MCID: AST005
MIFTS: 86

Asthma malady

Respiratory category

Summaries for Asthma

Sources:
8Disease Ontology, 34MedlinePlus, 3CDC, 46Novus Biologicals, 64Wikipedia, 47OMIM, 33MalaCards
See all sources

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MedlinePlus:34 Asthma is a chronic disease that affects your airways. your airways are tubes that carry air in and out of your lungs. if you have asthma, the inside walls of your airways become sore and swollen. that makes them very sensitive, and they may react strongly to things that you are allergic to or find irritating. when your airways react, they get narrower and your lungs get less air. symptoms of asthma include wheezing coughing, especially early in the morning or at night chest tightness shortness of breath not all people who have asthma have these symptoms. having these symptoms doesn't always mean that you have asthma. your doctor will diagnose asthma based on lung function tests, your medical history, and a physical exam. you may also have allergy tests. when your asthma symptoms become worse than usual, it's called an asthma attack. severe asthma attacks may require emergency care, and they can be fatal. asthma is treated with two kinds of medicines: quick-relief medicines to stop asthma symptoms and long-term control medicines to prevent symptoms. nih: national heart, lung, and blood institute

MalaCards: Asthma, also known as chronic obstructive asthma, is related to allergic asthma and atopy, and has symptoms including chest tightness, shortness of breath and mucus production. An important gene associated with Asthma is IL13 (interleukin 13), and among its related pathways are PAK Pathway and Allograft rejection. The drugs albuterol and aminophylline and the compounds histamine and dexamethasone have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include bone marrow, whole blood and lymph node, and related mouse phenotypes are immune system and homeostasis/metabolism.

Disease Ontology:8 A bronchial disease that is characterized by chronic inflammation and narrowing of the airways, which is caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. the disease has symptomrecurring periods of wheezing (a whistling sound while breathing), has symptom chest tightness, has symptom shortness of breath, has symptom mucus production and has symptom coughing. the symptoms appear due to a variety of triggers such as allergens, irritants, respiratory infections, weather changes, excercise, stress, reflux disease, medications, foods and emotional anxiety.

CDC:3 Asthma is a disease that affects your lungs. It causes repeated episodes of wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and nighttime or early morning coughing. Asthma can be controlled by taking medicine and avoiding the triggers that can cause an attack. You must also remove the triggers in your environment that can make your asthma worse.

Novus Biologicals:46 Asthma is a chronic lung disease that causes inflammation, thickening and narrowing of airways, as well as an overproduction of mucus. More than 300 million people worldwide suffer from asthma. Asthma symptoms include wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing and tightness of the chest. Interleukin 13 (IL-13) is the key effector cytokine in asthma. IL-13 stimulates airway fibrosis via action of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) on tumor transforming growth factor beta (TGN-beta), and also promotes epithelial damage, mucus production and an increased concentration of eosinophils. The inflammatory response characteristic of asthma is augmented by the production of IL-13 and other TH2 cytokines.

Wikipedia:64 Asthma (from the Greek ἅσθμα, ásthma, \"panting\") is a common chronic inflammatory disease of... more...

Description from OMIM:47 600807

Aliases & Classifications for Asthma

Sources:
8Disease Ontology, 43NIH Rare Diseases, 20GeneTests, 22GTR, 47OMIM, 10DISEASES, 45Novoseek, 34MedlinePlus, 31LifeMap Discovery™, 61UMLS, 40NCIt, 57SNOMED-CT, 27ICD9CM, 35MeSH, 25ICD10
See all sources

Classifications:

Malacards categories (disease lists): (See all malacards categories)
Anatomical: Respiratory


Aliases & Descriptions:

asthma 8 43 20 22 47 10 45 34 31 61
chronic obstructive asthma 8 45 61
bronchial hyperreactivity 8 45 61
chronic obstructive asthma with status asthmaticus 8
chronic obstructive asthma with acute exacerbation 8
bronchial hypersensitivity 8
asthma, exercise-induced 61
exercise-induced asthma 8
asthma exercise-induced 45
exercise induced asthma 8


