MCID: ACT150
MIFTS: 45

Acute Adrenal Insufficiency malady

Categories: Endocrine diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

Aliases & Descriptions for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency:

Name: Acute Adrenal Insufficiency 56 52
Addisonian Crisis 56 69
Acute Adrenocortical Insufficiency 56
Acute Adrenal Failure 56
Adrenocortical Crisis 56
Adrenal Crisis 56

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

56
acute adrenal insufficiency
Inheritance: Autosomal recessive,Not applicable,X-linked dominant; Age of onset: All ages; Age of death: any age;

Classifications:

Orphanet: 56  
Rare endocrine diseases


External Ids:

Orphanet 56 ORPHA95409
ICD10 via Orphanet 34 E27.2
ICD10 33 E27.2

Summaries for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

MalaCards based summary : Acute Adrenal Insufficiency, also known as addisonian crisis, is related to adrenal insufficiency, congenital, with 46xy sex reversal, partial or complete and sheehan syndrome, and has symptoms including hyperpigmentation of the skin, muscle weakness and failure to thrive. An important gene associated with Acute Adrenal Insufficiency is REN (Renin), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Interleukin-4 and 13 signaling and Diseases of metabolism. The drugs Epinephrine and Hydrocortisone have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include adrenal gland, skin and lung.

Wikipedia : 71 Adrenal crisis (also known as Addisonian crisis and acute adrenal insufficiency) is a medical emergency... more...

Related Diseases for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

Diseases in the Acute Adrenal Insufficiency family:

Congenital Adrenal Insufficiency Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency

Diseases related to Acute Adrenal Insufficiency via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 118)
id Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 adrenal insufficiency, congenital, with 46xy sex reversal, partial or complete 11.1
2 sheehan syndrome 10.9
3 hypogonadism mitral valve prolapse mental retardation 10.2 POMC REN
4 glossopharyngeal nerve neoplasm 10.2 POMC REN
5 endometrial mixed adenocarcinoma 10.2 POMC REN
6 hypoaldosteronism, congenital, due to cmo i deficiency 10.1 POMC REN
7 familial multiple trichodiscomas 10.1 POMC REN
8 cataract 21, multiple types 10.1 POMC REN
9 merkel cell carcinoma 10.1 POMC REN
10 astroblastoma 10.1 POMC REN
11 immune system organ benign neoplasm 10.1 POMC REN
12 urinary bladder posterior wall cancer 10.1 IL6 REN
13 clear cell adenocarcinoma 10.1 POMC REN
14 aorta angiosarcoma 10.1 POMC REN
15 indian tick typhus 10.1 POMC REN
16 glucosephosphate dehydrogenase deficiency 10.1 IL6 POMC
17 spinocerebellar ataxia 25 10.1 IL6 REN
18 deafness, autosomal recessive 79 10.1 POMC REN
19 fatty liver disease 10.1 POMC REN
20 chronic polyneuropathy 10.1 IL6 REN
21 paranasal sinus sarcoma 10.1 IL6 REN
22 endocrine organ benign neoplasm 10.1 POMC REN
23 limb ischemia 10.1 IL6 REN
24 x-linked sideroblastic anemia with ataxia 10.1 CYP11A1 POMC
25 diabetic encephalopathy 10.1 IL6 REN
26 chondroma 10.1 IL6 POMC
27 spondylolysis 10.1 IL6 POMC
28 vestibular gland benign neoplasm 10.1 POMC REN
29 lichen disease 10.0 IL6 POMC
30 avoidant personality disorder 10.0 IL6 POMC
31 microphthalmia, isolated, with coloboma 7 10.0 CYP21A2 REN
32 cleft lip palate-tetraphocomelia 10.0 CYP21A2 POMC
33 dyt1 early-onset isolated dystonia 10.0 CYP21A2 POMC
34 benign peritoneal mesothelioma 10.0 CYP21A2 POMC
35 sphingolipidosis 10.0 CYP21A2 POMC
36 pinguecula 10.0 CYP11A1 REN
37 adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma 10.0 CYP21A2 POMC
38 cervix small cell carcinoma 10.0 IL6 REN
39 adrenal adenoma 10.0 IL6 POMC
40 pelvic muscle wasting 10.0 CYP21A2 POMC
41 deafness, autosomal recessive 29 10.0 CYP11A1 CYP21A2
42 tick-borne encephalitis 10.0 CYP11A1 CYP21A2
43 liver sarcoma 10.0 CYP11A1 CYP21A2
44 benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes 10.0 IL6 POMC
45 calcinosis 10.0 IL6 POMC REN
46 peroneal neuropathy 10.0 IL6 POMC REN
47 body dysmorphic disorder 10.0 IL6 POMC REN
48 chronic myocardial ischemia 9.9 IL6 REN
49 anisometropia 9.9 CYP21A2 POMC
50 glioma susceptibility 1 9.9 CYP11A1 CYP21A2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Acute Adrenal Insufficiency:



