esophageal Sphincter 12 69
Esophageal Achalasia 12 69
Cardiospasm 12 50
Lack of Reflex Relaxation of Lower Oesophageal Sphincter 12
Achalasia of Esophagus 12
Achalasia of Cardia 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:9164
ICD10 33 K22.0
ICD9CM 35 530.0
MeSH 42 D004931
NCIt 47 C84699
UMLS 69 C0014848

Summaries for Achalasia

Disease Ontology : 12 An esophageal disease that is characterized by an inability of the esophagus to move food toward the stomach resulting from the lower esophogeal sphincter not fully relaxing during swallowing.

MalaCards based summary : Achalasia, also known as hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter, is related to achalasia-addisonianism-alacrimia syndrome and idiopathic achalasia. An important gene associated with Achalasia is AAAS (Aladin WD Repeat Nucleoporin), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Pathways in cancer and Platelet homeostasis. The drugs Prednisone and Methylene blue have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include smooth muscle, lung and heart, and related phenotypes are Decreased viability after Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 infection and TNF-alpha/CHX stimulation and cardiovascular system

Wikipedia : 71 Achalasia (/eɪkəˈleɪʒə/; a- + -chalasia \"no relaxation\") is a failure of smooth muscle fibers to... more...

Related Diseases for Achalasia

Diseases related to Achalasia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 117)
id Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 achalasia-addisonianism-alacrimia syndrome 12.3
2 idiopathic achalasia 12.3
3 achalasia-microcephaly syndrome 12.2
4 achalasia, familial esophageal 12.2
5 moyamoya 6 with achalasia 12.2
6 alacrima, achalasia, and mental retardation syndrome 12.1
7 deafness, congenital, with vitiligo and achalasia 12.1
8 megaesophagus 11.3
9 mental retardation, x-linked, syndromic 17 11.0
10 hirschsprung disease 1 10.7
11 ataxia, posterior column, with retinitis pigmentosa 10.7
12 moyamoya disease 10.7
13 autoimmune gastrointestinal dysmotility 10.7
14 gmppa-cdg 10.7
15 esophagitis 10.6
16 diabetes insipidus, nephrogenic 10.1 AAAS GMPPA MC2R
17 chagas disease 10.1
18 cough variant asthma 10.1 KIT VIP
19 idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis 10.0 AAAS NOS2 VIPR1
20 ovary serous adenocarcinoma 10.0 KIT NOS2
21 gastroesophageal reflux 10.0
22 pneumonia 10.0
23 viral hepatitis 9.9 NOS1 NOS2 VIP
24 choriocarcinoma of ovary 9.9 KIT TP53
25 sweat gland cancer 9.9 KIT RET VIP
26 tmem70 defect 9.9 RET TP53
27 squamous cell carcinoma 9.9
28 neuronitis 9.9
29 fragile x-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome 9.9 KIT TP53
30 endodermal sinus tumor 9.9 KIT TP53
31 esophageal cancer 9.9
32 ovarian embryonal carcinoma 9.8 KIT TP53
33 aspiration pneumonia 9.8
34 mediastinitis 9.8
35 neuropathy 9.8
36 mycobacterium fortuitum 9.8
37 dysphagia 9.8
38 tooth agenesis, selective, 5 9.8 KIT NOS1 RET VIP
39 mitochondrial dna depletion syndrome 5 9.8 KIT TP53 VIP
40 benign shuddering attacks 9.8 RET TP53 VIP
41 postpartum depression 9.7 KIT TP53
42 anorexia nervosa 9.7
43 lung abscess 9.7
44 microcephaly 9.7
45 hiatus hernia 9.7
46 down syndrome 9.7
47 adenocarcinoma 9.7
48 asthma 9.7
49 obesity 9.7
50 williams-beuren syndrome 9.7

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Achalasia:



Diseases related to Achalasia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Achalasia

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Achalasia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26
id Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Decreased viability after Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 infection and TNF-alpha/CHX stimulation GR00206-A 8.62 NOS1 NOS2

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Achalasia:

