MCID: BLP003
MIFTS: 39

Blepharospasm malady

Genetic diseases, Rare diseases, Neuronal diseases, Eye diseases categories

Aliases & Classifications for Blepharospasm

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Aliases & Descriptions for Blepharospasm:

Name: Blepharospasm 10 45 46 47 12 24 36
Benign Essential Blepharospasm 45 23 46 65
Essential Blepharospasm 23
Primary Blepharospasm 23
 
Eyelid Twitching 23
Spasm of Eyelids 23
Beb 45


Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology10 DOID:529
MeSH36 D001764
ICD9CM29 333.81
ICD1027 G24.5

Summaries for Blepharospasm

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NINDS:46 Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions and spasms of the eyelid muscles. It is a form of a movement disorder in which muscle contractions cause sustained eyelid closure, twitching or repetitive movements. BEB begins gradually with increased frequency of eye blinking often associated with eye irritation. Other symptoms may include increasing difficulty in keeping the eyes open, and light sensitivity. Generally, the spasms occur during the day, disappear in sleep, and reappear after waking. As the condition progresses, the spasms may intensify, forcing the eyelids to remain closed for long periods of time, and thereby causing substantial visual disturbance or functional blindness. It is important to note that the blindness is caused solely by the uncontrollable closing of the eyelids and not by a dysfunction of the eyes. BEB occurs in both men and women, although it is especially common in middle-aged and elderly women.

MalaCards based summary: Blepharospasm, also known as benign essential blepharospasm, is related to cervical dystonia and facial nerve disease. An important gene associated with Blepharospasm is DRD5 (Dopamine Receptor D5). Affiliated tissues include eye, brain and thalamus.

Disease Ontology:10 A focal dystonia that is characterized by the involuntary, forcible contraction of the muscles controlling eye blinks.

NIH Rare Diseases:45 Benign essential blepharospasm is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions and spasms of the eyelid muscles. it is a form of dystonia, a movement disorder in which muscle contractions cause sustained eyelid closure, twitching or repetitive movements. benign essential blepharospasm occurs in both men and women, although it is especially common in middle-aged and elderly women. most cases are treated with botulinum toxin injections. the exact cause of benign essential blepharospasm is unknown. last updated: 7/22/2009

Genetics Home Reference:23 Benign essential blepharospasm is a condition characterized by abnormal blinking or spasms of the eyelids. This condition is a type of dystonia, which is a group of movement disorders involving uncontrolled tensing of the muscles (muscle contractions), rhythmic shaking (tremors), and other involuntary movements. Benign essential blepharospasm is different from the common, temporary eyelid twitching that can be caused by fatigue, stress, or caffeine.

Wikipedia:68 A blepharospasm (from Greek: blepharon, eyelid, and spasm, an uncontrolled muscle contraction), is any... more...

Related Diseases for Blepharospasm

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Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Blepharospasm:



Diseases related to blepharospasm

Symptoms for Blepharospasm

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Drugs & Therapeutics for Blepharospasm

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Drugs for Blepharospasm (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 19)
idNameStatusPhaseClinical TrialsCas NumberPubChem Id
1Botulinum ToxinsPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2, Phase 1590
2
SiliconPhase 4747440-21-34082203
Synonyms:
Si
 
Silica
Silicate
Silicic acid
3Botulinum Toxins, Type APhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2561
4
MexiletineapprovedPhase 21931828-71-44178
Synonyms:
(+-)-1-(2,6-Dimethylphenoxy)propan-2-amine
(+-)-1-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)propan-2-amine
(2RS)-1-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)-2-aminopropane
1-(2',6'-Dimethylphenoxy)-2-aminopropane
1-(2,6-Dimethylphenoxy)-2-propanamine
1-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)propan-2-amine
1-Methyl-2-(2,6-xylyloxy)ethanamine
1-Methyl-2-(2,6-xylyloxy)ethylamine
1-methyl-2-(2,6-xylyloxy)ethanamine
2-(2-Aminopropoxy)-1,3-DiMethyl-Benzene Hydrochloride
2-(2-aminopropoxy)-1,3-dimethylbenzene
31828-71-4
5370-01-4 (hydrochloride)
AB00053683
AC1L1HL7
AC1Q2BC5
AC1Q2BC6
BPBio1_000026
BRD-A64092382-003-04-3
BRN 2092205
BSPBio_000022
BSPBio_002254
C07220
CHEBI:115958
CHEBI:6916
CHEMBL558
CID4178
D08215
DB00379
DivK1c_000834
EINECS 250-825-7
I01-6374
IDI1_000834
KBio1_000834
KBio2_002082
KBio2_004650
KBio2_007218
 