Diseases related to Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

Human phenotypes related to Acute Adrenal Insufficiency:

56 32 (show all 46)
id Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 hyperpigmentation of the skin 56 32 Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0000953
2 muscle weakness 56 32 Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001324
3 failure to thrive 56 32 Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001508
4 weight loss 56 32 Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0001824
5 diarrhea 56 32 Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002014
6 nausea and vomiting 56 32 Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002017
7 constipation 56 32 Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002019
8 abdominal pain 56 32 Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002027
9 anorexia 56 32 Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002039
10 autoimmunity 56 32 Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0002960
11 increased circulating acth level 56 32 Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0003154
12 hypovolemia 56 32 Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0011106
13 fatigue 56 32 Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0012378
14 renal insufficiency 56 32 Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000083
15 renal salt wasting 56 32 Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000127
16 increased circulating renin level 56 32 Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000848
17 seizures 56 32 Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001250
18 muscular hypotonia 56 32 Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001252
19 orthostatic hypotension 56 32 Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001278
20 normocytic anemia 56 32 Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001897
21 hypoglycemia 56 32 Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001943
22 hyperuricemia 56 32 Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002149
23 hyperkalemia 56 32 Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002153
24 hyponatremia 56 32 Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002902
25 hyperkalemic metabolic acidosis 56 32 Frequent (79-30%) HP:0005976
26 androgen insufficiency 56 32 Frequent (79-30%) HP:0008226
27 acute respiratory tract infection 56 32 Frequent (79-30%) HP:0011948
28 decreased urinary potassium 56 32 Frequent (79-30%) HP:0012364
29 delayed puberty 56 32 Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000823
30 adrenal hypoplasia 56 32 Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000835
31 dry skin 56 32 Occasional (29-5%) HP:0000958
32 vitiligo 56 32 Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001045
33 stroke 56 32 Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001297
34 myocardial infarction 56 32 Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001658
35 sparse axillary hair 56 32 Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002215
36 vertigo 56 32 Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002321
37 arthralgia 56 32 Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002829
38 hypercalcemia 56 32 Occasional (29-5%) HP:0003072
39 decreased female libido 56 32 Occasional (29-5%) HP:0030018
40 salt craving 56 32 Occasional (29-5%) HP:0030083
41 primary adrenal insufficiency 56 Obligate (100%)
42 hypocortisolemia 56 Obligate (100%)
43 hypotension 56 Very frequent (99-80%)
44 hypoaldosteronism 56 Frequent (79-30%)
45 decreased circulating aldosterone level 32 HP:0004319
46 decreased circulating cortisol level 32 HP:0008163

