Aliases & Classifications for Apraxia

Summaries for Apraxia

NIH Rare Diseases : 49 Apraxia is a neurological disorder characterized by the inability to perform tasks or movements, despite having the desire and physical ability to perform them. It is caused by damage to the brain, especially the parietal lobe, and can arise from many diseases, tumors, a stroke, or traumatic brain injury. In some cases it is present from birth. There are several types of apraxia, which may occur alone or together. These include:Buccofacial or orofacial apraxia is the inability to carry out facial movements on demand. This may include licking the lips, sticking out the tongue, whistling, coughing, or winking. Ideational apraxia is the inability to carryout learned, complex tasks with multiple, sequential movements. This may include dressing, eating, and bathing. Ideomotor apraxia is the inability to perform a learned task (such as using a tool) or communicate using gestures (like waving good-bye). Limb-kinetic apraxia is the inability to make fine, precise movements with an arm or leg. This may include buttoning a shirt or tying a shoe.  Verbal apraxia is difficulty coordinating mouth and speech movements. Verbal apraxia may be acquired or present from birth. Constructional apraxia is the inability to copy, draw, or construct simple figures. Oculomotor apraxia is difficulty moving the eyes on command. Treatment of apraxia may include physical, speech, or occupational therapy. If apraxia occurs as a symptom of another disorder, treatment should be directed to the underlying condition. Last updated: 1/4/2016

MalaCards based summary : Apraxia, also known as apraxias, is related to ocular motor apraxia and ataxia, early-onset, with oculomotor apraxia and hypoalbuminemia, and has symptoms including symptoms, hot flushes and other symbolic dysfunction. An important gene associated with Apraxia is APTX (Aprataxin), and among its related pathways/superpathways is DNA Damage. The drugs Acetylcholine and Tolvaptan have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, parietal lobe and eye, and related phenotypes are Increased viability with MLN4924 (a NAE inhibitor) and Decreased viability with poly (ADPa89ribose)a89polymerasea891 (PARP) inhibitor

NINDS : 50 Apraxia (called "dyspraxia" if mild) is a neurological disorder characterized by loss of the ability to execute or carry out skilled movements and gestures, despite having the desire and the physical ability to perform them. Apraxia results from dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain, especially the parietal lobe, and can arise from many diseases or damage to the brain. There are several kinds of apraxia, which may occur alone or together. The most common is buccofacial or orofacial apraxia, which causes the inability to carry out facial movements on command such as licking lips, whistling, coughing, or winking. Other types of apraxia include limb-kinetic apraxia (the inability to make fine, precise movements with an arm or leg), ideomotor apraxia (the inability to make the proper movement in response to a verbal command), ideational apraxia (the inability to coordinate activities with multiple, sequential movements, such as dressing, eating, and bathing), verbal apraxia (difficulty coordinating mouth and speech movements), constructional apraxia (the inability to copy, draw, or construct simple figures), and oculomotor apraxia (difficulty moving the eyes on command). Apraxia may be accompanied by a language disorder called aphasia. Corticobasal ganglionic degeneration is a disease that causes a variety of types of apraxia, especially in elderly adults.

Disease Ontology : 12 An agnosia that is a loss of the ability to map out physical actions in order to repeat them in functional activities.

Wikipedia : 72 Apraxia is a motor disorder caused by damage to the brain (specifically the posterior parietal cortex).... more...