KBio3_001474
KBioGR_001270
KBioSS_002082
KO-1173
KO1173
KOE-1173
LS-68257
Lopac0_000784
Mexiletene
Mexiletina
Mexiletina [INN-Spanish]
Mexiletine
Mexiletine (INN)
Mexiletine HCL
Mexiletine Hydrochloride
Mexiletine [INN:BAN]
Mexiletinum
Mexiletinum [INN-Latin]
Mexilitine
Mexilétine
Mexitil
Mexityl
MolPort-001-790-944
NCGC00015659-04
NCGC00162253-01
NCGC00162253-02
NINDS_000834
Prestwick0_000241
Prestwick1_000241
Prestwick2_000241
Prestwick3_000241
SBB070242
SPBio_002241
Spectrum3_000727
Spectrum4_000795
Spectrum5_001279
Spectrum_001602
UNII-1U511HHV4Z
5TNFR-Fc fusion proteinPhase 1, Phase 2367
6Gadolinium DTPAPhase 1, Phase 282
7Gadobenic acidPhase 1, Phase 282
8
Methylprednisoloneapproved103383-43-26741
Synonyms:
(6S,8S,9S,10R,11S,13S,14S,17R)-11,17-dihydroxy-17-(2-hydroxyacetyl)-6,10,13-trimethyl-7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16-octahydro-6H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3-one
(6a,11b)-11,17,21-Trihydroxy-6-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione
(6alpha,11beta)-11,17,21-Trihydroxy-6-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione
(6α,11β)-11,17,21-trihydroxy-6-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione
.DELTA.1-6.alpha.-Methylhydrocortisone
1-Dehydro-6alpha-methylhydrocortisone
1-dehydro-6alpha-Methylhydrocortisone
1-dehydro-6α-methylhydrocortisone
11-beta,17,21-Trihydroxy-6-alpha-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione
11beta,17,21-Trihydroxy-6alpha-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione
11beta,17alpha,21-Trihydroxy-6alpha-methyl-1,4-pregnadiene-3,20-dione
11beta,17alpha,21-Trihydroxy-6alpha-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione
121673-01-6
4-08-00-03498 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)
46436_FLUKA
46436_RIEDEL
570-35-4
6 Methylprednisolone
6-Methylprednisolone
6-alpha-Methylprednisolone
6.alpha.-Methylprednisolone
6923-42-8
6alpha-Methyl-11beta,17alpha,21-trihydroxy-1,4-pregnadiene-3,20-dione
6alpha-Methyl-11beta,17alpha,21-triol-1,4-pregnadiene-3,20-dione
6alpha-Methylprednisolone
6alpha-methyl-11beta,17alpha,21-triol-1,4-pregnadiene-3,20-dione
83-43-2
A-methapred
AC1L1N7A
Artisone-Wyeth
Artisone-wyeth
BPBio1_000174
BRD-K35240538-001-03-1
BRN 2340300
BSPBio_000158
Besonia
Bio-0658
CHEBI:6888
CHEMBL650
CID6741
CPD000058330
D00407
D008775
DB00959
Depo-Medrol (acetate)
Depo-medrol
Dopomedrol
EINECS 201-476-4
Esametone
Firmacort
HMS1568H20
HMS2090B13
HSDB 3127
LMST02030178
LS-118498
Lemod
M0639_SIGMA
M1665
MEPRDL
MLS000028541
MLS001148159
MLS002207191
Medesone
Medixon
Medlone 21
 
