Bamforth Syndrome

Categories: Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Bamforth Syndrome

MalaCards integrated aliases for Bamforth Syndrome:

Name: Bamforth Syndrome 49 28 69
Hypothyroidism Cleft Palate Hypothyroidism, Athyroidal, with Spiky Hair and Cleft Palate 49
Bamforth-Lazarus Syndrome 49


External Ids:

UMLS 69 C1855794

Summaries for Bamforth Syndrome

NIH Rare Diseases : 49 The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs.Orpha Number: 1226Disease definitionBamforth-Lazarus syndrome is a very rare syndrome of congenital hypothyroidism characterized by thyroid dysgenesis (in most cases athyreosis), cleft palate and spiky hair, with or without choanal atresia, and bifid epiglottis. Facial dysmorphism and porencephaly have been reported in isolated cases.EpidemiologyOnly 8 patients from 6 families have been reported to date.Clinical descriptionNewborns present at birth with thyroid dysgenesis (in most cases athyreosis) leading to congenital hypothyroidism that manifests with lethargy, poor feeding, macroglossia, cold or mottled skin, persistent jaundice, and umbilical hernia. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is also common. All newborns with Bamforth- Lazarus syndrome have a cleft palate and spiky hair. Some may also present with choanal atresia and bifid epiglottis. Facial dysmorphism, consisting of microcephaly, hypertelorism, anteverted nares, narrow nasal bridge, low-set ears, small jaw and retrognathia, has been reported in one case. Porencephaly was also recently described in one case.EtiologyBamforth-Lazarus syndrome is due to homozygous loss-of-function missense mutations located within the forkhead domain of the FOXE1 gene (9q22), encoding thyroid transcription factor 2 (TTF-2). TTF-2 is expressed in the thyroid gland (as well as elsewhere like the tongue, epiglottis and palate) and is thought to play a crucial role in thyroid morphogenesis. Cases reported so far have all been due to homozygous loss-of-function mutations apart from one case described recently with a novel FOXE1 homozygous mutation causing increased thyroid gene expression.Diagnostic methodsDiagnosis is based on clinical findings of congenital hypothyroidism with cleft palate and spiky hair along with findings of thyroid ultrasonography (USG) and computed tomography examination. Thyroid tissue is either completely absent or non-functional. Serum thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH) levels should be measured (levels will be elevated on newborn screening filter paper test, as is seen in all cases of athyreosis) to determine necessary treatment dosage. Molecular genetic testing can identify a mutation in the FOXE1 gene, confirming diagnosis.Differential diagnosisDifferential diagnoses include other forms of syndromic hypothyroidism such as Johanson-Blizzard syndrome (see these terms).Antenatal diagnosisPrenatal diagnosis is not performed.Genetic counselingThe disease is inherited autosomal recessively and genetic counseling is possible. Most of the patients reported to date came from consanguineous parents, both being heterozygous for the genetic mutation.Management and treatmentThyroid hormone replacement therapy is the standard treatment for those with Bamforth-Lazarus syndrome and should be started as soon as possible. The dosage of synthetic thyroxine (T4) necessary depends on the patient's age, weight and any other medical conditions. Regular follow up is recommended to monitor any fluctuation in TSH levels and treatment is lifelong. In neonates born with hyperbilirubinemia, phototherapy is often effective. Surgical procedures for cleft palate (maxillo-facial reconstruction and plastic surgery) and choanal atresia (surgery to reopen the nasal passages) should be discussed in a specialized health center. Speech therapy may also be required.PrognosisWith proper treatment adherence the prognosis is good and children can have normal physical growth, pubertal development, and anterior pituitary function. Quality of life, however, can be affected by cleft palate/choanal atresia as multiple surgeries may be necessary. Intellectual development is normal if treatment for hypothyroidism is not delayed.Visit the Orphanet disease page for more resources. Last updated: 5/20/2014

MalaCards based summary : Bamforth Syndrome, also known as hypothyroidism cleft palate hypothyroidism, athyroidal, with spiky hair and cleft palate, is related to hypothyroidism, thyroidal or athyroidal, with spiky hair and cleft palate and breasts and/or nipples, aplasia or hypoplasia of, 1. An important gene associated with Bamforth Syndrome is FOXE1 (Forkhead Box E1). Affiliated tissues include thyroid, pituitary and tongue.

Related Diseases for Bamforth Syndrome

Diseases related to Bamforth Syndrome via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hypothyroidism, thyroidal or athyroidal, with spiky hair and cleft palate 11.1
2 breasts and/or nipples, aplasia or hypoplasia of, 1 9.9
3 ectodermal dysplasia, hypohidrotic, with hypothyroidism and ciliary dyskinesia 9.9
4 choanal atresia, posterior 9.9
5 porencephaly 9.9
6 thyroiditis 9.9

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Bamforth Syndrome:

Diseases related to Bamforth Syndrome

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Bamforth Syndrome

Drugs & Therapeutics for Bamforth Syndrome

Search Clinical Trials , NIH Clinical Center for Bamforth Syndrome

Genetic Tests for Bamforth Syndrome

Genetic tests related to Bamforth Syndrome:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Bamforth Syndrome 28 FOXE1

Anatomical Context for Bamforth Syndrome

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Bamforth Syndrome:

Thyroid, Pituitary, Tongue, Testes, Skin

Publications for Bamforth Syndrome

Articles related to Bamforth Syndrome:

# Title Authors Year
Bamforth syndrome: is porencephaly a new finding? ( 24341142 )
Unexpected prolonged paralysis after mivacurium in a patient with Bamforth syndrome. ( 16884476 )
An autosomal recessive syndrome of choanal atresia, hypothelia/athelia and thyroid gland anomalies overlapping bamforth syndrome, ANOTHER syndrome and methimazole embryopathy. ( 12002153 )

Variations for Bamforth Syndrome

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Bamforth Syndrome:

# Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1 FOXE1 NM_004473.3(FOXE1): c.194C> T (p.Ala65Val) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs104894110 GRCh37 Chromosome 9, 100616390: 100616390
2 FOXE1 NM_004473.3(FOXE1): c.170G> A (p.Ser57Asn) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs28937575 GRCh37 Chromosome 9, 100616366: 100616366

Expression for Bamforth Syndrome

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Bamforth Syndrome.

Pathways for Bamforth Syndrome

GO Terms for Bamforth Syndrome

Sources for Bamforth Syndrome

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
27 GO
28 GTR
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
37 LifeMap
39 MedGen
41 MeSH
42 MESH via Orphanet
43 MGI
45 NCI
46 NCIt
51 Novoseek
54 OMIM via Orphanet
58 PubMed
66 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
68 Tocris
70 UMLS via Orphanet
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