MCID: AZS001
MIFTS: 44

Azoospermia malady

Categories: Reproductive diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Azoospermia

Aliases & Descriptions for Azoospermia:

Name: Azoospermia 12 29 52 42 14 69
Spermatogenic Failure 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:14227
ICD10 33 N46.0 N46.01
ICD9CM 35 606.0
MeSH 42 D053713
NCIt 47 C80076
UMLS 69 C0004509

Summaries for Azoospermia

Disease Ontology : 12 A male infertility disease characterized by the absence of any measurable level of sperm in semen.

MalaCards based summary : Azoospermia, also known as spermatogenic failure, is related to y chromosome infertility and spermatogenic failure 4. An important gene associated with Azoospermia is DAZL (Deleted In Azoospermia Like). The drugs Metformin and Ginseng have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include testis, testes and kidney.

Wikipedia : 71 Azoospermia is the medical condition of a man whose semen contains no sperm. It is associated with... more...

Related Diseases for Azoospermia

Diseases related to Azoospermia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 86)
id Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 y chromosome infertility 11.7
2 spermatogenic failure 4 11.6
3 young syndrome 11.5
4 spermatogenic failure, y-linked, 2 11.5
5 spinocerebellar ataxia 32 11.3
6 sertoli cell-only syndrome 11.2
7 spermatogenic failure 3 10.8
8 spermatogenesis arrest 10.7
9 spermatogenic failure 12 10.7
10 hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 24 without anosmia 10.7
11 spermatogenic failure 14 10.7
12 spermatogenic failure 13 10.7
13 spermatogenic failure, x-linked, 2 10.7
14 46,xx testicular disorder of sex development 10.7
15 androgen insensitivity, partial, with or without breast cancer 10.7
16 infertility 10.5
17 oligospermia 10.3
18 diabetes mellitus, insulin-resistant, with acanthosis nigricans 10.2 AZF1 DAZ1 DAZ4
19 varicocele 10.1
20 male infertility 10.1
21 retinitis pigmentosa, y-linked 10.1 DAZ1 DAZ2 DAZ3 DAZ4 USP9Y
22 19p13.12 microdeletion syndrome 10.0 AZF1 DAZ1 DAZL DDX3Y USP9Y
23 nephronophthisis-like nephropathy 1 10.0 AZF1 DAZ1 DAZL RBMY1A1 USP9Y
24 cystic fibrosis 10.0
25 cryptorchidism 10.0
26 gastrointestinal tularemia 9.9 CFTR DAZ1 DAZ4
27 hypogonadism 9.8
28 avoidant personality disorder 9.8 CFTR DAZ1 DAZ4 DAZL RBMY1A1
29 silicosis 9.8 DAZ1 DDX3Y USP26 USP9Y
30 pauciarticular onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis 9.8 DAZ1 DAZ2 DAZ3 DAZ4 DDX3Y RBMY1A1
31 intussusception 9.8
32 inguinal hernia 9.8
33 spermatocele 9.7
34 congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens 9.7
35 conjunctivitis 9.7
36 hypogonadotropism 9.7
37 spinal cord injury 9.7
38 klinefelter's syndrome 9.7
39 situs inversus 9.7
40 hypoxia 9.7
41 testicular germ cell tumor 9.7
42 hypospadias 9.7
43 pulmonic stenosis 9.5
44 tuberculosis 9.5
45 ring chromosome 9 9.5
46 radioulnar synostosis 9.5
47 seminoma 9.5
48 hematopoietic stem cell transplantation 9.5
49 tuberculous epididymitis 9.5
50 pancreatitis 9.5

Comorbidity relations with Azoospermia via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN):


Prostate Cancer

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Azoospermia:



Diseases related to Azoospermia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Azoospermia