Related Diseases for Apraxia

Diseases related to Apraxia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 179)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 ocular motor apraxia 34.4 APTX NPHP1
2 ataxia, early-onset, with oculomotor apraxia and hypoalbuminemia 34.4 APTX SETX
3 ataxia-oculomotor apraxia 3 33.9 ATM PIK3R5
4 ideomotor apraxia 33.4 GRN MAPT
5 spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 1 33.4 APTX PIK3R5 SETX
6 childhood apraxia of speech 33.3 FOXP2 ZGRF1
7 spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy type 2 33.2 PIK3R5 SETX
8 agraphia 31.5 GRN MAPT
9 joubert syndrome 1 31.4 CEP104 INPP5E MKS1 NPHP1
10 frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tdp43 inclusions, grn-related 30.4 GRN MAPT
11 aceruloplasminemia 30.2 APTX ATM SETX
12 autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia 30.1 APTX ATM SETX
13 aphasia 29.9 C9orf72 FOXP2 GRN MAPT
14 supranuclear palsy, progressive, 1 29.8 C9orf72 GRN MAPT
15 dementia 29.7 C9orf72 GRN MAPT
16 nephronophthisis 29.7 INPP5E MKS1 NPHP1
17 semantic dementia 29.6 GRN MAPT
18 frontotemporal dementia 29.1 C9orf72 GRN MAPT
19 motor neuron disease 29.0 C9orf72 GRN MAPT SETX
20 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 1 28.9 C9orf72 GRN MAPT SETX
21 ataxia-oculomotor apraxia 4 12.3
22 rolandic epilepsy, mental retardation, and speech dyspraxia, x-linked 12.3
23 gait apraxia 12.1
24 apraxia of eyelid opening 12.0
25 primary progressive apraxia of speech 12.0
26 autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia-pyramidal signs-nystagmus-oculomotor apraxia syndrome 11.8
27 x-linked intellectual disability-ataxia-apraxia syndrome 11.8
28 agnosia 11.5
29 pilarowski-bjornsson syndrome 11.5
30 foxp2-related speech and language disorders 11.5
31 poretti-boltshauser syndrome 11.4
32 balint syndrome 11.4
33 ataxia-telangiectasia 11.2
34 wieacker-wolff syndrome 11.2
35 corticobasal degeneration 11.2
36 pick disease of brain 11.1
37 alzheimer disease 3 11.0
38 simultanagnosia 11.0
39 intellectual disability-developmental delay-contractures syndrome 11.0
40 joubert syndrome 2 10.9
41 joubert syndrome 16 10.9
42 joubert syndrome 25 10.9
43 joubert syndrome 6 10.9
44 joubert syndrome 15 10.9
45 spastic ataxia 5, autosomal recessive 10.9
46 mitochondrial complex iii deficiency, nuclear type 2 10.9
47 joubert syndrome 21 10.9
48 progressive supranuclear palsy-progressive non-fluent aphasia syndrome 10.8
49 acrocallosal syndrome 10.7
50 joubert syndrome 10 10.7

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Apraxia:



Diseases related to Apraxia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Apraxia

UMLS symptoms related to Apraxia:


symptoms, hot flushes, other symbolic dysfunction, abnormality of extrapyramidal motor function, clumsiness, vertigo, torticollis, syncope, signs and symptoms, digestive, signs and symptoms, seizures, muscle rigidity, icterus, headache, fever, edema, dyspnea, cyanosis, cachexia

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Apraxia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

25
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Increased viability with MLN4924 (a NAE inhibitor) GR00250-A-3 9.02 APTX ATM PNKP SETX XRCC1
2 Decreased viability with poly (ADPa89ribose)a89polymerasea891 (PARP) inhibitor GR00114-A 8.96 ATM PNKP

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Apraxia:

43
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cellular MP:0005384 9.73 APTX ATM C9orf72 GRN INPP5E MAPT
2 nervous system MP:0003631 9.28 ATM C9orf72 GRN INPP5E MAPT MKS1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Apraxia