44 (show all 15)
id Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.24 GUCY1A3 KIT MC2R NOS1 NOS2 PTPN22
2 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.2 TP53 VIP VIPR1 AAAS KIT MC2R
3 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.19 AAAS KIT MC2R NOS1 NOS2 PTPN22
4 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.17 AAAS GUCY1A3 KIT MC2R NOS1 NOS2
5 cellular MP:0005384 10.13 AAAS KIT NOS1 NOS2 PTPN22 RET
6 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.13 AAAS KIT MC2R NOS1 NOS2 PTPN22
7 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 10.11 AAAS KIT NOS1 NOS2 PTPN22 RET
8 mortality/aging MP:0010768 10.07 GUCY1A3 KIT MC2R NOS1 NOS2 PTPN22
9 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10.06 GUCY1A3 KIT MC2R NOS1 NOS2 PTPN22
10 immune system MP:0005387 10.01 VIP KIT MC2R NOS1 NOS2 PTPN22
11 nervous system MP:0003631 9.86 AAAS GUCY1A3 KIT MC2R NOS1 NOS2
12 muscle MP:0005369 9.8 GUCY1A3 KIT NOS1 NOS2 RET TP53
13 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.63 KIT NOS1 NOS2 PTPN22 RET TP53
14 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.5 AAAS KIT NOS1 NOS2 RET TP53
15 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.23 PTPN22 RET TP53 VIP GUCY1A3 KIT

Drugs & Therapeutics for Achalasia

Drugs for Achalasia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 72)
id Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Prednisone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 53-03-2 5865
2
Methylene blue Investigational Phase 4 61-73-4
3 glucocorticoids Phase 4
4 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
5 Hormones Phase 4
6 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
7 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4
8 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 4
9 Anesthetics Phase 3,Phase 2
10 Tin Fluorides Phase 3
11
Nitric Oxide Approved Phase 1, Phase 2 10102-43-9 145068
12
Menthol Approved Phase 1, Phase 2 2216-51-5 16666
13
Acetylcholine Approved Phase 2 51-84-3 187
14
Naloxegol Approved Phase 2 854601-70-0
15 Cholinergic Agents Phase 2
16 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 2
17 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 2
18 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 2
19 abobotulinumtoxinA Phase 2
20 incobotulinumtoxinA Phase 2
21 onabotulinumtoxinA Phase 2
22 Botulinum Toxins Phase 2
23 Botulinum Toxins, Type A Phase 2
24 Narcotic Antagonists Phase 2
25 Narcotics Phase 2
26
Proton pump inhibitors Phase 2
27 Cola Nutraceutical Phase 2
28
Amyl Nitrite Approved 8017-89-8, 110-46-3 8053 10026
29
Histamine Approved, Investigational 75614-87-8, 51-45-6 774
30
Diphenhydramine Approved 58-73-1, 147-24-0 3100
31
Ondansetron Approved 99614-02-5 4595
32
Benzocaine Approved 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
33
Promethazine Approved 60-87-7 4927
34
Dopamine Approved 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
35
Esomeprazole Approved, Investigational 161796-78-7, 119141-88-7 4594 9579578
36
Domperidone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved 57808-66-9 3151
37 tannic acid Approved, Nutraceutical
38 Analgesics
39 Hemostatics
40 Anesthetics, Local
41 Vasodilator Agents
42 Hypnotics and Sedatives
43 Anti-Bacterial Agents
44 Anti-Infective Agents
45 Antibiotics, Antitubercular
46 Antitubercular Agents
47 Cephalosporins
48
Histamine Phosphate 51-74-1 65513
49
Serotonin 50-67-9 5202
50 Serotonin Agents