Medrate
Medrol
Medrol (TN)
Medrol Adt Pak
Medrol Dosepak
Medrol adt pak
Medrol dosepak
Medrol, Solu-Medrol, Medrone, Methylprednisolone
Medrone
Mesopren
Metastab
Methyleneprednisolone
Methylprednisolon
Methylprednisolone
Methylprednisolone (JP15/USP/INN)
Methylprednisolone [USAN:INN:BAN:JAN]
Methylprednisolone, 6-alpha
Methylprednisolonum
Methylprednisolonum [INN-Latin]
Metilbetasone
Metilprednisolona
Metilprednisolona [INN-Spanish]
Metilprednisolone
Metilprednisolone [DCIT]
Metilprednisolone [Dcit]
Metipred
Metrisone
Metrocort
Metysolon
Moderin
MolPort-002-528-554
NCGC00022735-03
NCI60_001657
NSC-19987
NSC19987
Nirypan
Noretona
Predni N Tablinen
Prednol- L
Pregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione, 11beta,17,21-trihydroxy-6alpha-methyl- (8CI)
Prestwick0_000279
Prestwick1_000279
Prestwick2_000279
Prestwick3_000279
Prestwick_622
Promacortine
Reactenol
S1733_Selleck
SAM002589984
SMR000058330
SPBio_002377
Sieropresol
Solomet
Solu-medrol
Summicort
Suprametil
U 7532
UNII-X4W7ZR7023
Urbason
Urbasone
Wyacort
ZINC03875560
delta(1)-6alpha-Methylhydrocortisone
delta(sup 1)-6-alpha-Methylhydrocortisone
methylprednisolone
methylprenisolone
9
Prednisoloneapproved103350-24-85755
Synonyms:
(11beta)-11,17,21-Trihydroxypregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione
.DELTA.1-Cortisol
.DELTA.1-Dehydrocortisol
.DELTA.1-Dehydrohydrocortisone
.DELTA.1-Hydrocortisone
.delta.-Cortef
.delta.-Stab
1,2-Dehydrohydrocortisone
1,4-Pregnadiene-11beta,17alpha,21-triol-3,20-dione
1,4-Pregnadiene-3,20-dione-11beta,17alpha,21-triol
1-Dehydrocortisol
1-Dehydrohydrocortisone
3,20-dioxo-11beta,17alpha,21-Trihydroxy-1,4-pregnadiene
46656_FLUKA
46656_RIEDEL
50-24-8
58201-11-9
8056-11-9
AC-1773
AC1L1L2E
Ak-Pred
Ak-Tate
Alphadrol
Articulose-50
BPBio1_000164
BRD-K98039984-001-03-0
BRN 1354103
BSPBio_000148
Bio-0666
Bubbli-Pred
C07369
CCRIS 980
CHEBI:8378
CHEMBL131
CID5755
CO-Hydeltra
CPD000718761
Co-Hydeltra
Codelcortone
Cordrol
Cortalone
Cotogesic
Cotolone
D00472
D011239
DB00860
Decaprednil
Decortin H
Delcortol
Delta F
Delta(1)-dehydrohydrocortisone
Delta-Cortef
Delta-Cortef (TN)
Delta-Ef-Cortelan
Delta-Stab
Delta-stab
Deltacortenol
Deltacortril
Deltacortril Enteric
Deltahydrocortisone
Deltasolone
Deltisilone
Depo-Medrol
Derpo PD
Derpo Pd
Dexa-Cortidelt Hostacortin H
Dexa-Cortidelt hostacortin H
Di Adreson F
Di-Adreson F
Di-Adreson-F
Di-adreson F
DiAdresonF
Dicortol
Donisolone
Dydeltrone
EINECS 200-021-7
Eazolin D
Econopred
Econopred Plus
Erbacort
Erbasona
Estilsona
Fernisolone
Fernisolone P
Fernisolone-P
Flamasone
Flo-pred
HMS1568H10
HMS2090J05
HSDB 3385
Hostacortin H
Hydeltra
Hydeltra-Tba
Hydeltrasol
Hydeltrone
Hydrodeltalone
Hydrodeltisone
Hydroretrocortin
Hydroretrocortine
I-Pred
Inflamase Forte
Inflamase Mild
K 1557
Key-Pred
Klismacort
LMST02030179
LS-7669
Lentosone
Lite Pred
M-Predrol
MLS001304083
 