Related Diseases for Asthma

Sources:
17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
See all sources

Diseases in the Asthma family:

asthma 2 asthma 1

Diseases related to Asthma via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards/GeneDecks gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 375)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1allergic asthma31.9ADRB2, ADAM33, CCL11, NPSR1, HAVCR1, ALOX5
2atopy31.4PLA2G7, IL4R
3allergic rhinitis31.3CCL11, IL13, IL4R, ALOX5
4pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive31.1ADRB2
5atopic dermatitis30.9CCL11, TNF, HAVCR1, PHF11, HLA-G, IL13
6bronchiolitis30.8IL4R, IL13, CCL11
7status asthmaticus30.7ADRB2
8cystic fibrosis30.6ADRB2, IL9, SCGB1A1
9arthritis30.5TNF, IL13, ALOX5, ADRB2
10urticaria30.5ALOX5, HNMT
11sinusitis30.4ALOX5, CCL11
12tuberculosis30.2ALOX5, IL4R, IL12B, TNF
13pulmonary sarcoidosis30.2TNF, IL12B, IL9
14atherosclerosis30.0CCL11, TNF, IL12B, PLA2G7, PTGER2, ALOX5AP
15systemic lupus erythematosus30.0TNF, IL12B, IL4R, PLA2G7, ALOX5, ADRB2
16sepsis30.0TNF, IL12B, PLA2G7, ALOX5, ADRB2
17insulin resistance30.0CCL11, TNF, PLA2G7, ADRB2
18allergic conjunctivitis30.0IL13, CCL11
19measles30.0IL12B
20bronchopulmonary dysplasia29.9PLA2G7, SCGB1A1
21bronchiolitis obliterans29.9SCGB1A1
22cork-handlers' disease29.7CCL11, TNF, SCGB1A1, HLA-G, IL13, IL9
23osteoarthritis29.6TNF, IL12B, IL4R, ALOX5AP, ALOX5
24idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis29.6SCGB1A1, IL13, IL9, ALOX5
25alzheimer's disease29.6HNMT, ALOX5AP, ALOX5, ADRB2
26brain cancer29.6HLA-G, IL13, IL4R, ALOX5
27coronary heart disease29.6PLA2G7, ALOX5, ADRB2
28gamma chain deficiency29.6IL13, IL9, IL4R
29adenoma29.6PTGER2, HLA-G
30silicosis29.6SCGB1A1
31celiac disease29.6HLA-G
32cough variant asthma10.8
33intrinsic asthma10.8
34asthma 110.7
35bronchitis10.7
36asthma 210.6
37aspergillosis10.6
38allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis10.6
39pulmonary function10.6
40asthma, aspirin-induced10.5
41churg-strauss syndrome10.5
42asthma, nocturnal10.4
43bronchiectasis10.4
44common cold10.3
45acute chest syndrome10.3
46chronic rhinitis10.3
47gastroesophageal reflux disease10.3
48n syndrome10.3
49sickle cell anemia10.2
50sickle cell disease10.2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Asthma:



Diseases related to asthma

Clinical Features for Asthma

Sources:
47OMIM, 8Disease Ontology
See all sources

Clinical features from OMIM:

600807

Clinical synopsis from OMIM:

600807

Symptoms:

8 (see all 4)
  • chest tightness
  • shortness of breath
  • mucus production
  • coughing

Drugs & Therapeutics for Asthma

Sources:
5CenterWatch, 42NIH Clinical Center, 6ClinicalTrials, 31LifeMap Discovery™, 61UMLS, 41NDF-RT
See all sources

Approved drugs:

Search CenterWatch for Asthma

Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Asthma

Search NIH Clinical Center for Asthma

Highlights from CenterWatch's Drugs in Clinical Trials Database for Asthma:

idCompanyCompoundMechanismPhase
1Chiesi FarmaceuticiCHF 6001An inhaled PDE4 (phosphodiesterase 4) inhibitorIia
2KaloBios PharmaceuticalsKB003A humaneered monoclonal antibodyII
3Rochelebrikizumaba humanized monoclonal antibody inhibiting the IL-13 cytokineIII
4Teva PharmaceuticalsReslizumabA human monoclonal anti-IL-5 antibodyIII