Drugs & Therapeutics for Azoospermia

Drugs for Azoospermia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 69)
id Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Metformin Approved Phase 4 657-24-9 14219 4091
2
Ginseng Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 50647-08-0
3
Enclomiphene Investigational Phase 4 15690-57-0
4 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
5 Hormones Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
6 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
7 Estrogens Phase 4,Phase 3
8 Hypoglycemic Agents Phase 4
9 insulin Phase 4
10 Insulin, Globin Zinc Phase 4
11 Anticoagulants Phase 4
12 Calcium, Dietary Phase 4
13 Chelating Agents Phase 4
14 Chorionic Gonadotropin Phase 4,Phase 2
15 Clomiphene Phase 4
16 Estrogen Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 3
17 Estrogen Receptor Modulators Phase 4
18 Fertility Agents Phase 4
19 Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators Phase 4
20 Zuclomiphene Phase 4
21 Citrate Nutraceutical Phase 4
22
Citric Acid Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 77-92-9 311
23
Methyltestosterone Approved Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 1 58-18-4 6010
24
Testosterone Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 1 58-22-0 6013
25
Letrozole Approved, Investigational Phase 3 112809-51-5 3902
26 Follicle Stimulating Hormone Phase 3
27 Anabolic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 1
28 Androgens Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 1
29 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 1
30 Castor Oil Phase 2, Phase 3
31 Cathartics Phase 2, Phase 3
32 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
33 Laxatives Phase 2, Phase 3
34 Testosterone 17 beta-cypionate Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 1
35
Testosterone enanthate Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 1 315-37-7 9416
36 Testosterone undecanoate Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 1
37 Aromatase Inhibitors Phase 3
38 Steroid Synthesis Inhibitors Phase 3
39 Castor Nutraceutical Phase 2, Phase 3
40
Goserelin Approved Phase 2 65807-02-5 47725 5311128
41 Contraceptive Agents Phase 2,Phase 1
42 Contraceptive Agents, Male Phase 2
43
Coal tar Approved Phase 1 8007-45-2
44 ST 1435 Phase 1
45
Estradiol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved 50-28-2 5757 53477783
46
Zinc Approved 7440-66-6 32051 23994
47
Iron Approved 7439-89-6 23925
48
Vitamin E Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 59-02-9 14985
49 Antibodies
50 Immunoglobulins