MLS002154250
MLS002207037
Medrol
Medrol Acetate
Metacortandralone
Methylprednisolone Acetate
Meti-Derm
Meticortelone
Metreton
Millipred
MolPort-002-507-147
NCGC00179649-01
NSC 9120
NSC9120
NSC9900
Neo-Delta-Cortef
Nisolone
Nor-Pred T.B.A.
Ocu-Pred
Ocu-Pred Forte
Omnipred
Ophtho-Tate
Orapred
P0152_SIGMA
P0637
P6004_SIGMA
PRDL
PRED-G
Panafcortelone
Paracortol
Paracotol
Pediapred
Poly-Pred
Precortalon
Precortancyl
Precortilon
Precortisyl
Pred Forte
Pred Mild
Predair
Predair A
Predair Forte
Predalone 50
Predalone T.B.A.
Predate
Predate Tba
Predate-50
Predcor-25
Predcor-50
Predcor-Tba
Predisolone Sodium Phosphate
Predne-Dome
Prednelan
Predni-Dome
Prednicen
Predniliderm
Predniretard
Prednis
Prednisolona
Prednisolona [INN-Spanish]
Prednisolone
Prednisolone (JP15/USP/INN)
Prednisolone (anhydrous)
Prednisolone Acetate
Prednisolone Sodium Phosphate
Prednisolone Tebutate
Prednisolone [INN:BAN:JAN]
Prednisolonum
Prednisolonum [INN-Latin]
Predonin
Predonine
Prelone
Prenolone
Prestwick0_000274
Prestwick1_000274
Prestwick2_000274
Prestwick3_000274
Prestwick_404
Rolisone
S1737_Selleck
SAM002264639
SMR000718761
SPBio_002367
Scherisolon
Solone
Steran
Sterane
Sterolone
Supercortisol
UNII-9PHQ9Y1OLM
Ulacort
Ultra Pred
Ultracorten H
Ultracortene H
Ultracortene-H
Ultracortene-Hydrogen
Ultracortene-hydrogen
ZINC03833821
component of Ataraxoid
component of K-Predne-Dome
delta(1)-Cortisol
delta(1)-Dehydrocortisol
delta(1)-Dehydrohydrocortisone
delta(1)-Hydrocortisone
delta(sup 1)-Cortisol
delta(sup 1)-Dehydrocortisol
delta(sup 1)-Dehydrohydrocortisone
delta(sup 1)-Hydrocortisone
delta-dehydrocortisol
delta-dehydrohydrocortisone
delta-hydrocortisone
prednisolone
10
Zincapproved14047440-66-623994, 32051
Synonyms:
30Zn
Cinc
Zinc
Zinc ion
 
Zincum
Zink
Zn
Zn(ii)
Zn2+
11
Cortisone acetateapproved501950-04-4, 50-04-45745
Synonyms:
Cortisone Acetate
 
Cortisyl
Cortone acetate
12
Acetylcholineexperimental10451-84-3187
Synonyms:
ACh
Acetyl choline ion
Acetylcholine Chloride
Acetylcholine cation
 
Acetylcholinium: acetyl-Choline
Choline acetate
Choline acetate (ester)
Miochol E
O-Acetylcholine
acetylcholine chloride
13Prednisolone acetate1033
14Prednisolone hemisuccinate1033
15
Cortisone5053-06-5222786
Synonyms:
Andreson
Anusol HC
Balneol-Hc
Colocort
Compound E
Corlin
Cortadren
Cortandren
Cortef
Cortef Acetate
Cortisal
Cortisate
Cortison
Cortisone Acetate
Cortistal
Cortivite
Cortogen
Cortone
Cortril
Dermacort
Dricort
Flexicort
 