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 79)
id Name Status NCT ID Phase
1 Personalized Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy for Achalasia Unknown status NCT01570621 Phase 4
2 Assessing the Efficacy of Steroid Treatment of Achalasia Enrolling by invitation NCT01903486 Phase 4
3 Comparison of Esophageal and Anorectal Manometry Catheters Terminated NCT00204763 Phase 4
4 Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy for Primary Esophageal Achalasia Completed NCT01560559 Phase 3
5 Efficacy of Dark Chocolate in Achalasia Patients Unknown status NCT00790465 Phase 1, Phase 2
6 Endolumenal Partial Myotomy for the Treatment of Esophageal Achalasia Unknown status NCT01302288 Phase 2
7 Prospective Study on the Feasibility and Effectiveness of Per-Oral Endoscopic Myotomy (P.O.E.M.) for Treatment of Primary Esophageal Motility Disorders Unknown status NCT01524458 Phase 1, Phase 2
8 Endolumenal Partial Myotomy for Esophageal Motility Disorders Unknown status NCT01302301 Phase 2
9 Per-Oral Endoscopic Myotomy (P.O.E.M.) for Treatment of Primary Esophageal Motility Disorders Unknown status NCT01524471 Phase 2
10 Prospective Study on the Feasibility and Results of POEM in Idiopathic Achalasia Completed NCT02259283 Phase 2
11 Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy (POEM) for the Treatment of Achalasia Completed NCT02073578 Phase 1, Phase 2
12 Pneumatic Dilatation or Surgical Myotomy for Achalasia Completed NCT02086669 Phase 2
13 Endoscopic Myotomy for the Treatment of Achalasia (Motility Disorder) of the Esophagus - POEM Procedure Completed NCT01873300 Phase 1, Phase 2
14 Study of IW-1701, A Stimulator of Soluble Guanylate Cyclase (sGC), in Patients With Type II Achalasia Recruiting NCT02931565 Phase 2
15 Movantik for Opioid-Related Esophageal Disorders Recruiting NCT02998606 Phase 2
16 Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy Versus Botulinum Toxin Injection in Spastic Esophageal Disorders Not yet recruiting NCT02663206 Phase 2
17 Evaluation of the Safety and Effectiveness of Tailored Transoral Incisionless Fundoplication (TIF) Using EsophyX for the Treatment of GERD Withdrawn NCT01025739 Phase 2
18 Endoscopic Myotomy of the Lower Esophageal Sphincter for Achalasia Unknown status NCT01399476 Phase 1
19 Per-Oral Endoscopic Myotomy Recruiting NCT01402518 Phase 1
20 Clinical Impact of Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy for Esophageal Achalasia Unknown status NCT01649843
21 Hot Water Drinking Therapy in Achalasia Unknown status NCT01863966
22 Achalasia: Mechanisms Underlying Treatment Failure Unknown status NCT02055469
23 POEM vs. Pneumatic Dilation for Esophageal Achalasia Unknown status NCT01768091
24 POEM Versus Pneumatic Dilatation in Achalasia Cardia Unknown status NCT02025790
25 Prospective Study to Assess the Diagnostic Utility of Amyl Nitrite in Patients With Suspected Achalasia Undergoing High Resolution Esophageal Manometry (HREM) Unknown status NCT02428959
26 A Randomized Comparison of Laparoscopic Myotomy and Pneumatic Dilatation for Achalasia Unknown status NCT00188344
27 Comparison Study of Conventional POEM and Hybrid POEM for Esophageal Achalasia Unknown status NCT01742494
28 Bacteremia and Procalcitonin Levels in Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy for Achalasia Unknown status NCT01750385
29 Peroral Endoscopic Remyotomy for Failed Heller Myotomy Unknown status NCT01637311
30 Reversibility of Dysmotility After Gastric Banding Unknown status NCT00680030
31 Pyloric Sphincter Pressure and Geometry Assessment Using EndoFlip Unknown status NCT02446119
32 Functional Endoscopy in Neurogenic Dysphagia Unknown status NCT01995929
33 The Role That Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy (POEM) Could Play in the Treatment of Achalasia Completed NCT01584635
34 Genetic Evaluation of AAAS Gene in Early-Onset Achalasia and Alacrima Patients Completed NCT00856921
35 Endoscopic Peroral Myotomy for Treatment of Achalasia Completed NCT01405469
36 A Clinical Study of Per Oral Endoscopic Myotomy (POEM) in Patients Suffering From Achalasia Completed NCT01692106
37 Evaluation of a Novel Endoscopic Treatment for Achalasia Completed NCT01770249
38 A Prospective Study Comparing Two Reconstructive Operation Techniques After Myotomy of Achalasia Completed NCT01933373
39 Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy (POEM) for Esophageal Motility Completed NCT02314741
40 Do Patients Who Have Had Surgery for Achalasia Suffer From Reflux Completed NCT00519441
41 Efficacy & Safety of Submucosal Endoscopic Myotomy With Mucosal Flap (SEMF) in the Treatment of Patients With Achalasia Completed NCT01438398
42 Randomized Study of Botulinum Toxin Type A for Achalasia Completed NCT00004416
43 Laparoscopic Dor Versus Toupet Fundoplication for the Treatment of Idiopathic Esophageal Achalasia Completed NCT00490750
44 Per-Oral Endoscopic Esophagomyotomy (POEM) Completed NCT01635374
45 Per-Oral Endoscopic Myotomy (P.O.E.M.) for Treatment of Esophageal Motility Disorders Completed NCT01525732
46 SX ELLA Esophageal Degradable BD Stent System Completed NCT01337206
47 Reletex Versus Standard of Care Therapy for Post-Operative Nausea Control in Patients Undergoing Foregut Surgery Completed NCT01510379
48 Normal Values in Ano-rectal 3D High Resolution Manometry Completed NCT01710579
49 Pancreaticobiliary Reflux in Patients Without Cholelithiasis Completed NCT00890201
50 Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy (POEM) for the Treatment of Achalasia Recruiting NCT01832779