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 45)
id Name Status NCT ID Phase
1 Clinical Research on Effectiveness and Safety of Treatment of Severe Oligospermia or Azoospermia With uFSH Unknown status NCT02307994 Phase 4
2 Effects of Korean Red Ginseng on Semen Parameters in Male Infertility Patients: a Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Double-blind Clinical Study Completed NCT02204826 Phase 4
3 Metformin for the Treatment of Unexplained Oligozspermia Recruiting NCT01529177 Phase 4
4 FSH Treatment for Non-obstructive Azoospermic Patients Unknown status NCT02275169 Phase 3
5 The Comparison of Diagnostic TESE and TESA in Non-obstructive Azoospermic Completed NCT01210326 Phase 2, Phase 3
6 Androgen for Leydig Cell Proliferation Completed NCT01206270 Phase 2, Phase 3
7 Effect of Letrozole on Seminal Parameters in Men With Non Obstructive Azoospermia and Severe Oligozoospermia. Recruiting NCT02900105 Phase 3
8 Testicular Injection of Autologous Stem Cells for Treatment of Patients With Azoospermia Unknown status NCT02041910 Phase 1, Phase 2
9 Trial to Evaluate Erectile Function, Fertility and Sperm Count in Male Cyclists Compared to Age Matched Controls Unknown status NCT00282477 Phase 2
10 GnRHa Combined With hCG and hMG for Treatment of Patients With Non-obstructive Azoospermia Recruiting NCT02544191 Phase 2
11 Intra-Testicular Transplantation of Autologous Stem Cells for Treatment of Non-Obstructive Azoospermia Male Infertility. Recruiting NCT02641769 Phase 1, Phase 2
12 MSCs For Treatment of Azoospermic Patients Recruiting NCT02025270 Phase 1, Phase 2
13 Contraception in Normal and Subnormal Men Terminated NCT00167141 Phase 2
14 Study of the Safety, and Sperm and Gonadotropin Suppression of a Contraceptive Gel in Normal Men Completed NCT00891228 Phase 1
15 Intra Testicular Artery Injection of Bone Marrow Stem Cell in Management of Azoospermia Unknown status NCT02008799
16 Outcome of ICSI Using Cryopreserved Testicular Sperm From Infertile Men With Varicocele-associated Azoospermia Unknown status NCT02306499
17 Spermatogonial Stem Cells in Azoospermic Patients: a Comparison Between Obstructive and Non-obstructive Azoospermia Unknown status NCT01178463
18 Isolation of the Spermatic Cord in Mesh Inguinal Hernia Repair Unknown status NCT01391455
19 A Preliminary Study on Effect of Omega-3 on Human Sperm Unknown status NCT00479960 Early Phase 1
20 Estradiol and Testosterone Levels in Seminal Plasma of Men With Non-obstructive Azoospermia Completed NCT02255396
21 Insulin Resistance in Idiopathic Oligospermia and Azoospermia Completed NCT01509482
22 Microdissection Testicular Sperm Extraction (MicroTESE) and IVF-ICSI Outcome in Non-Obstructive Azoospermia (NOA) Completed NCT00484081
23 Study of Synapsis and Recombination in Male Meiosis and the Implications in Infertility Completed NCT02339272
24 Sperm Production in Kleinfelter Syndrome Patients After Mesenchymal Stem Cell Injection Completed NCT02414295
25 Obtaining Undifferentiated Cells From Testis Biopsy Completed NCT01375062
26 Genetic Studies Spermatogenic Failure Completed NCT00548977
27 Chromosomal and Morphological Structure of Mature and Immature Male Germ Cells and Recognition of IL-18 in Testicular Tissue of Azoospermic Men Completed NCT00544089
28 Testicular Function After Iodine 131 Therapy in Papillary Carcinoma Patients Completed NCT01150318
29 Role of the Toxic Metal Cadmium in the Mechanism Producing Infertility With a Varicocele Completed NCT00044369
30 Secretory Azoospermia and FDG (Fluoro Deoxyglucose) PET-CT Recruiting NCT02043444
31 Assessing the Efficacy of Clomiphene Citrate in Patients With Azoospermia and Hypoandrogenism Recruiting NCT02137265
32 HPV as a Possible Cause of Azoospermia Recruiting NCT02329275
33 Fertility Preservation in Cases of Klinefelter Syndrome. Recruiting NCT01918280
34 Treatment of Severe Male Infertility - Predictive Factors (Imaging) Recruiting NCT02931721
35 Modern Analyses of the Semen in Evaluating Male Fertility and Treatment Options of Male Infertility Recruiting NCT02932865
36 Reproductive Capacity and Iron Burden in Thalassemia Recruiting NCT02308904
37 Comparison of Medical Results of Testicular Sperm Extraction by Conventional Surgery and Microsurgical Track Active, not recruiting NCT02773498
38 Use of Semen TEX101 to Improve Sperm Retrieval Rates for Men With Non-obstructive Azoospermia Enrolling by invitation NCT02851966
39 Quantitative MRI for Functional Imaging of the Testis: A New Methodology for Evaluation of the Infertile Male Enrolling by invitation NCT02756325
40 Testis Needle Aspiration of Sperm in Men With Azoospermia Not yet recruiting NCT02418832
41 Surgical Microscope and Non Obstructive Azoospermia Not yet recruiting NCT03146260
42 The Acceptance, Safety, and Efficacy of MadaJet Versus Needle Injection for Sperm Retrieval in Patients With Azoospermia Not yet recruiting NCT03181243
43 The Effect of Low Electrical Current on Testicular Spermatocyte Count Not yet recruiting NCT02617173
44 Identification of Predictive Markers for Testis Cancer in a Population of Men With High Risk Terminated NCT00820287
45 PET-MRI for Functional Imaging of the Testis: A Feasibility Study Withdrawn NCT02669108

