MCID: BLP003
MIFTS: 43

Blepharospasm malady

Categories: Genetic diseases, Neuronal diseases, Rare diseases, Eye diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Blepharospasm

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Aliases & Descriptions for Blepharospasm:

Name: Blepharospasm 11 49 27 50 39 13 68

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology11 DOID:529
ICD1030 G24.5
ICD9CM32 333.81
MeSH39 D001764
NCIt45 C118723

Summaries for Blepharospasm

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NINDS:49 Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions and spasms of the eyelid muscles. It is a form of  a movement disorder in which muscle contractions cause sustained eyelid closure, twitching or repetitive movements. BEB begins gradually with increased frequency of eye blinking often associated with eye irritation. Other symptoms may include increasing difficulty in keeping the eyes open, and light sensitivity. Generally, the spasms occur during the day, disappear in sleep, and reappear after waking. As the condition progresses, the spasms may intensify, forcing the eyelids to remain closed for long periods of time, and thereby causing substantial visual disturbance or functional blindness. It is important to note that the blindness is caused solely by the uncontrollable closing of the eyelids and not by a dysfunction of the eyes. BEB occurs in both men and women, although it is especially common in middle-aged and elderly women.

MalaCards based summary: Blepharospasm is related to cervical dystonia and oromandibular dystonia, and has symptoms including myoclonus, torticollis and spasmodic torticollis. An important gene associated with Blepharospasm is DRD5 (Dopamine Receptor D5). The drugs cyproheptadine hydrochloride and cyproheptadine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include eye, brain and thalamus.

Disease Ontology:11 A focal dystonia that is characterized by the involuntary, forcible contraction of the muscles controlling eye blinks.

Wikipedia:71 Blepharospasm is any abnormal contraction or twitch of the eyelid. In most cases, symptoms last for a... more...

Related Diseases for Blepharospasm

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Diseases in the Blepharospasm family:

Blepharospasm, Primary Benign

Diseases related to Blepharospasm via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 80)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1cervical dystonia30.3GCH1, TOR1A
2oromandibular dystonia29.7DRD5, GCH1, GNAL, TOR1A
3hemidystonia28.8GCH1, THAP1, TOR1A, TSR2
4blepharospasm, primary benign12.3
5meige syndrome11.9
6vernal keratoconjunctivitis10.8
7hemifacial spasm10.5
8dystonia10.4
9cervicitis10.2
10spastic paraplegia 1510.1THAP1, TOR1A
11ectodermal dysplasia blindness10.1THAP1, TOR1A
12apraxia10.1
13segmental dystonia10.1THAP1, TOR1A
14spasmodic dystonia10.0DRD5, THAP1, TOR1A
15lethal congenital contracture syndrome 19.9GCH1, TOR1A
16sleep apnea9.9GNAL, THAP1, TOR1A
17ampulla of vater clear cell adenocarcinoma9.9DRD5, HSPG2
18specific language impairment 59.9GCH1, TOR1A
19cavernous hemangioma9.9GCH1, TOR1A
20ptosis9.9
21bell's palsy9.9
22strabismus9.9
23spastic paraplegia 44, autosomal recessive9.9GCH1, TOR1A
24focal hand dystonia9.8GCH1, THAP1, TOR1A
25periampullary adenoma9.8GCH1, THAP1, TOR1A
26myasthenia gravis9.8
27focal dystonia9.8
28headache9.8
29myoclonus9.8
30tremor9.8
31obstructive sleep apnea9.7DRD5, GCH1, THAP1, TOR1A
32bartholin's gland transitional cell carcinoma9.7DRD5, GCH1, THAP1, TOR1A
33schizophrenia9.7
34multiple system atrophy9.7
35entropion9.7
36spasticity9.7
37alpha thalassemia-x-linked intellectual disability syndrome9.6GCH1, HSPG2, THAP1, TOR1A
38capos syndrome9.6GCH1, GNAL, THAP1, TOR1A
39systemic lupus erythematosus9.5
40cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis9.5
41essential tremor9.5
42obsessive-compulsive disorder9.5
43mohr-tranebjaerg syndrome9.5
44hydrocephalus9.5
45keratopathy9.5
46angiosarcoma9.5
47vitamin b12 deficiency9.5
48basal ganglia calcification9.5
49scoliosis9.5
50blepharophimosis9.5

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Blepharospasm:



Diseases related to blepharospasm

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Blepharospasm

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UMLS symptoms related to Blepharospasm:


myoclonus, torticollis, spasmodic torticollis, oromandibular dystonia

Drugs & Therapeutics for Blepharospasm

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Drugs for Blepharospasm (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 40)
idNameStatusPhaseClinical TrialsCas NumberPubChem Id
1
AcetylcholineapprovedPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 280551-84-3187
Synonyms:
ACh
Acetyl choline ion
Acetylcholine Chloride
Acetylcholine cation
 