Search NIH Clinical Center for Achalasia

Genetic Tests for Achalasia

Genetic tests related to Achalasia:

id Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Achalasia 29

Anatomical Context for Achalasia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Achalasia:

39
Smooth Muscle, Lung, Heart, Testes, Thyroid, Brain

Publications for Achalasia

Articles related to Achalasia:

(show top 50) (show all 765)
id Title Authors Year
1
Intramural esophageal bronchogenic cyst mimicking achalasia in a toddler. ( 27822780 )
2017
2
Impaired bolus clearance in combined high-resolution esophageal manometry and impedance measurement helps to differentiate between esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction and achalasia. ( 28068730 )
2017
3
Results of Laparoscopic Heller's Myotomy for Achalasia in Children: A Systematic Review of the Literature. ( 27901639 )
2017
4
Peroral endoscopic myotomy for an achalasia patient with multiple esophageal diverticula. ( 27967203 )
2017
5
The course of achalasia one to four decades after initial treatment. ( 27925255 )
2017
6
A Rare Case of Esophageal Verrucous Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Patient with Achalasia. ( 28063972 )
2017
7
Diagnosis and Treatment Strategy of Achalasia Subtypes and Esophagogastric Junction Outflow Obstruction Based on High-Resolution Manometry. ( 28052278 )
2017
8
Achalasia-microcephaly syndrome: a further case report. ( 28471776 )
2017
9
EUS-guided per-oral endoscopic myotomy to treat an achalasia with relapse after Heller's myotomy. ( 27178311 )
2016
10
Progression of Jackhammer Esophagus to Achalasia. ( 27032546 )
2016
11
Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome presenting with hepatitis and achalasia. ( 27294613 )
2016
12
Peroral endoscopic myotomy after gastric bypass: An effective solution for de novo achalasia. ( 27916564 )
2016
13
Long-term efficacy of modified retrievable stents for treatment of achalasia cardia. ( 27059970 )
2016
14
Use of a long, stiff, overtube placed by a colonoscope to facilitate the POEM procedure for a 36-year history of achalasia with 13-cm esophageal dilation. ( 27213966 )
2016
15
Per-oral endoscopic pyloromyotomy and per-oral endoscopic myotomy for coexisting refractory gastroparesis and recurrent achalasia cardia in a single patient. ( 27090287 )
2016
16
Update on Therapeutic Interventions for the Management of Achalasia. ( 27060999 )
2016
17
Heller Myotomy Is Superior to Balloon Dilatation or Botulinum Injection in Children with Achalasia: A Two-Center Review. ( 27135255 )
2016
18
Tracheomalacia Due to Esophageal Achalasia. ( 27364977 )
2016
19
Mutations in CRLF1 cause familial achalasia. ( 27976805 )
2016
20
Gene expression of muscular and neuronal pathways is cooperatively dysregulated in patients with idiopathic achalasia. ( 27511445 )
2016
21
Megaesophagus in Achalasia. ( 27140718 )
2016
22
Laparoscopic myotomy after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement and embolization of gastroesophageal varices in patients with achalasia and cirrhosis. ( 27939056 )
2016
23
Esophagus-Related Symptoms in First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Achalasia: Is Screening Necessary? ( 27921050 )
2016
24
Laparoscopic Heller Myotomy and Dor Fundoplication for Esophageal Achalasia: Technique and Perioperative Management. ( 27606723 )
2016
25
Effects of laparoscopic myotomy on the esophageal motility pattern of esophageal achalasia as measured by high-resolution manometry. ( 28039638 )
2016
26
Etiology and Pathogenesis of Idiopathic Achalasia. ( 28009686 )
2016
27
Progression of Jackhammer Esophagus to Achalasia: Author's Reply. ( 27032547 )
2016
28
Diagnosis and management of esophageal achalasia. ( 27625387 )
2016
29
Letter to the Editor: More on Achalasia with Megaesophagus. ( 27574362 )
2016
30
Gender differences in both the pathology and surgical outcome of patients with esophageal achalasia. ( 27129544 )
2016
31
Pneumatic Dilation for Achalasia: Obliterate the Waist! ( 27580786 )
2016
32
Massive food impaction in achalasia. ( 27981296 )
2016
33
Socio-economic status and lifestyle factors are associated with achalasia risk: A population-based case-control study. ( 27099443 )
2016
34
Oesophageal disease: gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett's oesophagus, achalasia and eosinophilic oesophagitis. ( 27888864 )
2016
35
Two-Person Technique of Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy for Achalasia with an Advanced Endoscopist and a Thoracic Surgeon: Initial Experience. ( 27630977 )
2016
36
Per Oral Endoscopic Myotomy for Achalasia: A Detailed Description of the Technique and Review of the Literature. ( 27112254 )
2016
37
Prosthetic rehabilitation in patient with achalasia cardia - A rare case report. ( 27583229 )
2016
38
Anaesthetic Management of a Case of Down's Syndrome with Achalasia Cardia. ( 27891427 )
2016
39
Peroral endoscopic myotomy: ready for prime time in all achalasia patients? ( 27894134 )
2016
40
Pyopericardium secondary to achalasia-associated squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus. ( 27551899 )
2016
41
Achalasia case detected during endoscopy application accompanied by anaesthesia. ( 28053688 )
2016
42
A Matched Comparison of Per Oral Endoscopic Myotomy to Laparoscopic Heller Myotomy in the Treatment of Achalasia. ( 27514392 )
2016
43
Do Jackhammer contractions lead to achalasia? A longitudinal study. ( 27660053 )
2016
44
Clinical response to peroral endoscopic myotomy in patients with idiopathic achalasia at a minimum follow-up of 2a88years. ( 25934759 )
2016
45
Safety and efficacy of POEM for treatment of achalasia: a systematic review of the literature. ( 27633440 )
2016
46
Per-oral Endoscopic Myotomy in Children with Achalasia Cardia. ( 27048658 )
2016
47
Long-term outcome of peroral endoscopic myotomy for achalasia treatment in a 9-year-old female patient. ( 27188526 )
2016
48
Comprehensive epidemiological and genotype-phenotype analyses in a large European sample with idiopathic achalasia. ( 26882171 )
2016
49
Lung Abscess: Atypical Presentation of Achalasia. ( 27079347 )
2016
50
Peroral endoscopic myotomy versus pneumatic dilation for achalasia in patients aged a8Y 65 years. ( 27649684 )
2016