Drugs & Therapeutics for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

Drugs for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 101)
id Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Epinephrine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2 51-43-4 5816
2
Hydrocortisone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2 50-23-7 5754 657311
3
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3 50-24-8 5755
4
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3 83-43-2 6741
5
Prednisone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2 53-03-2 5865
6
Butyric Acid Experimental Phase 4,Phase 2 107-92-6 264
7 glucocorticoids Phase 4,Phase 2
8 Mydriatics Phase 4,Phase 2
9 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2
10 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 4,Phase 2
11 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 4,Phase 2
12 Adrenergic beta-Agonists Phase 4,Phase 2
13 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 2
14 Cortisol succinate Phase 4,Phase 2
15 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 2
16 Hormones Phase 4,Phase 2
17 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4,Phase 2
18 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 2
19 Vasoconstrictor Agents Phase 4,Phase 2
20 Hydrocortisone 17-butyrate 21-propionate Phase 4,Phase 2
21 Hydrocortisone acetate Phase 4,Phase 2
22 Epinephryl borate Phase 4,Phase 2
23 Hydrocortisone-17-butyrate Phase 4,Phase 2
24 Anti-Asthmatic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2
25 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4,Phase 2
26 Racepinephrine Phase 4,Phase 2
27 Respiratory System Agents Phase 4,Phase 2
28 Autonomic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2
29 Bronchodilator Agents Phase 4,Phase 2
30 Prednisolone acetate Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
31 Prednisolone hemisuccinate Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
32 Prednisolone phosphate Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
33 Methylprednisolone acetate Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
34 Methylprednisolone Hemisuccinate Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
35 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 4,Phase 2
36 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4
37 Neuroprotective Agents Phase 4
38 Protective Agents Phase 4
39 Antiemetics Phase 4
40
Cyclophosphamide Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 50-18-0, 6055-19-2 2907
41
Busulfan Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 55-98-1 2478
42 Alkylating Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
43 Immunosuppressive Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
44 Antilymphocyte Serum Phase 2, Phase 3
45 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
46 Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating Phase 2, Phase 3
47 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 2, Phase 3
48
Cyclosporine Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 2 79217-60-0, 59865-13-3 5284373 6435893
49
Melphalan Approved Phase 2 148-82-3 4053 460612
50
Hydroxyurea Approved Phase 2 127-07-1 3657

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 31)
id Name Status NCT ID Phase
1 Effect of Treatment With Stress-Doses Glucocorticoid in Patients With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Unknown status NCT00773058 Phase 4
2 Corticosteroid Reduction in COPD Recruiting NCT02857842 Phase 4
3 Comparison of Two Strategies of Glucocorticoid Withdrawal in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Not yet recruiting NCT02997605 Phase 4
4 Adrenal Insufficiency in Septic Shock Terminated NCT00842933 Phase 4
5 Stem Cell Transplant for Inborn Errors of Metabolism Completed NCT00176904 Phase 2, Phase 3
6 A Phase 2/3 Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Hematopoietic Stem Cells Transduced With Lenti-D Lentiviral Vector for the Treatment of Cerebral Adrenoleukodystrophy (CALD) Recruiting NCT01896102 Phase 2, Phase 3
7 Vaginal Prednisone Administration for Prevention of Adrenal Crisis Completed NCT02689960 Phase 2
8 Phase II Pilot Study of Early Cortisol Replacement to Prevent Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Completed NCT00004669 Phase 2
9 Pharmacokinetics of Hydrocortisone After Subcutaneous Administration in Chronic Adrenal Insufficiency Completed NCT01450930 Phase 2
10 HSCT for High Risk Inherited Inborn Errors Completed NCT00383448 Phase 2
11 MT2013-31: Allo HCT for Metabolic Disorders and Severe Osteopetrosis Recruiting NCT02171104 Phase 2
12 Safety and Immune Response of BMS-936559 in HIV-Infected People Taking Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Completed NCT02028403 Phase 1
13 Human Placental-Derived Stem Cell Transplantation Recruiting NCT01586455 Phase 1
14 Adrenal Insufficiency in Critical Emergencies in Digestive Diseases Unknown status NCT00562445
15 Monitoring of Tissue Transfer Flaps by Modulated Imaging (MI) Spectroscopy Unknown status NCT00633503
16 Prospective Study on the Incidence of Adrenal Crisis in Patients With Chronic Adrenal Insufficiency Completed NCT01184209
17 Survey in Patients With Chronic Adrenal Insufficiency in Germany Completed NCT00444119
18 Adrenal Suppression and Adrenal Recovery Induced by Megestrol Acetate Completed NCT00575029
19 Metabolic Effects of Acute Cortisol Withdrawal in Adrenal Failure Completed NCT00442390
20 ADRENAL FUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE HEPATITIS Completed NCT02859584
21 Chest Physiotherapy in Infants Between 0 and 12 Months Old With Acute Bronchiolitis SRV(+) Completed NCT02853838
22 To Compare the Response Rate of Noradrenaline vs. Terlipressin in Hepatorenal Syndrome in Patients With Acute on Chronic Liver Failure Completed NCT02573727
23 High Volume Veno-venous Hemofiltration Versus Standard Care for Post-cardiac Surgery Shock Completed NCT01077349
24 National Education Programme for Patients With Chronic Adrenal Insufficiency Recruiting NCT02694926
25 Inhalation/Nasal Corticosteroids and Prevalence of Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) Axis Suppression in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Patients Recruiting NCT02501486
26 A European Post-Authorisation Observational Study (Registry) of Patients With Chronic Adrenal Insufficiency (AI) Recruiting NCT01661387
27 Impact of Pre-operative Steroids on Adrenal Insufficiency Recruiting NCT02956707
28 Observational Study to Evaluate Allogeneic HSCT Outcomes for Cerebral Adrenoleukodystrophy (CALD) Recruiting NCT02204904
29 A Prospective Multicenter Study of Acute on Chronic Liver Failure in China Recruiting NCT02457637
30 Normal Saline Versus Balance Salt Solution Resuscitation on Kidney Function Recruiting NCT02520804
31 Adrenocortical Functions in Women With Nonclassical 21-hydroxylase Deficiency. Active, not recruiting NCT01862380