Florinef
Fludrocortisone Acetate
Glycort
Hemsol-Hc
Hi-Cor
Incortin
Kendall'S Compound E
Kendall'S compound
Locoid
Locoid Lipocream
Micort-Hc
Nogenic HC
Orabase HCA
Pandel
Prestwick_132
Reichstein Fa
Reichstein'S Substance FA
Scheroson
Solu-Cortef
Stie-Cort
Texacort
Westcort
beta-Hc
16Methylprednisolone Hemisuccinate1033
17Methylprednisolone acetate1033
18Prednisolone phosphate1033
19Zinc SupplementNutraceutical29

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 36)
idNameStatusNCT IDPhase
1Efficacy and Safety Study of Meditoxin® to Treat Essential BlepharospasmCompletedNCT01259557Phase 4
2Comparison of Two Botulinum Type A Products in the Treatment of BlepharospasmCompletedNCT00761592Phase 4
3A Retrospective Chart Review of BOTOX® and Xeomin® for the Management of Cervical Dystonia and BlepharospasmCompletedNCT02245958Phase 4
4Post Marketing Surveillance Study of DysportCompletedNCT00210431Phase 4
5Efficacy of Aurosling in Frontalis Sling Suspension SurgeryCompletedNCT00753831Phase 4
6Comparison of Korean Botulinum Toxin Type A Versus Botox in the Treatment of Essential BlepharospasmCompletedNCT00682760Phase 3
7IncobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin) Versus Placebo in the Treatment of BlepharospasmCompletedNCT00406367Phase 3
8Therapeutic Confirmatory Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of "Hugeltox Inj." in Essential BlepharospasmCompletedNCT01791881Phase 3
9Efficacy and Safety Study of Botulinum Toxin Type A Against Placebo to Treat Abnormal Contraction or Twitch of the EyelidRecruitingNCT01896895Phase 3
10Evaluation of Botulinum Toxin Injection Efficacy in the Treatment of Head Essential TremorNot yet recruitingNCT02555982Phase 3
11Effects of Botulinum Toxin Injections in Patients With Hereditary Spastic ParaplegiaNot yet recruitingNCT02604186Phase 2, Phase 3
12Study of a Single Administration of 3 Doses of Dysport® for the Treatment of Benign Essential BlepharospasmCompletedNCT00234507Phase 2
13A Study of Acetyl Hexapeptide-8 (AH8) in Treatment of BlepharospasmCompletedNCT00942851Phase 1, Phase 2
14Brain Stimulation to Treat Blepharospasm or Meige SyndromeCompletedNCT00411255Phase 2
15Mexiletine for the Treatment of Focal DystoniaCompletedNCT00001784Phase 2
16Deep Brain Stimulation in Patients With DystoniaCompletedNCT00773604Phase 1, Phase 2
17ASIS for Enbrel in Plaque PsoriasisNot yet recruitingNCT02112097Phase 1, Phase 2
18Acetyl Hexapeptide-8 for BlepharospasmTerminatedNCT01750346Phase 2
19Blepharospasm Short IntervalTerminatedNCT00507637Phase 2
20Trial Evaluating Xeomin® (incobotulinumtoxinA) for Cervical Dystonia or Blepharospasm in the United StatesCompletedNCT01287247
21Brain Changes in BlepharospasmCompletedNCT00500799
22Blepharospasm Patient Survey for Patients With BlepharospasmCompletedNCT01686061
23A Retrospective Chart Review of BOTOX® and Xeomin® for the Treatment of Cervical Dystonia and BlepharospasmCompletedNCT01814774
24MDs on Botox Utility (MOBILITY)CompletedNCT00535938
25Movement Disorder Survey in East ChinaCompletedNCT01168388
26Cognitive Function and Emotional Possessing in Bilateral Facial PalsyCompletedNCT02179450
27Neurophysiological Markers in Patients With Craniofacial Dystonia and Their RelativesCompletedNCT00082615
28Botulinum Toxin in the Treatment of Raynaud'sCompletedNCT01233999
29Comparison of Different Botulinum Toxin A Injection Patterns in the Treatment of BlepharospasmRecruitingNCT02327728
30rTMS and Botulinum Toxin in Benign Essential BlepharospasmRecruitingNCT02370875
31An RCT of a Patient-initiated Treatment Service for BEB and HFSRecruitingNCT02577224
32Dystonia Coalition ProjectsRecruitingNCT01373424
33Influence of Gaze Shift and Emotions on Symptoms of BlepharospasmNot yet recruitingNCT01759745
34Testing the Effect of Zinc Supplementation to Improve the Treatment Effect of Botulinum Toxin for Oculofacial SpasmNot yet recruitingNCT01546805
35Botulinum Toxin A Versus Steroids for the Treatment of Chronic Plantar FasciitisNot yet recruitingNCT02196155
36Brain Changes in BlepharospasmTerminatedNCT00487383