Drugs for Apraxia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 43)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Acetylcholine Approved Phase 4 51-84-3 187
2
Tolvaptan Approved Phase 4 150683-30-0 216237
3 abobotulinumtoxinA Phase 4
4 Botulinum Toxins Phase 4
5 Botulinum Toxins, Type A Phase 4
6 Cholinergic Agents Phase 4
7 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 2
8 onabotulinumtoxinA Phase 4
9 Liver Extracts Phase 4
10 Arginine Vasopressin Phase 4
11 Hormones Phase 4
12 Natriuretic Agents Phase 4
13 Vasopressins Phase 4
14
Ethanol Approved Phase 3 64-17-5 702
15
Coenzyme Q10 Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 3 303-98-0 5281915
16 Micronutrients Phase 3
17 Trace Elements Phase 3
18 Vitamins Phase 3
19 Complement System Proteins Phase 3
20 Ubiquinone Phase 3
21 Lecithin Nutraceutical Phase 3
22
Dopamine Approved Phase 2 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
23
Memantine Approved, Investigational Phase 2 19982-08-2 4054
24
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational Phase 2 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
25 tannic acid Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 2
26 Antiparkinson Agents Phase 2
27 Dopamine Agents Phase 2
28 Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists Phase 2
29 Excitatory Amino Acids Phase 2
30
Corticosterone Experimental Phase 1 50-22-6 5753
31 Deoxyglucose Phase 1
32 Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 Phase 1
33
Calcium Carbonate Approved, Investigational 471-34-1
34
Menthol Approved 2216-51-5 16666
35
Ergocalciferol Approved, Nutraceutical 50-14-6 5280793
36
Vitamin D Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 1406-16-2
37 Bone Density Conservation Agents
38 Ergocalciferols
39 Radiopharmaceuticals
40 Antipruritics
41 Dermatologic Agents
42 Calciferol Nutraceutical
43 Vitamin D2 Nutraceutical

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 58)

# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 The Use of Botox in Advanced Parkinson's Patients Experiencing Pain Unknown status NCT02472210 Phase 4 Botulinum Toxin
2 Tolvaptan to Reduce Length of Stay in Hospitalized Patients With Cirrhosis and Hyponatremia Terminated NCT01890694 Phase 4 Tolvaptan;Placebo
3 Evolution of Albumin on AOA1 Patients Supplemented With Coenzyme Q10 Completed NCT02333305 Phase 3
4 App Based Dexterity Training in Multiple Sclerosis Recruiting NCT03369470 Phase 3
5 Electrical Polarization of the Brain in Corticobasal Syndrome Completed NCT00273897 Phase 2
6 A Safety and Tolerability Study of JNJ-54861911 in Participants With Early Alzheimer's Disease Completed NCT02260674 Phase 2 JNJ-54861911, 10 milligram (mg);JNJ-54861911, 50 mg;Placebo
7 A Multi-site Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial of Memantine Versus Placebo in Children With Autism (MEM) Completed NCT01372449 Phase 2 Memantine;Placebo
8 Evaluating Anodal tDCS Preceding Aphasia Therapy Recruiting NCT02249819 Phase 1, Phase 2
9 Treatment of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Rett Syndrome With Triheptanoin Recruiting NCT02696044 Phase 2 triheptanoin
10 PiB PET Scanning in Speech and Language Based Dementias Completed NCT01623284 Phase 1 C-11 PiB;F-18 FDG
11 Intervention on Caregivers Caring for Patients Poststroke With Upper Limb Apraxia Unknown status NCT02307019
12 Construction-LBD (Constructional Apraxia in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Lewy Body's Dementia (LBD)) Unknown status NCT01993628
13 Action Observation Treatment (AOT) as a Rehabilitation Tool Unknown status NCT02235350
14 Scholar Performance and Praxis Assessment in Children With Rolandic Epilepsy Unknown status NCT01046760
15 Transcranial and Rapid Magnetic Stimulation for Gait Apraxia Due to Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus and Cerebral Ischemia Unknown status NCT00494689
16 Study of Adherence and Effects of Balance Exercices (SIEL BLEU Associatio) Unknown status NCT01314638
17 Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Unknown status NCT01315704 Drug intervention
18 Cognitive Assessment for Stroke Patients: Reproductibility and Validity Study Unknown status NCT01904799
19 Auditory Masking Effects on Speech Fluency in Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech Completed NCT02094014
20 Occupational Therapy in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis Completed NCT01507636
21 EEG and EMG Analysis of Ideomotor Apraxia Completed NCT00024999
22 Stuttering and Apraxia of Speech: the Efficacy of an Intervention Program Completed NCT01097161
23 Using fMRI to Understand the Roles of Brain Areas for Fine Hand Movements Completed NCT00063115
24 Immersive Virtual Environments and Wearable Haptic Devices in Rehabilitation of Children With Neuromotor Impairments Completed NCT03353623
25 Gait and Alzheimer Interaction Tracking (GAIT) Study Completed NCT01315717
26 Orientation Agnosia: Clinical and Anatomical Study Completed NCT01304576
27 Clinical Findings in General Paresis Completed NCT00921648
28 Upper Limbs Intervention in Multiple Sclerosis Completed NCT02047825
29 Deep Brain Stimulation for Patients With Dementia With Lewy Bodies Completed NCT02263937
30 The Neurobiology of Two Distinct Types of Progressive Apraxia of Speech Recruiting NCT03313011
31 Treating Childhood Apraxia of Speech Recruiting NCT03238677
32 Treatment Intensity - Apraxia of Speech Recruiting NCT02332915
33 Apraxia of Speech: Comparison of EPG Treatment (Tx) and Sound Production Treatment (SPT) Recruiting NCT02554513
34 Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) for Primary Progressive Apraxia of Speech (PPAOS) Recruiting NCT03028324
35 Rehabilitating (Stroke-induced) Apraxia With Direct Current Stimulation Recruiting NCT03185234
36 Longitudinal Multi-Modality Imaging in Progressive Apraxia of Speech Recruiting NCT01818661 FDG Fluorodeoxyglucose 18
37 Evaluation of Intensive Language Therapy Recruiting NCT02935842
38 Memory for Action in Neurological Patients Recruiting NCT02844855
39 Rehabilitation Combined With Bihemispherictranscranial Direct Current Stimulation in Subacute Ischemic Stroke Recruiting NCT01644929
40 Reliability and Validity of a Computerized Tool to Assess Proprioception and Motor Planning Among Children With Coordination Disorders Recruiting NCT03285776
41 Early-onset Alzheimer's Disease Phenotypes: Neuropsychology and Neural Networks Recruiting NCT03153371
42 Build-up of Action Representation in Autism Spectrum Disorders Recruiting NCT03108976
43 Language and Motricity in Preterm School Age Children Recruiting NCT02811029
44 Gait as Predictor of Dementia and Falls. The Gait and Brain Cohort Study Recruiting NCT03020381
45 Rare Disease Patient Registry & Natural History Study - Coordination of Rare Diseases at Sanford Recruiting NCT01793168
46 Blepharospasm Tools Recruiting NCT02780336
47 Functional Rehabilitation of Upper Limb Apraxia in Patients Poststroke Active, not recruiting NCT02199093
48 A Novel Treatment for Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech : Measurement of Outcomes Active, not recruiting NCT01979159
49 Treatments of Acquired Apraxia of Speech Active, not recruiting NCT01483807
50 Brain Biomarkers of Response to Treatment for Apraxia of Speech Active, not recruiting NCT02046941

Search NIH Clinical Center for Apraxia

Genetic Tests for Apraxia

Genetic tests related to Apraxia:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Apraxia 28

Anatomical Context for Apraxia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Apraxia:

38
Brain, Parietal Lobe, Eye, Cortex, Tongue, Testes, Bone

Publications for Apraxia

Articles related to Apraxia:

(show top 50) (show all 784)
# Title Authors Year
1
Apraxia of object-related action does not depend on visual feedback. ( 29202356 )
2018
2
Clinical, Biomarker, and Molecular Delineations and Genotype-Phenotype Correlations of Ataxia With Oculomotor Apraxia Type 1. ( 29356829 )
2018
3
Contemporary Approaches to the Management of Post-stroke Apraxia of Speech. ( 29359303 )
2018
4
Asymmetric oculomotor apraxia, optic ataxia, and simultanagnosia with right hemispatial neglect from a predominantly left-sided lesion of the parieto-occipital area. ( 29199507 )
2018
5
Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2: an evolving axonal neuropathy. ( 29212862 )
2018
6
Poor Speech Perception Is Not a Core Deficit of Childhood Apraxia of Speech: Preliminary Findings. ( 29450502 )
2018
7
Error Consistency in Acquired Apraxia of Speech With Aphasia: Effects of the Analysis Unit. ( 29392281 )
2018
8
Tau-PET imaging with [18F]AV-1451 in primary progressive apraxia of speech. ( 29353121 )
2018
9
Model-Driven Treatment of Childhood Apraxia of Speech: Positive Effects of the Speech Motor Learning Approach. ( 29222568 )
2018
10
The Nature of Error Consistency in Individuals With Acquired Apraxia of Speech and Aphasia. ( 28654943 )
2017
11
Combined clinician-parent delivery of rapid syllable transition (ReST) treatment for childhood apraxia of speech. ( 28443686 )
2017
12
Parent experiences of variations in service delivery of Rapid Syllable Transition (ReST) treatment for childhood apraxia of speech. ( 28534689 )
2017
13
The Effect of Hand Gesture Cues Within the Treatment of /r/ for a College-Aged Adult With Persisting Childhood Apraxia of Speech. ( 29114768 )
2017
14
Gestural apraxia. ( 28844701 )
2017
15
Apraxia: another view. ( 28626022 )
2017
16
Acquired Apraxia of Speech: The Relationship Between Awareness of Errors in Word Productions and Treatment Outcomes. ( 28654947 )
2017
17
A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech From Speech Delay: III. Theoretical Coherence of the Pause Marker with Speech Processing Deficits in Childhood Apraxia of Speech. ( 28384751 )
2017
18
Degeneration of the corticofugal tract from the secondary motor area in a Parkinson's disease patient with limb-kinetic apraxia: A case report. ( 29390334 )
2017
19
Novel PNKP mutation in siblings with ataxia-oculomotor apraxia type 4. ( 28552035 )
2017
20
A 72-year-old with eyelid opening apraxia in Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome. ( 28588873 )
2017
21
Limb apraxia and aphasia. ( 29236816 )
2017
22
Parental experiences and perceptions related to childhood apraxia of speech: Focus on functional implications. ( 28786692 )
2017
23
Combined aphasia and apraxia of speech treatment (CAAST): Systematic replications in the development of a novel treatment. ( 28084854 )
2017
24
Teaching Video NeuroImages: Apraxia of eyelid closure following right hemispheric infarction. ( 28696939 )
2017
25
Apraxia of speech and cerebellar mutism syndrome: a case report. ( 28074148 )
2017
26
Does apraxia support spatial and kinematic or mirror neuron approaches to social interaction? A commentary on Binder etA al. (2017). ( 29167022 )
2017
27
A Multivariate Analytic Approach to the Differential Diagnosis of Apraxia of Speech. ( 29181537 )
2017
28
Callosal ideomotor apraxia in Alzheimer's disease. ( 27829324 )
2017
29
Two patients with PNKP mutations presenting with microcephaly, seizure, and oculomotor apraxia. ( 29243230 )
2017
30
Botulinum toxin for treating unilateral apraxia of eyelid opening in a patient with congenital myotonia. ( 29160548 )
2017
31
Sleep-Induced Apraxia of Eyelid Opening. ( 28418947 )
2017
32
Identification of a novel mutation in APTX gene associated with Ataxia-oculomotor apraxia. ( 28652255 )
2017
33
Speech Inconsistency in Children With Childhood Apraxia of Speech, Language Impairment, and Speech Delay: Depends on the Stimuli. ( 28395359 )
2017
34
Perceptually Salient Sound Distortions and Apraxia of Speech: A Performance Continuum. ( 28654944 )
2017
35
Limb apraxia in aphasic patients. ( 29236818 )
2017
36
Quantification and Systematic Characterization of Stuttering-Like Disfluencies in Acquired Apraxia of Speech. ( 28654945 )
2017
37
Oxybuprocaine for apraxia of lid opening in Parkinson's disease: A placebo-controlled pilot trial. ( 29168901 )
2017
38
Changes in movement transitions across a practice period in childhood apraxia of speech. ( 29281317 )
2017
39
Delayed Onset Eye Opening Apraxia due to Progression of Brain Atrophy following Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation: A Case Report. ( 28664016 )
2017
40
A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech From Speech Delay: I. Development and Description of the Pause Marker. ( 28384779 )
2017
41
Altered praxis network underlying limb kinetic apraxia in Parkinson's disease - an fMRI study. ( 28765808 )
2017
42
Effects of Blocked and Random Practice Schedule on Outcomes of Sound Production Treatment for Acquired Apraxia of Speech: Results of a Group Investigation. ( 28655045 )
2017
43
Pure apraxia of speech due to infarct in premotor cortex. ( 28844393 )
2017
44
"Round the Houses" sign and apraxia of eyelid opening in a 62-year old man. ( 28879924 )
2017
45
Temporal control in the voicing contrast: Evidence from surgery-related apraxia of speech. ( 28703648 )
2017
46
Sequential processing deficit as a shared persisting biomarker in dyslexia and childhood apraxia of speech. ( 28933620 )
2017
47
Primary progressive apraxia: an unusual ideomotor syndrome. ( 29375885 )
2017
48
Motor Adaptation Deficits in Ideomotor Apraxia. ( 28205499 )
2017
49
A Diagnostic Marker to Discriminate Childhood Apraxia of Speech From Speech Delay: II. Validity Studies of the Pause Marker. ( 28384803 )
2017
50
Novel Tool Selection in Left Brain-Damaged Patients With Apraxia of Tool Use: A Study of Three Cases. ( 29277173 )
2017