Variations for Achalasia

Expression for Achalasia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Achalasia.

Pathways for Achalasia

Pathways related to Achalasia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 16)
id Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 12.3 KIT NOS2 RET TP53
2
Show member pathways
11.98 GUCY1A3 NOS1 NOS2
3 11.77 MC2R VIP VIPR1
4 11.62 NOS1 NOS2 TP53
5 11.14 KIT RET TP53
6 11.13 NOS2 TP53
7 11.09 NOS2 TP53
8
Show member pathways
11.04 NOS1 NOS2
9 10.97 RET TP53
10 10.94 GUCY1A3 NOS1
11 10.92 NOS1 NOS2
12 10.84 NOS1 NOS2
13
Show member pathways
10.76 GUCY1A3 NOS1 NOS2
14 10.44 NOS1 NOS2
15
Show member pathways
10.4 NOS1 NOS2 TP53
16 10.16 NOS1 NOS2

GO Terms for Achalasia

Biological processes related to Achalasia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of gene expression GO:0010628 9.67 KIT PTPN22 RET TP53
2 T cell differentiation GO:0030217 9.43 KIT PTPN22
3 negative regulation of blood pressure GO:0045776 9.4 NOS1 NOS2
4 nitric oxide biosynthetic process GO:0006809 9.32 NOS1 NOS2
5 positive regulation of guanylate cyclase activity GO:0031284 9.26 NOS1 NOS2
6 arginine catabolic process GO:0006527 9.16 NOS1 NOS2
7 peptidyl-cysteine S-nitrosylation GO:0018119 8.96 NOS1 NOS2
8 nitric oxide mediated signal transduction GO:0007263 8.8 GUCY1A3 NOS1 NOS2

Molecular functions related to Achalasia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 heme binding GO:0020037 9.54 GUCY1A3 NOS1 NOS2
2 NADP binding GO:0050661 9.4 NOS1 NOS2
3 FMN binding GO:0010181 9.32 NOS1 NOS2
4 arginine binding GO:0034618 9.26 NOS1 NOS2
5 NADPH-hemoprotein reductase activity GO:0003958 9.16 NOS1 NOS2
6 tetrahydrobiopterin binding GO:0034617 8.96 NOS1 NOS2
7 nitric-oxide synthase activity GO:0004517 8.62 NOS1 NOS2

Sources for Achalasia

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 MedGen
42 MeSH
43 MESH via Orphanet
44 MGI
46 NCI
47 NCIt
48 NDF-RT
51 NINDS
52 Novoseek
54 OMIM
55 OMIM via Orphanet
59 PubMed
60 QIAGEN
65 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67 TGDB
68 Tocris
69 UMLS
70 UMLS via Orphanet
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