Acetylcholinium: acetyl-Choline
Choline acetate
Choline acetate (ester)
O-Acetylcholine
acetylcholine chloride
2onabotulinumtoxinAPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2652
3Peripheral Nervous System AgentsPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2, Phase 123689
4abobotulinumtoxinAPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2652
5Neuromuscular AgentsPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 21180
6Neurotransmitter AgentsPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 218340
7Botulinum Toxins, Type APhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2657
8Cholinergic AgentsPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 23992
9Botulinum ToxinsPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2, Phase 1697
10incobotulinumtoxinAPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2662
11
SiliconPhase 41037440-21-34082203
Synonyms:
Si
 
Silica
Silicate
Silicic acid
12Pharmaceutical SolutionsPhase 38192
13
Etanerceptapproved, investigationalPhase 1, Phase 2403185243-69-0
Synonyms:
185243-69-0
CD120b
D00742
Enbrel
Enbrel (TN)
Enbrel Sureclick
Etanercept
Etanercept (USAN/INN)
 
Etanercept (genetical recombination)
Etanercept (genetical recombination) (JAN)
TNF-R2
Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2
Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1B precursor
Tumor necrosis factor receptor type II
etanercept
p75
p80 TNF-alpha receptor
14
MexiletineapprovedPhase 22031828-71-44178
Synonyms:
(+-)-1-(2,6-Dimethylphenoxy)propan-2-amine
(+-)-1-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)propan-2-amine
(2RS)-1-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)-2-aminopropane
1-(2',6'-Dimethylphenoxy)-2-aminopropane
1-(2,6-Dimethylphenoxy)-2-propanamine
1-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)propan-2-amine
1-Methyl-2-(2,6-xylyloxy)ethanamine
1-Methyl-2-(2,6-xylyloxy)ethylamine
1-methyl-2-(2,6-xylyloxy)ethanamine
2-(2-Aminopropoxy)-1,3-DiMethyl-Benzene Hydrochloride
2-(2-aminopropoxy)-1,3-dimethylbenzene
31828-71-4
5370-01-4 (hydrochloride)
AB00053683
AC1L1HL7
AC1Q2BC5
AC1Q2BC6
BPBio1_000026
BRD-A64092382-003-04-3
BRN 2092205
BSPBio_000022
BSPBio_002254
C07220
CHEBI:115958
CHEBI:6916
CHEMBL558
CID4178
D08215
DB00379
DivK1c_000834
EINECS 250-825-7
I01-6374
IDI1_000834
KBio1_000834
KBio2_002082
KBio2_004650
 
KBio2_007218
KBio3_001474
KBioGR_001270
KBioSS_002082
KO-1173
KO1173
KOE-1173
LS-68257
Lopac0_000784
Mexiletene
Mexiletina
Mexiletina [INN-Spanish]
Mexiletine
Mexiletine (INN)
Mexiletine HCL
Mexiletine [INN:BAN]
Mexiletinum
Mexiletinum [INN-Latin]
Mexilitine
Mexilétine
Mexitil
Mexityl
MolPort-001-790-944
NCGC00015659-04
NCGC00162253-01
NCGC00162253-02
NINDS_000834
Prestwick0_000241
Prestwick1_000241
Prestwick2_000241
Prestwick3_000241
SBB070242
SPBio_002241
Spectrum3_000727
Spectrum4_000795
Spectrum5_001279
Spectrum_001602
UNII-1U511HHV4Z
15Immunosuppressive AgentsPhase 1, Phase 213086
16AutoantibodiesPhase 1, Phase 2130
17Gastrointestinal AgentsPhase 1, Phase 28402
18AnalgesicsPhase 1, Phase 211733
19Antirheumatic AgentsPhase 1, Phase 210956
20Analgesics, Non-NarcoticPhase 1, Phase 26501
21Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-SteroidalPhase 1, Phase 24443
22Anti-Inflammatory AgentsPhase 1, Phase 210729
23Sodium Channel BlockersPhase 21593
24Diuretics, Potassium SparingPhase 21917
25Anti-Arrhythmia AgentsPhase 23093
26
Zincapproved22967440-66-632051, 23994
Synonyms:
30Zn
Cinc
Zinc
Zinc ion
 