Inferred drug relations via UMLS61/NDF-RT41:

Show with subtypes

Cell-based therapeutics:


LifeMap Discovery
The database of embryonic development, stem cell research and regenerative medicine
Read about Asthma cell therapies at LifeMap Discovery.
Stem-cell-based therapeutic approaches for Asthma:
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for severe refractory asthma
Embryonic/Adult Cultured Cells Related to Asthma:
Mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (family), PMIDs: 21653527, 20801416

Genetic Tests for Asthma

Sources:
20GeneTests, 22GTR
See all sources

Genetic tests related to Asthma:

id Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Asthma, Susceptibility To20 22 HNMT

Anatomical Context for Asthma

Sources:
31LifeMap Discovery™, 33MalaCards
See all sources

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Asthma:

33
Bone marrow, Whole blood, Lymph node, Spleen, Thymus, Brain, Spinal cord, Heart, Smooth muscle, Skeletal muscle, Small intestine, Colon, Kidney, Liver, Lung, Thyroid, Salivary gland, Adrenal gland, Breast, Skin, Placenta, Myeloid, Monocytes, Nk cells, T cells, B cells, Endothelial, Fetal brain, Temporal lobe, Tongue, Fetal liver, Fetal lung, Trachea, Bronchial epithelium, Fetal thyroid, Pituitary

LifeMap Discovery
The database of embryonic development, stem cell research and regenerative medicine

Cells/anatomical compartments in embryo or adult related to Asthma:
id TissueAnatomical CompartmentCell Relevance
1 LungTracheaAirway Smooth Muscle Cells Potential therapeutic candidate, affected by disease

Animal Models for Asthma or affiliated genes

Sources:
37MGI, 28inGenious Targeting Laboratory
See all sources

Publications for Asthma

Sources:
51PubMed
See all sources

Articles related to Asthma:

(show top 50)    (show all 6996)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Anti-inflammatory and corticosteroid-enhancing actions ofA vitamin D in monocytes of patients with steroid-resistant and those with steroid-sensitive asthma. (24418482)
2014
2
Epidemiology of virus-induced wheezing/asthma in children. (24379810)
2013
3
Infantile eczema: Prognosis and risk of asthma and rhinitis in preadolescence. (24332221)
2013
4
Respiratory viral infections in pregnant women with asthma are associated with wheezing in the first 12A months of life. (24329935)
2013
5
An antedrug of the CXCL12 neutraligand blocks experimental allergic asthma without systemic effect in mice. (23449983)
2013
6
Two cases of tracheal disease misdiagnosed as difficult-to-treat asthma. (23431310)
2013
7
Add-on omalizumab in children with severe allergic asthma: a 1-year real life survey. (23520319)
2013
8
The CHI3L1 rs4950928 polymorphism is associated with asthma-related hospital admissions in children and young adults. (21530869)
2011
9
Increased arginase activity contributes to airway remodelling in chronic allergic asthma. (21310883)
2011
10
Allergen-specific subcutaneous immunotherapy in allergic asthma: immunologic mechanisms and improvement. (21483568)
2010
11
TSLP polymorphisms are associated with asthma in a sex-specific fashion. (20560908)
2010
12
Association between beta-adrenoceptor gene polymorphisms and relative response to beta 2-agonists and anticholinergic drugs in Japanese asthmatic patients. (20546196)
2010
13
Association of apolipoproteins with symptoms of asthma and atopy among schoolchildren. (19218819)
2009
14
High-dose continuous nebulized levalbuterol for pediatric status asthmaticus: a randomized trial. (19464028)
2009
15
Production of interleukin-10 in asthmatic children after Beta-1-3-glucan. (19912977)
2009
16
Cross-sectional and longitudinal association of the secretoglobin 1A1 gene A38G polymorphism with asthma phenotype in the Perth Infant Asthma Follow-up cohort. (19128353)
2009
17
Traffic-related air pollution, oxidative stress genes, and asthma (ECHRS). (20049212)
2009
18
Association of TNF-alpha with severe respiratory syncytial virus infection and bronchial asthma. (18811622)
2009
19
Effect of ribavirin upon secretion of thymic stromal lymphopoietin in respiratory syncytial virus-induced asthma exacerbation of mice]. (19671341)
2009
20
Oxidant--antioxidant imbalance in asthma: scientific evidence, epidemiological data and possible therapeutic options. (19124374)
2008
21
Plasma phospholipase A2 activity in patients with asthma: association with body mass index and cholesterol concentration. (17573441)
2008
22
Concentration of IL-10, IL-13 and IFN-gamma cytokines in supernatants of microcultured CD4+ and NK cells in patients with non-allergic bronchial asthma]. (18634243)
2008
23
Expression of the proapoptotic protein Bax is reduced in bronchial mucous cells of asthmatic subjects. (18390829)
2008
24
Neutrophilic airway inflammation and association with bacterial lipopolysaccharide in children with asthma and wheezing. (18668688)
2008
25
Effect of an inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor on differential flow-exhaled nitric oxide in asthmatic patients and healthy volunteers. (17550932)
2007
26
Transforming growth factor-beta(2) polymorphisms are associated with childhood atopic asthma. (17651146)
2007
27
The role of eotaxins in bronchial asthma and nasal polyposis]. (16711548)
2006
28
Increased expression of CD86 and reduced production of IL-12 and IL-10 by monocyte-derived dendritic cells from allergic asthmatics and their effects on Th1- and Th2-type cytokine balance. (16106114)
2006
29
Total serum IgE: adult reference values in Valencia (1981-2004). Usefulness in the diagnosis of allergic asthma and rhinitis. (16371216)
2005
30
Epistatic effect of TLR4 and IL4 genes on the risk of asthma in females. (16215326)
2005
31
An unusual case of laryngomalacia presenting as asthma refractory to therapy. (16400903)
2005
32
Effects of pranlukast administration on vascular endothelial growth factor levels in asthmatic patients. (15136379)
2004
33
The potential use of Chinese herbal medicines in treating allergic asthma. (15330010)
2004
34
A TLR4 polymorphism is associated with asthma and reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-12(p70) responses in Swedish children. (15356557)
2004
35
Endothelial dysfunction in patients with asthma: the role of polymorphisms of ACE and endothelial NOS genes. (15115168)
2004
36
Budesonide reduces neutrophilic but not functional airway response to ozone in mild asthmatics. (11751182)
2001
37
Prospective longitudinal study of urinary eosinophil protein X in children with asthma and chronic cough. (11340681)
2001
38
The NK-2 receptor antagonist SR 48968C does not improve adenosine hyperresponsiveness and airway obstruction in allergic asthma. (11251629)
2001
39
Association between quantitative traits underlying asthma and the HLA-DRB1 locus in a family-based population sample. (11378822)
2001
40
Interleukin-9 receptor expression in asthmatic airways In vivo. (10871433)
2000
41
Neutrophilic inflammation in severe persistent asthma. (10556116)
1999
42
Use of specific IgE in assessing the relevance of fungal and dust mite allergens to atopic dermatitis: a comparison with asthmatic and nonasthmatic control subjects. (10589012)
1999
43
Interleukin (IL) 4 and IL-13 act on human lung fibroblasts. Implication in asthma. (9593769)
1998
44
Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factors (GM-CSF) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) production by human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) in asthmatics and controls. Lack of in vitro effect of salbutamol compared to sodium nedocromil. (8820249)
1995
45
Fatal chickenpox pneumonia in an asthmatic patient on oral steroids and methotrexate. (7785019)
1995
46
Effect of an inhaled histamine H3-receptor agonist on airway responses to sodium metabisulphite in asthma. (8448069)
1993
47
Cross-tachyphylactic airway response to inhaled bradykinin, kallidin and [desArg9]-bradykinin in asthmatic subjects. (8519379)
1993
48
Effect of inhaled H1 and H2 receptor antagonist in normal and asthmatic subjects. (6449094)
1980
49
Double-blind study of the effectiveness of a broad spectrum antibiotic in status asthmaticus. (4598933)
1974
50
Status asthmaticus. (5327915)
1966