Search NIH Clinical Center for Blepharospasm


Cochrane evidence based reviews: Blepharospasm

Genetic Tests for Blepharospasm

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Genetic tests related to Blepharospasm:

id Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Blepharospasm24

Anatomical Context for Blepharospasm

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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Blepharospasm:

33
Eye, Brain, Thalamus, Caudate nucleus, Globus pallidus, Endothelial, Cortex

Animal Models for Blepharospasm or affiliated genes

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Publications for Blepharospasm

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Articles related to Blepharospasm:

(show top 50)    (show all 526)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Changes in corneal aesthesiometry and the sub-basal nerve plexus in benign essential blepharospasm. (25904123)
2015
2
Blink reflex studies in postparalytic facial syndrome and blepharospasm: trigeminal and extratrigeminal somatosensory stimulation. (25462139)
2014
3
Transient blepharospasm, apraxia of eyelid opening, and hemidyskinesia following a right parietotemporal infarct. (24954061)
2014
4
Comparable Botulinum Toxin Outcomes between Primary and Secondary Blepharospasm: A Retrospective Analysis. (25562037)
2014
5
Prospective Study Evaluating IncobotulinumtoxinA for Cervical Dystonia or Blepharospasm: Interim Results from the First 145 Subjects with Cervical Dystonia. (23724362)
2013
6
A case of Bell's palsy associated with blepharospasm. (22494605)
2013
7
A resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging study of patients with benign essential blepharospasm. (23636105)
2013
8
Variability in the duration of the onset of idiopathic Parkinson's disease after essential blepharospasm. (23605608)
2013
9
Quantification of macular carotenoids using autofluorescence imaging in patients with photosensitive migraine and benign essential blepharospasm. (22332230)
2012
10
Twelve cases of drug-induced blepharospasm improved within 2 months of psychotropic cessation. (21753898)
2011
11
In the wink of an eye: nature and nurture in blepharospasm. (21775742)
2011
12
Upper lid orbicularis oculi muscle strip and sequential brow suspension with autologous fascia lata is beneficial for selected patients with essential blepharospasm. (18927593)
2009
13
A double-blind, randomized, crossover study of prosigne versus botox in patients with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. (17272968)
2007
14
Enhanced long-term potentiation-like plasticity of the trigeminal blink reflex circuit in blepharospasm. (16407569)
2006
15
Benign essential blepharospasm. (15970766)
2005
16
Health-related quality of life in blepharospasm or hemifacial spasm. (15595940)
2005
17
A patient with long-lasting attacks of bilateral 'blepharospasm', photophobia, lacrimation and rhinorrhoea. (14728711)
2004
18
Familial blepharospasm is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and relates to a novel unassigned gene. (12539217)
2003
19
Ganglioglioma of the lateral ventricle presenting with blepharospasm - case report and review of the literature. (11386809)
2001
20
Orbicularis oculi and orbicularis oris reflexes in blepharospasm and torticollis spasmodica during spasm-free intervals. (11528155)
2001
21
Ptosis, blepharospasm, and apraxia of eyelid opening secondary to putaminal hemorrhage. (10449142)
1999
22
Idiopathic blepharospasm does not lead to a parkinsonian syndrome: results of a questionnaire-based follow-up study. (10367696)
1999
23
Use of botulinum toxin A in the treatment of hemifacial spasm and blepharospasm. (10063705)
1999
24