Zincum
Zink
Zn
Zn(ii)
Zn2+
27
Prednisoloneapproved, vet_approved119350-24-85755
Synonyms:
(11beta)-11,17,21-Trihydroxypregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione
.DELTA.1-Cortisol
.DELTA.1-Dehydrocortisol
.DELTA.1-Dehydrohydrocortisone
.DELTA.1-Hydrocortisone
.delta.-Cortef
.delta.-Stab
1,2-Dehydrohydrocortisone
1,4-Pregnadiene-11beta,17alpha,21-triol-3,20-dione
1,4-Pregnadiene-3,20-dione-11beta,17alpha,21-triol
1-Dehydrocortisol
1-Dehydrohydrocortisone
3,20-dioxo-11beta,17alpha,21-Trihydroxy-1,4-pregnadiene
46656_FLUKA
46656_RIEDEL
50-24-8
58201-11-9
8056-11-9
AC-1773
AC1L1L2E
Ak-Pred
Ak-Tate
Alphadrol
Articulose-50
BPBio1_000164
BRD-K98039984-001-03-0
BRN 1354103
BSPBio_000148
Bio-0666
Bubbli-Pred
C07369
CCRIS 980
CHEBI:8378
CHEMBL131
CID5755
CO-Hydeltra
CPD000718761
Co-Hydeltra
Codelcortone
Cordrol
Cortalone
Cotogesic
Cotolone
D00472
D011239
DB00860
Decaprednil
Decortin H
Delcortol
Delta F
Delta(1)-dehydrohydrocortisone
Delta-Cortef
Delta-Cortef (TN)
Delta-Ef-Cortelan
Delta-Stab
Delta-stab
Deltacortenol
Deltacortril
Deltacortril Enteric
Deltahydrocortisone
Deltasolone
Deltisilone
Depo-Medrol
Derpo PD
Derpo Pd
Dexa-Cortidelt Hostacortin H
Dexa-Cortidelt hostacortin H
Di Adreson F
Di-Adreson F
Di-Adreson-F
Di-adreson F
DiAdresonF
Dicortol
Donisolone
Dydeltrone
EINECS 200-021-7
Eazolin D
Econopred
Econopred Plus
Erbacort
Erbasona
Estilsona
Fernisolone
Fernisolone P
Fernisolone-P
Flamasone
HMS1568H10
HMS2090J05
HSDB 3385
Hostacortin H
Hydeltra
Hydeltra-Tba
Hydeltrasol
Hydeltrone
Hydrodeltalone
Hydrodeltisone
Hydroretrocortin
Hydroretrocortine
I-Pred
Inflamase Forte
Inflamase Mild
K 1557
Key-Pred
Klismacort
LMST02030179
LS-7669
Lentosone
Lite Pred
M-Predrol
 
MLS001304083
MLS002154250
MLS002207037
Medrol
Medrol Acetate
Metacortandralone
Methylprednisolone Acetate
Meti-Derm
Meticortelone
Metreton
MolPort-002-507-147
NCGC00179649-01
NSC 9120
NSC9120
NSC9900
Neo-Delta-Cortef
Nisolone
Nor-Pred T.B.A.
Ocu-Pred
Ocu-Pred Forte
Ophtho-Tate
Orapred
P0152_SIGMA
P0637
P6004_SIGMA
PRDL
PRED-G
Panafcortelone
Paracortol
Paracotol
Pediapred
Poly-Pred
Precortalon
Precortancyl
Precortilon
Precortisyl
Pred Forte
Pred Mild
Predair
Predair A
Predair Forte
Predalone 50
Predalone T.B.A.
Predate
Predate Tba
Predate-50
Predcor-25
Predcor-50
Predcor-Tba
Predisolone Sodium Phosphate
Predne-Dome
Prednelan
Predni-Dome
Prednicen
Predniliderm
Predniretard
Prednis
Prednisolona
Prednisolona [INN-Spanish]
Prednisolone (JP15/USP/INN)
Prednisolone (anhydrous)
Prednisolone Acetate
Prednisolone Sodium Phosphate
Prednisolone Tebutate
Prednisolone [INN:BAN:JAN]
Prednisolonum
Prednisolonum [INN-Latin]
Predonin
Predonine
Prelone
Prenolone
Prestwick0_000274
Prestwick1_000274
Prestwick2_000274
Prestwick3_000274
Prestwick_404
Rolisone
S1737_Selleck
SAM002264639
SMR000718761
SPBio_002367
Scherisolon
Solone
Steran
Sterane
Sterolone
Supercortisol
UNII-9PHQ9Y1OLM
Ulacort
Ultra Pred
Ultracorten H
Ultracortene H
Ultracortene-H
Ultracortene-Hydrogen
Ultracortene-hydrogen
ZINC03833821
component of Ataraxoid
component of K-Predne-Dome
delta(1)-Cortisol
delta(1)-Dehydrocortisol
delta(1)-Dehydrohydrocortisone
delta(1)-Hydrocortisone
delta(sup 1)-Cortisol
delta(sup 1)-Dehydrocortisol
delta(sup 1)-Dehydrohydrocortisone
delta(sup 1)-Hydrocortisone
delta-dehydrocortisol
delta-dehydrohydrocortisone
delta-hydrocortisone
prednisolone
28
Cortisone acetateapproved691950-04-4, 50-04-45745
Synonyms:
 