Search NIH Clinical Center for Azoospermia

Cochrane evidence based reviews: azoospermia

Genetic Tests for Azoospermia

Genetic tests related to Azoospermia:

id Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Azoospermia 29

Anatomical Context for Azoospermia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Azoospermia:

39
Testis, Testes, Kidney, Spinal Cord, Liver, Brain, Prostate

Publications for Azoospermia

Articles related to Azoospermia:

(show top 50) (show all 772)
id Title Authors Year
1
Two Novel TEX15 Mutations in a Family with Nonobstructive Azoospermia. ( 28355598 )
2017
2
Untargeted metabolomic profiling of seminal plasma in non-obstructive azoospermia men: a non-invasive detection of spermatogenesis. ( 28058728 )
2017
3
Reduced microRNA-188-3p expression contributes to apoptosis of spermatogenic cells in patients with azoospermia. ( 27868267 )
2017
4
Screening of Two Neighboring CFTR Mutations in Iranian Infertile Men with Non-Obstructive Azoospermia. ( 28042420 )
2017
5
Re: Comparison of Microdissection Testicular Sperm Extraction, Conventional Testicular Sperm Extraction, and Testicular Sperm Aspiration for Nonobstructive Azoospermia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. ( 27186769 )
2016
6
Azoospermia and the cancer patient: are there any options? ( 27048789 )
2016
7
Predictive factors for sperm recovery after varicocelectomy in men with non-obsturctive azoospermia. ( 27545577 )
2016
8
Expression ratio of histone demethylase KDM3A to protamine-1 mRNA is predictive of successful testicular sperm extraction in men with obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia. ( 27027467 )
2016
9
Frequency of Y Chromosome Microdeletions Among Iranian Infertile Men with Azoospermia and Severe Oligozoospermia: A Meta-analysis. ( 27920999 )
2016
10
Correlation of genetic results with testicular histology, hormones and sperm retrieval in nonobstructive azoospermia patients with testis biopsy. ( 27921326 )
2016
11
Association of G/T(rs222859) polymorphism in Exon 1 of YBX2 gene with azoospermia, among Iranian infertile males. ( 26804374 )
2016
12
Azoospermia in rabbits following an intravas injection of Vasalgel a8c. ( 27030808 )
2016
13
Spermatogonial Stem Cells Protein Identification in In Vitro Culture from Non-Obstructive Azoospermia Patient. ( 27418868 )
2016
14
CHES-1-like, the ortholog of a non-obstructive azoospermia-associated gene, blocks germline stem cell differentiation by upregulating Dpp expression in Drosophila testis. ( 27281616 )
2016
15
Does detection of DDX4 mRNA in cell-free seminal plasma represents a reliable noninvasive germ cell marker in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia? ( 28000927 )
2016
16
A novel stepwise micro-TESE approach in non obstructive azoospermia. ( 27176005 )
2016
17
Leydig cell tumor of the testis with azoospermia and elevated delta4 androstenedione: case report. ( 27833751 )
2016
18
A differential cytokine expression profile before and after rFSH treatment in Sertoli cell cultures of men with nonobstructive azoospermia. ( 27444581 )
2016
19
Expression level of chromodomain Y (CDY): potential marker for prediction of sperm recovery in non-obstructive azoospermia. ( 27525321 )
2016
20
Prediction model for obtaining spermatozoa with testicular sperm extraction in men with non-obstructive azoospermia. ( 27406950 )
2016
21
Re: Outcomes of Microdissection Testicular Sperm Extraction in Men with Nonobstructive Azoospermia Due to Maturation Arrest. ( 27186771 )
2016
22
Discrimination and characterization of Sertoli cell-only syndrome in non-obstructive azoospermia using cell-free seminal DDX4. ( 27211570 )
2016
23
Relationship between AZFc deletions and testicular histology in infertile South Chinese men with azoospermia and severe oligospermia. ( 27812445 )