Variations for Apraxia

Expression for Apraxia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Apraxia.

Pathways for Apraxia

Pathways related to Apraxia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 11.39 APTX ATM PNKP XRCC1

GO Terms for Apraxia

Cellular components related to Apraxia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 nucleolus GO:0005730 9.55 APTX ATM PNKP SETX XRCC1
2 cilium GO:0005929 9.26 CEP104 INPP5E MKS1 NPHP1
3 cell projection GO:0042995 9.1 CEP104 INPP5E MAPT MKS1 NPHP1 SETX

Biological processes related to Apraxia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cellular response to DNA damage stimulus GO:0006974 9.65 APTX ATM PNKP SETX XRCC1
2 positive regulation of telomere maintenance via telomerase GO:0032212 9.4 ATM PNKP
3 positive regulation of neuron death GO:1901216 9.37 ATM MAPT
4 DNA repair GO:0006281 9.35 APTX ATM PNKP SETX XRCC1
5 regulation of autophagy GO:0010506 9.33 ATM C9orf72 MAPT
6 single strand break repair GO:0000012 9.32 APTX XRCC1
7 negative regulation of protein ADP-ribosylation GO:0010836 8.62 PNKP XRCC1

Molecular functions related to Apraxia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 damaged DNA binding GO:0003684 8.8 APTX PNKP XRCC1

Sources for Apraxia

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HGMD
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 MedGen
41 MeSH
42 MESH via Orphanet
43 MGI
45 NCI
46 NCIt
47 NDF-RT
50 NINDS
51 Novoseek
53 OMIM
54 OMIM via Orphanet
58 PubMed
60 QIAGEN
65 SNOMED-CT via HPO
66 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67 TGDB
68 Tocris
69 UMLS
70 UMLS via Orphanet
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