Cortisyl
Cortone acetate
29
Methylprednisoloneapproved, vet_approved119383-43-26741
Synonyms:
(6S,8S,9S,10R,11S,13S,14S,17R)-11,17-dihydroxy-17-(2-hydroxyacetyl)-6,10,13-trimethyl-7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16-octahydro-6H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3-one
(6a,11b)-11,17,21-Trihydroxy-6-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione
(6alpha,11beta)-11,17,21-Trihydroxy-6-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione
(6α,11β)-11,17,21-trihydroxy-6-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione
.DELTA.1-6.alpha.-Methylhydrocortisone
1-Dehydro-6alpha-methylhydrocortisone
1-dehydro-6alpha-Methylhydrocortisone
1-dehydro-6α-methylhydrocortisone
11-beta,17,21-Trihydroxy-6-alpha-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione
11beta,17,21-Trihydroxy-6alpha-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione
11beta,17alpha,21-Trihydroxy-6alpha-methyl-1,4-pregnadiene-3,20-dione
11beta,17alpha,21-Trihydroxy-6alpha-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione
121673-01-6
4-08-00-03498 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)
46436_FLUKA
46436_RIEDEL
570-35-4
6 Methylprednisolone
6-Methylprednisolone
6-alpha-Methylprednisolone
6.alpha.-Methylprednisolone
6923-42-8
6alpha-Methyl-11beta,17alpha,21-trihydroxy-1,4-pregnadiene-3,20-dione
6alpha-Methyl-11beta,17alpha,21-triol-1,4-pregnadiene-3,20-dione
6alpha-Methylprednisolone
6alpha-methyl-11beta,17alpha,21-triol-1,4-pregnadiene-3,20-dione
83-43-2
AC1L1N7A
Artisone-Wyeth
Artisone-wyeth
BPBio1_000174
BRD-K35240538-001-03-1
BRN 2340300
BSPBio_000158
Besonia
Bio-0658
CHEBI:6888
CHEMBL650
CID6741
CPD000058330
D00407
D008775
DB00959
Depo-Medrol (acetate)
Dopomedrol
EINECS 201-476-4
Esametone
Firmacort
HMS1568H20
HMS2090B13
HSDB 3127
LMST02030178
LS-118498
Lemod
M0639_SIGMA
M1665
MEPRDL
MLS000028541
MLS001148159
MLS002207191
Medesone
Medixon
Medlone 21
 