Genetic Variations for Asthma

Expression for genes affiliated with Asthma

Sources:
1BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
See all sources
Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Asthma

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Asthma.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Asthma

Sources:
52QIAGEN, 30KEGG, 12EMD Millipore, 38NCBI BioSystems Database, 53R&D Systems, 54Reactome, 50PharmGKB
See all sources

Pathways related to Asthma according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 16)
idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1
Hide members
11.8CCL11, TNF, IL13, IL12B, IL9, IL4R
2
Hide members
11.8IL4R, IL9, IL12B, IL13, HLA-G, TNF
3
Hide members
11.6PLA2G7, IL4R, IL13, HLA-G, TNF, CCL11
4
Hide members
11.6CCL11, TNF, IL13, IL12B, IL9, IL4R
5
Hide members
11.6CCL11, TNF, IL13, IL12B, IL9, IL4R
6
Hide members
11.6CCL11, TNF, IL13, IL12B, IL9, IL4R
7
Hide members
11.2IL12B, IL13, HLA-G, TNF
811.2TNF, IL13, IL12B, IL9
9
Hide members
11.2IL4R, IL9, IL13, CCL11
10
Hide members
11.2IL13, IL12B, IL4R, ALOX5
1111.2IL4R, IL9, IL12B, IL13
1211.0TNF, IL13, IL12B
1311.0IL13, IL9, IL4R
1411.0ALOX5, ALOX5AP, TNF
15
Hide members
10.9ALOX5, ALOX5AP
16
Hide members
10.9ALOX5AP, ALOX5

Compounds for genes affiliated with Asthma

Sources:
45Novoseek, 29IUPHAR, 24HMDB, 50PharmGKB, 11DrugBank, 60Tocris Bioscience
See all sources