2016
24
Couples with non-obstructive azoospermia are interested in future treatments with artificial gametes. ( 27130613 )
2016
25
Microdissection testicular sperm extraction in Japanese patients with persistent azoospermia after chemotherapy. ( 27306218 )
2016
26
Y chromosome haplogroups based genome-wide association study pinpoints revelation for interactions on non-obstructive azoospermia. ( 27628680 )
2016
27
Neutral alpha-1,4-glucosidase and fructose levels contribute to discriminating obstructive and nonobstructive azoospermia in Chinese men with azoospermia. ( 26610429 )
2016
28
Systematic Analysis of Protein Interaction Network Associated with Azoospermia. ( 27834916 )
2016
29
Azoospermia and Testicular Hypoplasia in a Boar Carrier of a Novel Y-Autosome Translocation. ( 27974725 )
2016
30
A Novel Missense Mutation in USP26 Gene Is Associated With Nonobstructive Azoospermia. ( 27089915 )
2016
31
Pregnancy resulting from IMSI after testicular biopsy in a patient with obstructive azoospermia. ( 27833987 )
2016
32
Azoospermia and testicular biopsy before intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection: Does the type of anesthesia make a difference? ( 27003978 )
2016
33
The poly(A)-binding protein genes, EPAB, PABPC1, and PABPC3 are differentially expressed in infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia. ( 26843391 )
2016
34
A seminal molecular marker for sperm presence in non-obstructive azoospermia? ( 27492894 )
2016
35
A RARE COMBINATION OF 45,X/46,XY MOSAICISM AND Y CHROMOSOME MICRODELETION IN AN INFERTILE MAN WITH AZOOSPERMIA. ( 27192898 )
2016
36
Effects of clinical, laboratuary and pathological features on successful sperm retrieval in non-obstructive azoospermia. ( 27635292 )
2016
37
Comparison of intracytoplasmic sperm injection with testicular spermatozoa success in infertile men with obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia; a retrospective analysis. ( 27931129 )
2016
38
X chromosome-wide identification of SNVs in microRNA genes and non-obstructive azoospermia risk in han chinese population. ( 27107421 )
2016
39
Simultaneous expression analysis of deleted in azoospermia-family genes and CDC25A: their potential as a predictor for successful testicular sperm extraction. ( 27568999 )
2016
40
Antisperm protein targets in azoospermia men. ( 27110078 )
2016
41
Sperm retrieval rate and pregnancy rate in infertile couples undergoing in-vitro fertilisation and testicular sperm extraction for non-obstructive azoospermia in Hong Kong. ( 27687508 )
2016
42
Discrimination of Deletion and Duplication Subtypes of the Deleted in Azoospermia Gene Family in the Context of Frequent Interloci Gene Conversion. ( 27723784 )
2016
43
BOULE, a Deleted in Azoospermia Homolog, Is Recruited to Stress Granules in the Mouse Male Germ Cells. ( 27632217 )
2016
44
Re: Salvage Micro-Dissection Testicular Sperm Extraction; Outcome in Men with Non-Obstructive Azoospermia with Previous Failed Sperm Retrievals. ( 27186770 )
2016
45
Oestrogen receptors beta genotype in infertile Egyptian men with nonobstructive azoospermia. ( 27038350 )
2016
46
Re: Sperm Freezing to Address the Risk of Azoospermia on the Day of ICSI. ( 27479427 )
2016
47
Testicular Spermatozoa Are of Better Quality Than Epididymal Spermatozoa in Patients With Obstructive Azoospermia. ( 27888149 )
2016
48
Major spliceosome defects cause male infertility and are associated with nonobstructive azoospermia in humans. ( 27035939 )
2016
49
Copy Number Variations of the Azoospermia Factor Region and SRY Are Not Associated with the Risk of Hypospadias. ( 27023068 )
2016
50
Analysis of partial azoospermia factor c deletion and DAZ copy number in azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia. ( 27739146 )
2016