Medrate
Medrol
Medrol (TN)
Medrol Adt Pak
Medrol Dosepak
Medrol adt pak
Medrol dosepak
Medrol, Solu-Medrol, Medrone, Methylprednisolone
Medrone
Mesopren
Metastab
Methyleneprednisolone
Methylprednisolon
Methylprednisolone
Methylprednisolone (JP15/USP/INN)
Methylprednisolone [USAN:INN:BAN:JAN]
Methylprednisolone, 6-alpha
Methylprednisolonum
Methylprednisolonum [INN-Latin]
Metilbetasone
Metilprednisolona
Metilprednisolona [INN-Spanish]
Metilprednisolone
Metilprednisolone [DCIT]
Metilprednisolone [Dcit]
Metipred
Metrisone
Metrocort
Metysolon
Moderin
MolPort-002-528-554
NCGC00022735-03
NCI60_001657
NSC-19987
NSC19987
Nirypan
Noretona
Predni N Tablinen
Prednol- L
Pregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione, 11beta,17,21-trihydroxy-6alpha-methyl- (8CI)
Prestwick0_000279
Prestwick1_000279
Prestwick2_000279
Prestwick3_000279
Prestwick_622
Promacortine
Reactenol
S1733_Selleck
SAM002589984
SMR000058330
SPBio_002377
Sieropresol
Solomet
Summicort
Suprametil
U 7532
UNII-X4W7ZR7023
Urbason
Urbasone
Wyacort
ZINC03875560
delta(1)-6alpha-Methylhydrocortisone
delta(sup 1)-6-alpha-Methylhydrocortisone
methylprednisolone
methylprenisolone
30
MentholapprovedEarly Phase 126062216-51-516666
Synonyms:
(−
()-Menthol
(+)-Neo-menthol
(+)-p-Menthan-3-ol
(+-)-(1R*,3R*,4S*)-Menthol
(+-)-Menthol
(+/-)-Menthol
(+/-)-p-Menthan-3-ol
(-)-(1R,3R,4S)-Menthol
(-)-Menthyl alcohol
(-)-menthol
(-)-p-Menthan-3-ol
(-)-trans-p-Menthan-cis-ol
(1R)-(-)-Menthol
(1R,2S,5R)-(-)-menthol
(1R,2S,5R)-Menthol
(1R,3R,4S)-(-)-MENTHOL
(1R,3R,4S)-(-)-Menthol
(1R-(1-alpha,2-beta,5-alpha))-5-Methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)cyclohexanol
(1S, 2S, 5R)-(+)-Neomenthol
(1S,2R,5R)-(+)-Isomenthol
(1S,2R,5S)-(+)-Menthol
(1S,2R,5S)-Menthol
(1alpha,2beta,5alpha)-5-Methyl-2(1-methylethyl)cyclohexanol
(1r,2s,5r)-(-)-menthol
(L)-MENTHOL
(R)-(-)-Menthol
(r)-(-)-menthol
)-Menthol
--MENTHOL
1-Menthol
1490-04-6
15356-60-2
15356-70-4
15785_RIEDEL
15785_SIAL
19863P
2-Isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanol
20747-49-3
2216-51-5
3-p-Menthol
4-Isopropyl-1-methylcyclohexan-3-ol
491-02-1
5-Methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-cyclohexanol
5-Methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)cyclohexanol
5-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)cyclohexanol
5-methyl-2-propan-2-ylcyclohexan-1-ol
551376_ALDRICH
551376_FLUKA
588733_ALDRICH
613290_ALDRICH
613290_FLUKA
63660_FLUKA
63670_ALDRICH
63670_FLUKA
63975-60-0
6C6A4A8C-A054-468C-A1F0-F29E39838CF2
89-78-1
98167-53-4
AC1L1B2E
AC1L28FR
AC1Q1NQ2
AC1Q2QQM
AI3-08161
AI3-52408
AKOS000119740
AR-1J3337