Search NIH Clinical Center for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

Genetic Tests for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

Anatomical Context for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Acute Adrenal Insufficiency:

39
Adrenal Gland, Skin, Lung, Spinal Cord, Pituitary, B Cells, Testes

Publications for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

Articles related to Acute Adrenal Insufficiency:

(show top 50) (show all 104)
id Title Authors Year
1
Acute Adrenal Insufficiency Associated with Rathke's Cleft Cyst. ( 26984082 )
2016
2
SOCIETY FOR ENDOCRINOLOGY ENDOCRINE EMERGENCY GUIDANCE: Emergency management of acute adrenal insufficiency (adrenal crisis) in adult patients. ( 27935813 )
2016
3
An acute adrenal insufficiency revealing pituitary metastases of lung cancer in an elderly patient. ( 27200139 )
2016
4
Acute adrenal insufficiency: an aide-memoire of the critical importance of its recognition and prevention. ( 26968598 )
2016
5
Acute adrenal insufficiency secondary to bilateral adrenal B-cell lymphoma: a case report and review of the literature. ( 27170834 )
2016
6
Conduct protocol in emergency: Acute adrenal insufficiency. ( 27992012 )
2016
7
Acute adrenal insufficiency as a first presentation of myelodysplastic syndrome and sigmoid colon adenocarcinoma: a case report. ( 25988040 )
2014
8
Peri-portal lymphedema in association with an acute adrenal insufficiency: case report. ( 24661563 )
2014
9
Systemic lupus erythematosus presenting as acute adrenal insufficiency: a rare clinical presentation. ( 24669348 )
2014
10
Transient acute adrenal insufficiency associated with adenovirus serotype 40 infection. ( 24928932 )
2014
11
Acute adrenal insufficiency due to primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. ( 24251172 )
2013
12
Acute adrenal insufficiency following arthroplasty: a case report and review of the literature. ( 24028157 )
2013
13
Rare presentation of shock and acute mesenteric ischaemia secondary to acute adrenal insufficiency in an 11-year-old male. ( 22970910 )
2013
14
Idiopathic bilateral adrenal haemorrhage related to acute adrenal insufficiency. ( 23729712 )
2013
15
Acute adrenal insufficiency in a neonate with bilateral adrenal hemorrhage and combined prothrombotic risk factors. ( 22652827 )
2012
16
Acute adrenal insufficiency. ( 22712152 )
2012
17
A case of acute adrenal insufficiency unmasked during sunitinib treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. ( 22581915 )
2012
18
Acute adrenal insufficiency associated with tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis and lymphadenopathy: case report. ( 22649455 )
2012
19
Community acquired bilateral upper lobe pneumonia with acute adrenal insufficiency: A new face of Achromobacter Xylosoxidans. ( 23173016 )
2012
20
Acute adrenal insufficiency in cervical spinal cord injury. ( 22120347 )
2012
21
Acute adrenal insufficiency due to bilateral adrenal hemorrhage. ( 21466057 )
2011
22
Acquired long QT interval in a recurrent septic female patient with polymorphic ventricular tachycardia due to primary acute adrenal insufficiency. ( 21161542 )
2011
23
Hypoglycaemic seizure and neonatal acute adrenal insufficiency after maternal exposure to prednisone during pregnancy: a case report. ( 19902248 )
2010
24
Primary antiphospholipid syndrome presenting as hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome and acute adrenal insufficiency following it: a rare case. ( 19365633 )
2009
25
Acute adrenal insufficiency may affect outcome in the trauma patient. ( 19385286 )
2009
26
Evaluation of serum cortisol in the postmortem diagnosis of acute adrenal insufficiency. ( 18520491 )
2008
27
Acute adrenal insufficiency associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. ( 18575053 )
2008
28