Variations for Azoospermia

Copy number variations for Azoospermia from CNVD:

7 (show all 15)
id CNVD ID Chromosom Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 218759 7 116907252 117095954 Genomic rearrangement CFTR Azoospermia
2 266752 Y 1 57772954 Microdeletion Azoospermia
3 266760 Y 1 57772954 Microdeletions Azoospermia
4 266846 Y 11300000 57772954 Microdeletio Azoospermia
5 266849 Y 11300000 57772954 Microdeletion Azoospermia
6 266862 Y 11300000 57772954 Microdeletion DAZ Azoospermia
7 266959 Y 174481503 174538309 Deletion AZF Spermatogenic Failure
8 266963 Y 174481503 174538309 Microdeletion AZF Azoospermia
9 266968 Y 174481503 174538309 Microdeletion AZFA Azoospermia
10 266969 Y 174481503 174538309 Microdeletion AZFA Azoospermia
11 267104 Y 23539797 25607639 Deletion BPY2 Azoospermia
12 267118 Y 23684889 23754627 Deletion DAZ Azoospermia
13 267153 Y 24600763 26180436 Deletion CDY1 Azoospermia
14 267157 Y 24738968 26042240 Deletion CSPG4LY Azoospermia
15 267158 Y 24765501 26015710 Deletion GOLGA2LY Azoospermia

Expression for Azoospermia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Azoospermia.

Pathways for Azoospermia

GO Terms for Azoospermia

Cellular components related to Azoospermia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cytoplasm GO:0005737 9.97 BOLL CFTR DAZ1 DAZ2 DAZ3 DAZ4
2 nucleus GO:0005634 9.53 DAZ1 DAZ2 DAZ3 DAZ4 DAZAP1 DAZL
3 synaptonemal complex GO:0000795 8.96 FKBP6 SYCP3

Biological processes related to Azoospermia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 multicellular organism development GO:0007275 9.86 BOLL DAZ1 DAZ2 DAZ3 DAZ4 DAZAP1
2 mRNA processing GO:0006397 9.71 RBMY1A1 RBMY1D RBMY1F RBMY1J
3 RNA splicing GO:0008380 9.62 RBMY1A1 RBMY1D RBMY1F RBMY1J
4 cell differentiation GO:0030154 9.61 BOLL DAZ1 DAZ2 DAZ3 DAZ4 DAZAP1
5 meiotic cell cycle GO:0051321 9.54 BOLL FKBP6 SYCP3
6 meiotic nuclear division GO:0007126 9.43 BOLL FKBP6
7 spermatogenesis GO:0007283 9.4 BOLL DAZ1 DAZ2 DAZ3 DAZ4 DAZAP1
8 positive regulation of translational initiation GO:0045948 9.33 BOLL DAZ1 DAZL

Molecular functions related to Azoospermia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 RNA binding GO:0003723 9.73 BOLL DAZ1 DAZ2 DAZ3 DAZ4 DAZAP1
2 nucleic acid binding GO:0003676 9.4 BOLL DAZ1 DAZ2 DAZ3 DAZ4 DAZAP1
3 translation activator activity GO:0008494 9.33 BOLL DAZ1 DAZL

Sources for Azoospermia

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 MedGen
42 MeSH
43 MESH via Orphanet
44 MGI
46 NCI
47 NCIt
48 NDF-RT
51 NINDS
52 Novoseek
54 OMIM
55 OMIM via Orphanet
59 PubMed
60 QIAGEN
65 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67 TGDB
68 Tocris
69 UMLS
70 UMLS via Orphanet
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