BB_NC-0057
BRN 1902288
BRN 3194263
BSPBio_003062
C00400
C10H20O
CCRIS 3728
CCRIS 375
CCRIS 4666
CCRIS 9231
CHEBI:15409
CHEBI:545611
CHEMBL256087
CHEMBL470670
CID1254
CID16666
Caswell No. 540
D-(-)-Menthol
D-p-Menthan-3-ol
D00064
D008610
D04849
D04918
DB00825
DivK1c_000820
EINECS 201-939-0
EINECS 207-724-8
EINECS 216-074-4
EINECS 218-690-9
EINECS 239-387-8
EINECS 239-388-3
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 051601
FEMA No. 2665
Fisherman's friend lozenges
Fisherman's friend lozenges (TN)
HMS1922G13
HMS2092L14
HMS502I22
 
HSDB 5662
HSDB 593
Headache crystals
Hexahydrothymol
I06-1216
I14-7371
IDI1_000820
KBio1_000820
KBio2_000785
KBio2_003353
KBio2_005921
KBio3_002562
KBioSS_000785
L-(-)-Menthol
L-(-)-menthol
L-Menthol
L-menthol
LMPR0102090001
LS-2353
LS-57201
LS-886
LS-89531
LS-89533
Levomenthol
Levomenthol [INN:BAN]
Levomentholum
Levomentholum [INN-Latin]
Levomentol
M0321
M0545
M2772_SIAL
MENTHOL
MLS002207256
Menthacamphor
Menthol
Menthol (USP)
Menthol (VAN)
Menthol natural
Menthol natural, brazilian
Menthol racemic
Menthol racemique
Menthol racemique [French]
Menthol solution
Menthol, (1alpha,2beta,5alpha)-Isomer
Menthomenthol
Menthyl alcohol
MolPort-000-849-729
MolPort-001-793-392
NCGC00159382-02
NCGC00159382-03
NCGC00164247-01
NCGC00164247-02
NCI-C50000
NINDS_000820
NOOLISFMXDJSKH-KXUCPTDWBX
NSC 2603
NSC 62788
NSC2603
NSC62788
Neoisomenthol
Peppermint camphor
RACEMIC MENTHOL U.S.P.
Racementhol
Racementhol [INN:BAN]
Racementholum
Racementholum [INN-Latin]
Racementol
Racementol [INN-Spanish]
Racemic menthol
Robitussin Cough Drops
SDCCGMLS-0066659.P001
SMR001306785
SPBio_000869
SPECTRUM1503134
STK802468
Spectrum2_000855
Spectrum3_001561
Spectrum5_001060
Spectrum_000305
Tra-kill tracheal mite killer
U.S.P. Menthol
U.S.p. Menthol
UNII-BZ1R15MTK7
UNII-L7T10EIP3A
UNII-YS08XHA860
W266507_ALDRICH
W266523_ALDRICH
W266590_ALDRICH
WLN: L6TJ AY1&1 BQ D1
WLN: L6TJ AY1&1 DQ D1 -L
ZINC01482164
cis-1 ,3-trans-1,4-(+-)-menthol
cis-1,3-trans-1,4-(+-)-menthol
d,l-Menthol
d-Menthol
d-Neomenthol
dl-3-p-Menthanol
dl-Menthol
dl-Menthol (JP15)
l-(-)-Menthol
l-Menthol
l-Menthol (JP15)
l-Menthol (TN)
l-Menthol (natural)
nchembio862-comp1
p-Menthan-3-ol
rac-Menthol
31Trace Elements6001
32Micronutrients6001
33Prednisolone acetate1193
34Prednisolone hemisuccinate1193
35Prednisolone phosphate1193
36Methylprednisolone acetate1193
37
Cortisone6953-06-5222786
Synonyms:
Andreson
Anusol HC
Balneol-Hc
Colocort
Compound E
Corlin
Cortadren
Cortandren
Cortef
Cortef Acetate
Cortisal
Cortisate
Cortison
Cortisone Acetate
Cortistal
Cortivite
Cortogen
Cortone
Cortril
Dermacort
Dricort
Flexicort
 