Acute adrenal insufficiency after a single dose of etomidate. ( 17456730 )
2007
29
Treatment of acute adrenal insufficiency. ( 17542196 )
2007
30
Reversible acute adrenal insufficiency caused by fluconazole in a critically ill patient. ( 16954446 )
2006
31
[Acute adrenal insufficiency in the newborn]. ( 16962294 )
2006
32
Acute adrenal insufficiency. ( 17127145 )
2006
33
Images in cardiology: Acute adrenal insufficiency complicated by cardiogenic shock. ( 15772180 )
2005
34
Atypical presentation of shock from acute adrenal insufficiency in an adolescent male. ( 15942517 )
2005
35
Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage and acute adrenal insufficiency in a blunt abdominal trauma: a case-report and literature review. ( 15167178 )
2004
36
Acute adrenal insufficiency after large-dose glucocorticoids for spinal cord injury. ( 15562077 )
2004
37
Acute adrenal insufficiency presenting as high output ileostomy. ( 12648340 )
2003
38
Unusual presentations of thoracic tumors: Case 1. Acute adrenal insufficiency due to metastatic lung cancer. ( 11533102 )
2001
39
Acute adrenal insufficiency after cardiac surgery. ( 10708203 )
2000
40
Hyponatremia as a consequence of acute adrenal insufficiency and hypothyroidism. ( 10748385 )
2000
41
Acute adrenal insufficiency precipitated by isolated involvement of the adrenal gland by tuberculosis. ( 10714806 )
1999
42
Acute adrenal insufficiency during pregnancy and puerperium: case report and literature review. ( 10546275 )
1999
43
Acute adrenal insufficiency in a patient with asthma after changing from fluticasone propionate to budesonide. ( 10329837 )
1999
44
Transient ionized hypocalcemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism accompanying acute adrenal insufficiency. ( 15251746 )
1998
45
Acute adrenal insufficiency following unilateral radical nephrectomy: a case report. ( 9893218 )
1998
46
Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage resulting in acute adrenal insufficiency as an unusual complication of hepatic arterial chemoembolization. ( 9540911 )
1998
47
Acute adrenal insufficiency after coronary artery bypass grafting. ( 9262637 )
1997
48
Acute adrenal insufficiency after coronary artery bypass grafting. ( 8893598 )
1996
49
Evaluation of fluid volume status with a glucose challenge test in a patient with acute adrenal insufficiency. ( 23839557 )
1996
50
Post-thymectomy collapse: an unusual case of acute adrenal insufficiency. ( 7784288 )
1995

Variations for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

Expression for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency.

Pathways for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

GO Terms for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

Biological processes related to Acute Adrenal Insufficiency according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 steroid metabolic process GO:0008202 9.26 CYP11A1 CYP21A2
2 regulation of blood pressure GO:0008217 9.16 POMC REN
3 steroid biosynthetic process GO:0006694 8.96 CYP11A1 CYP21A2
4 sterol metabolic process GO:0016125 8.62 CYP11A1 CYP21A2

Molecular functions related to Acute Adrenal Insufficiency according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 heme binding GO:0020037 9.16 CYP11A1 CYP21A2
2 oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen GO:0016705 8.96 CYP11A1 CYP21A2
3 receptor binding GO:0005102 8.8 IL6 POMC REN

Sources for Acute Adrenal Insufficiency

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 MedGen
42 MeSH
43 MESH via Orphanet
44 MGI
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48 NDF-RT
51 NINDS
52 Novoseek
54 OMIM
55 OMIM via Orphanet
59 PubMed
60 QIAGEN
65 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67 TGDB
68 Tocris
69 UMLS
70 UMLS via Orphanet
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