Asymmetric predominantly ipsilateral blepharospasm and contralateral parkinsonism in an elderly patient with a right mesencephalic cyst. (9452338)
1998
25
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in primary blepharospasm. (9748053)
1998
26
Pretarsal injections of botulinum toxin improve blepharospasm in previously unresponsive patients. (8648343)
1996
27
Multiple sclerosis leading to blepharospasm and dystonia in a sibling pair. (8892073)
1996
28
Bell's Palsy-associated blepharospasm relieved by aiding eyelid closure. (8967759)
1996
29
Effect of photic conditioning on blink reflex recovery function in blepharospasm. (8913199)
1996
30
Abnormal eye movements in blepharospasm and involuntary levator palpebrae inhibition. Clinical and pathophysiological considerations. (7820580)
1994
31
Auditory brain-stem responses in blepharospasm. (7681381)
1993
32
Memory-contingent saccades and the substantia nigra postulate for essential blepharospasm. (1998888)
1991
33
Blepharospasm associated with olivopontocerebellar atrophy. (2531169)
1989
34
Torticollis and blepharospasm in systemic lupus erythematosus. (2811894)
1989
35
Self-control training in blepharospasm. (2564073)
1989
36
Long-term results and complications of botulinum A toxin in the treatment of blepharospasm. (3211461)
1988
37
Surgical management of blepharospasm. (3278554)
1988
38
Etiology and differential diagnosis of blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonia. (3278535)
1988
39
Treatment of blepharospasm with botulinum A toxin. (3508221)
1987
40
Botulinum isn't just a poison anymore. Botulinum toxin in treatment of strabismus and essential blepharospasm. (3974563)
1985
41
Posttraumatic unilateral blepharospasm treated by selective facial neurectomy. (4011762)
1985
42
Blepharospasm and Meige syndrome: a review of diagnostic, aetiological and treatment approaches. (3920392)
1985
43
Blepharospasm, Meige syndrome, and hemifacial spasm: treatment with botulinum toxin. (4033932)
1985
44
Stretch reflex blepharospasm. (4022388)
1985
45
Hypnosis and biofeedback as adjunctive therapy in blepharospasm: a case report. (6507331)
1984
46
Decongestant-induced blepharospasm and orofacial dystonia. (6177879)
1982
47
A periorbital approach to blepharospasm. (7123625)
1982
48
Blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonia (Meige's syndrome) in sisters. (7235635)
1981
49
Blepharospasm. (7328398)
1981
50
The problem of adult-onset idiopathic torsion dystonia and other isolated dyskinesias in adult life (including blepharospasm, oromandibular dystonia, dystonic writer's cramp, and torticollis, or axial dystonia). (941774)
1976

Variations for Blepharospasm

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Expression for genes affiliated with Blepharospasm

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Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Blepharospasm.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Blepharospasm

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GO Terms for genes affiliated with Blepharospasm

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Biological processes related to Blepharospasm according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1chaperone-mediated protein transportGO:00723219.8TIMM8A, TOR1A
2negative regulation of blood pressureGO:00457769.3DRD5, GCH1

Sources for Blepharospasm

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2CDC
14ExPASy
15FDA
16FMA
24GTR
25HGMD
26HMDB
27ICD10
28ICD10 via Orphanet
29ICD9CM
30IUPHAR
31KEGG
34MedGen
36MeSH
37MESH via Orphanet
38MGI
41NCI
42NCIt
43NDF-RT
46NINDS
47Novoseek
49OMIM
50OMIM via Orphanet
54PubMed
55QIAGEN
60SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
64Tumor Gene Family of Databases
65UMLS
66UMLS via Orphanet