Florinef
Fludrocortisone Acetate
Glycort
Hemsol-Hc
Hi-Cor
Incortin
Kendall'S Compound E
Kendall'S compound
Locoid
Locoid Lipocream
Micort-Hc
Nogenic HC
Orabase HCA
Pandel
Prestwick_132
Reichstein Fa
Reichstein'S Substance FA
Scheroson
Solu-Cortef
Stie-Cort
Texacort
Westcort
beta-Hc
38Dihydroxyphenylalanine143
39Methylprednisolone Hemisuccinate1193
40Zinc SupplementNutraceutical32

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 39)
idNameStatusNCT IDPhase
1Efficacy and Safety Study of Meditoxin® to Treat Essential BlepharospasmCompletedNCT01259557Phase 4
2Comparison of Two Botulinum Type A Products in the Treatment of BlepharospasmCompletedNCT00761592Phase 4
3A Retrospective Chart Review of BOTOX® and Xeomin® for the Management of Cervical Dystonia and BlepharospasmCompletedNCT02245958Phase 4
4Efficacy of Aurosling in Frontalis Sling Suspension SurgeryCompletedNCT00753831Phase 4
5Post Marketing Surveillance Study of DysportCompletedNCT00210431Phase 4
6Comparison of Korean Botulinum Toxin Type A Versus Botox in the Treatment of Essential BlepharospasmCompletedNCT00682760Phase 3
7Therapeutic Confirmatory Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of "Hugeltox Inj." in Essential BlepharospasmCompletedNCT01791881Phase 3
8IncobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin) Versus Placebo in the Treatment of BlepharospasmCompletedNCT00406367Phase 3
9Efficacy and Safety Study of Botulinum Toxin Type A Against Placebo to Treat Abnormal Contraction or Twitch of the EyelidCompletedNCT01896895Phase 3
10Safety and Efficacy of NABOTA in Treatment of Essential BlepharospasmRecruitingNCT02947815Phase 2, Phase 3
11Evaluation of Botulinum Toxin Injection Efficacy in the Treatment of Head Essential TremorRecruitingNCT02555982Phase 3
12Effects of Botulinum Toxin Injections in Patients With Hereditary Spastic ParaplegiaActive, not recruitingNCT02604186Phase 2, Phase 3
13ASIS for Enbrel in Plaque PsoriasisUnknown statusNCT02112097Phase 1, Phase 2
14Study of a Single Administration of 3 Doses of Dysport® for the Treatment of Benign Essential BlepharospasmCompletedNCT00234507Phase 2
15A Study of Acetyl Hexapeptide-8 (AH8) in Treatment of BlepharospasmCompletedNCT00942851Phase 1, Phase 2
16Brain Stimulation to Treat Blepharospasm or Meige SyndromeCompletedNCT00411255Phase 2
17Mexiletine for the Treatment of Focal DystoniaCompletedNCT00001784Phase 2
18Deep Brain Stimulation in Patients With DystoniaCompletedNCT00773604Phase 1, Phase 2
19Blepharospasm Short IntervalTerminatedNCT00507637Phase 2
20Acetyl Hexapeptide-8 for BlepharospasmTerminatedNCT01750346Phase 2
21Comparison of Different Botulinum Toxin A Injection Patterns in the Treatment of BlepharospasmUnknown statusNCT02327728
22Influence of Gaze Shift and Emotions on Symptoms of BlepharospasmUnknown statusNCT01759745
23Testing the Effect of Zinc Supplementation to Improve the Treatment Effect of Botulinum Toxin for Oculofacial SpasmUnknown statusNCT01546805
24Trial Evaluating Xeomin® (incobotulinumtoxinA) for Cervical Dystonia or Blepharospasm in the United StatesCompletedNCT01287247
25Blepharospasm Patient Survey for Patients With BlepharospasmCompletedNCT01686061
26Brain Changes in BlepharospasmCompletedNCT00500799
27A Retrospective Chart Review of BOTOX® and Xeomin® for the Treatment of Cervical Dystonia and BlepharospasmCompletedNCT01814774
28Movement Disorder Survey in East ChinaCompletedNCT01168388
29MDs on Botox Utility (MOBILITY)CompletedNCT00535938
30Botulinum Toxin in the Treatment of Raynaud'sCompletedNCT01233999
31Cognitive Function and Emotional Possessing in Bilateral Facial PalsyCompletedNCT02179450
32Neurophysiological Markers in Patients With Craniofacial Dystonia and Their RelativesCompletedNCT00082615
33Blepharospasm ToolsRecruitingNCT02780336
34rTMS and Botulinum Toxin in Benign Essential BlepharospasmRecruitingNCT02370875
35The Dystonia Coalition Natural History and Biospecimen Repository for Isolated DystoniasRecruitingNCT01373424
36Botulinum Toxin A Versus Steroids for the Treatment of Chronic Plantar FasciitisRecruitingNCT02196155
37An RCT of a Patient-initiated Treatment Service for BEB and HFSActive, not recruitingNCT02577224
38Two Different Surgical Methods of BlepharospasmNot yet recruitingNCT02765113Early Phase 1
39Brain Changes in BlepharospasmTerminatedNCT00487383