Compounds related to Asthma according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show top 50)    (show all 75)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1histamine45 29 2414.8ADRB2, ALOX5, ALOX5AP, PTGER2, IL4R, IL13
2dexamethasone45 50 29 1115.8CCL11, TNF, HLA-G, PTGER2, ADRB2, ALOX5
3nitric oxide45 11 2414.8ALOX5AP, CCL11, TNF, SCGB1A1, IL13, IL12B
4arachidonic acid45 29 11 2415.6PTGER2, ADRB2, TNF, ALOX5AP, PLA2G7, IL13
5lipid4512.6IL12B, CCL11, TNF, PLA2G7, HLA-G, SCGB1A1
6aspirin45 50 29 2415.4ALOX5AP, ADRB2, ALOX5, PTGER2, PLA2G7, IL13
7vegf4512.2ADRB2, CCL11, TNF, HLA-G, IL13, PTGER2
8leukotriene b445 60 2414.0TNF, IL13, ALOX5AP, ALOX5, PLA2G7, CCL11
9indomethacin45 60 29 1115.0CCL11, ALOX5, ALOX5AP, PTGER2, IL13, TNF
10thymidine45 2413.0TNF, IL13, CCL11, IL4R, ADRB2, IL9
11oxygen45 2412.9HLA-G, SCGB1A1, TNF, CCL11, ADRB2, PLA2G7
12montelukast45 50 29 1114.9ALOX5, ALOX5AP, IL13, CCL11, ADRB2
13methacholine45 1112.9IL9, ADRB2, CCL11, IL13, NPSR1
14tarc4511.8CCL11, IL13, TNF, IL9, IL4R
15rantes4511.8TNF, CCL11, IL9, IL4R, IL12B
16ionomycin4511.8IL4R, IL9, IL13, TNF, CCL11
17prostaglandin4511.8CCL11, TNF, PTGER2, ALOX5, ALOX5AP
18sb 20358045 6012.8TNF, CCL11, IL13, IL12B, ALOX5
19pge24511.7ADRB2, CCL11, ALOX5AP, PLA2G7
20actinomycin d4511.7ALOX5AP, IL4R, CCL11, TNF, IL13
21pranlukast45 29 1113.7ALOX5, ALOX5AP, TNF, CCL11
22ltc44511.6CCL11, IL13, ALOX5AP, ALOX5
23fluticasone propionate45 50 60 1114.6ADRB2, CCL11, IL13, TNF
24pgd24511.6IL13, CCL11, ALOX5, PTGER2
25il 104511.6TNF, IL13, IL12B, IL4R
26phosphatidylinositol4511.6SCGB1A1, IL13, IL12B, IL4R, PTGER2, CCL11
27thromboxane45 2412.6PTGER2, ALOX5AP, PLA2G7, ALOX5
28allergens4511.6CCL11, IL9, IL4R, IL13
29bromodeoxyuridine4511.5PTGER2, IL9, SCGB1A1, IL13
30serine4511.5ALOX5, ADRB2, IL13, IL9, TNF
31lte44511.4ALOX5AP, CCL11, ALOX5
32salmeterol45 50 29 1114.4IL13, CCL11, ADRB2
33il-124511.4IL13, IL12B, TNF
345 aminosalicylic acid4511.4IL12B, TNF, ALOX5
35indoleamine4511.4HLA-G, TNF, IL13
36groalpha4511.3IL13, CCL11, TNF
37fmlp4511.3TNF, IL13, ALOX5, CCL11
38budesonide45 50 1113.3TNF, CCL11, IL13
39salbutamol45 50 29 11 2415.3IL13, ADRB2, CCL11
40sulfasalazine45 29 50 1114.3IL12B, TNF, ALOX5
41rolipram45 60 2913.3ADRB2, ALOX5
42endotoxin4511.3PLA2G7, SCGB1A1
43cycloheximide4511.3ALOX5AP, PLA2G7
44prostacyclin4511.2ALOX5, TNF, PLA2G7, PTGER2
45ndga4511.2TNF, ALOX5AP, ALOX5
465-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid4511.1ALOX5AP, ALOX5
47bw-b 70c6011.1ALOX5, ALOX5AP
48bay-x 10056011.0ALOX5AP, ALOX5
49poly(i-c)4510.9CCL11, TNF, IL12B
50tacrolimus45 50 1112.9CCL11, TNF, IL13, ALOX5

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Asthma

Sources:
16Gene Ontology
See all sources

Cellular components related to Asthma according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1extracellular spaceGO:00561511.5IL4R, CCL11, TNF, SCGB1A1, IL13, IL12B
2nuclear envelopeGO:00563511.0ALOX5, ALOX5AP, SCGB1A1

Biological processes related to Asthma according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 11)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1inflammatory responseGO:00695411.3CCL11, TNF, IL13, IL9
2response to glucocorticoid stimulusGO:05138411.2HNMT, TNF, SCGB1A1
3leukotriene production involved in inflammatory responseGO:00254011.1ALOX5, ALOX5AP
4lipoxin metabolic processGO:200130011.1ALOX5, ALOX5AP
5response to lipopolysaccharideGO:03249611.0PTGER2, IL13, SCGB1A1
6positive regulation of macrophage activationGO:04303211.0IL4R, IL13
7lipoxygenase pathwayGO:01937211.0ALOX5, ALOX5AP
8negative regulation of growth of symbiont in hostGO:04413010.9IL12B, TNF
9positive regulation of osteoclast differentiationGO:04567210.9TNF, IL12B
10defense response to protozoanGO:04283210.8IL12B, IL4R
11leukotriene metabolic processGO:00669110.6ALOX5AP, ALOX5

Molecular functions related to Asthma according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1cytokine activityGO:00512511.2IL9, IL12B, IL13, TNF

Products for genes affiliated with Asthma

  • Antibodies
  • Proteins
  • Lysates
  • Antibodies

Sources for Asthma

3CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
29IUPHAR
30KEGG
35MeSH
36MESH via Orphanet
37MGI
40NCIt
41NDF-RT
44NINDS
45Novoseek
47OMIM
48OMIM via Orphanet
51PubMed
52QIAGEN
58SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
61UMLS
62UMLS via Orphanet