Search NIH Clinical Center for Blepharospasm

Inferred drug relations via UMLS68/NDF-RT46:


Cochrane evidence based reviews: blepharospasm

Genetic Tests for Blepharospasm

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Genetic tests related to Blepharospasm:

id Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Blepharospasm27

Anatomical Context for Blepharospasm

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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Blepharospasm:

36
Eye, Brain, Thalamus, Caudate nucleus, Globus pallidus, Endothelial, Cortex

Publications for Blepharospasm

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Articles related to Blepharospasm:

(show top 50)    (show all 562)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Treatment of blepharospasm with apraclonidine. (28017248)
2017
2
Sensory tricks in primary blepharospasm and idiopathic cervical dystonia. (28488615)
2017
3
Language modulation of benign essential blepharospasm. (26990543)
2016
4
Comparison of Two Botulinum Neurotoxin A Injection Patterns with or without the Medial Lower Eyelid in the Treatment of Blepharospasm. (26885381)
2016
5
Erratum to: 'Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a patient-initiated botulinum toxin treatment model for blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm compared to standard care: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial'. (27439615)
2016
6
Photophobia in primary headaches, in essential blepharospasm and in major depression. (27580344)
2016
7
A novel ANO3 variant identified in a 53-year-old woman presenting with hyperkinetic dysarthria, blepharospasm, hyperkinesias, and complex motorA tics. (27919237)
2016
8
Screening for Cognitive Impairments in Primary Blepharospasm. (27526026)
2016
9
A cross-sectional structured survey of patients receiving botulinum toxin type A treatment for blepharospasm. (27423565)
2016
10
Frontalis suspension surgery to treat patients with blepharospasm and eyelid opening apraxia: long-term results. (27816991)
2016
11
Five-Year Retrospective Review of Cases with Benign Essential Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm Presenting in a Tertiary Eye Care Center in North India. (27078720)
2016
12
Edrophonium Challenge Test for Blepharospasm. (27375406)
2016
13
Orbicularis Oculi Myectomy as a Treatment for Blepharospasm in a Case of Schwartz Jampel Syndrome. (27621795)
2016
14
Role of GABAergic System in Blepharospasm. (27533531)
2016
15
Botulinum Toxin Treatment of Blepharospasm, Orofacial/Oromandibular Dystonia, and Hemifacial Spasm. (26866500)
2016
16
Blepharospasm: an uncommon adverse effect caused by long-term administration of olanzapine. (27658142)
2016
17
Sexual Well-Being in Patients with Blepharospasm, Spasmodic Torticollis, and Hemifacial Spasm: A Pilot Study. (27761118)
2016
18
Chewing-induced blepharospasm in Parkinson's disease. (27871438)
2016
19
Pallidal stimulation for medically intractable blepharospasm. (27033410)
2016
20
Cost-Effectiveness of Incobotulinumtoxin-A with Flexible Treatment Intervals Compared to Onabotulinumtoxin-A in the Management of Blepharospasm and Cervical Dystonia. (27021747)
2016
21
Alleviating Maneuvers for Benign Essential Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm. (27607413)
2016
22
Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a patient-initiated botulinum toxin treatment model for blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm compared to standard care: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. (26961367)
2016
23
Blepharospasm in a multiplex African-American pedigree. (26944167)
2016
24
Objective, computerized video-based rating of blepharospasm severity. (27770067)
2016
25
Blepharospasm: Update on Epidemiology, Clinical Aspects, and Pathophysiology. (27064462)
2016
26
Transcranial direct current stimulation for patients with benign essential blepharospasm: a case report. (27672032)
2016
27
Grey Matter Microstructural Integrity Alterations in Blepharospasm Are Partially Reversed by Botulinum Neurotoxin Therapy. (27992533)
2016
28
Role of GABAergic System in Blepharospasm: Response. (27533532)
2016
29
Practice guideline update summary: Botulinum neurotoxin for the treatment of blepharospasm, cervical dystonia, adult spasticity, and headache: Report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. (27164716)
2016
30
In vivo confocal microscopy of meibomian glands in primary blepharospasm: A prospective case-control study in a Chinese population. (27281086)
2016
31
Changes in ocular higher-order aberrations following botulinum toxin treatment in patients with blepharospasm : BTX improves dry eye in patients with BEB. (27503401)
2016
32
Prefrontal Hemodynamic Functions during a Verbal Fluency Task in Blepharospasm Using Multi-Channel NIRS. (26942579)
2016
33
Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease presenting as brainstem encephalitis with secondary blepharospasm. (26933369)
2016
34
Development and validation of a clinical scale for rating the severity of Blepharospasm. (25847472)
2015
35
Systematic Literature Review of AbobotulinumtoxinA in Clinical Trials for Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm. (26566457)
2015
36
Botulinum toxin in the management of blepharospasm: current evidence and recent developments. (25922620)
2015
37
Sun exposure is an environmental factor for the development of blepharospasm. (25904812)
2015
38
Clinical Analysis of Patients with Primary Blepharospasm: A Report of 100 Cases in China. (25997849)
2015
39
Benign Essential Blepharospasm is a Disorder of Neuroplasticity: Lessons From Animal Models. (26576017)
2015
40
Corneal and Tear Film Changes After Botulinum Toxin-A in Blepharospasm or Hemifacial Spasm. (26075455)
2015
41
Clinical outcomes of individualized botulinum neurotoxin type a injection techniques in patients with essential blepharospasm. (25829828)
2015
42
Cost-Effectiveness of Incobotulinumtoxin-A With Flexible Treatment Intervals Compared to Onabotulinumtoxin-A In The Management of Blepharospasm And Cervical Dystonia. (26534253)
2015
43
Benign Essential Blepharospasm-There Is More to It Than Just Blinking. (26576018)
2015
44
Blepharospasm in children and adolescents. (26510653)
2015
45
Treatment of Blepharospasm in Schwartz-Jampel Syndrome: Botulinum Toxin A Injection or Surgery. (26020714)
2015
46
Changes in corneal aesthesiometry and the sub-basal nerve plexus in benign essential blepharospasm. (25904123)
2015
47
A Survey of Current Blepharospasm Treatment Patterns Among Oculoplastic Surgeons. (25811162)
2015
48
Clinical categorization of psychogenic blepharospasm. (25558013)
2015
49
Blepharospasm in familial AD secondary to an APP mutation (V715M). (24677022)
2014
50
Botulinum toxin and blink rate in patients with blepharospasm and increased blinking. (24963123)
2014

Variations for Blepharospasm

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Expression for genes affiliated with Blepharospasm

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Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Blepharospasm.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Blepharospasm

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GO Terms for genes affiliated with Blepharospasm

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Biological processes related to Blepharospasm according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1chaperone-mediated protein transportGO:007232110.0TIMM8A, TOR1A
2activation of adenylate cyclase activityGO:000719010.0DRD5, GNAL
3adenylate cyclase-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathwayGO:000719110.0DRD5, GNAL
4adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathwayGO:00071899.9DRD5, GNAL
5negative regulation of blood pressureGO:00457769.3DRD5, GCH1

Sources for Blepharospasm

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2CDC
6CNVD
10DGIdb
15ExPASy
16FDA
17FMA
27GTR
28HGMD
29HMDB
30ICD10
31ICD10 via Orphanet
32ICD9CM
33IUPHAR
34KEGG
37MedGen
39MeSH
40MESH via Orphanet
41MGI
44NCI
45NCIt
46NDF-RT
49NINDS
50Novoseek
52OMIM
53OMIM via Orphanet
57PubMed
58QIAGEN
63SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67Tumor Gene Family of Databases
68UMLS
69UMLS via Orphanet