MCID: BLP003
MIFTS: 43

Blepharospasm malady

Categories: Genetic diseases, Rare diseases, Neuronal diseases, Eye diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Blepharospasm

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Aliases & Descriptions for Blepharospasm:

Name: Blepharospasm 11 46 47 13 25 48 37
Benign Essential Blepharospasm 46 24 47 66
Essential Blepharospasm 24
Primary Blepharospasm 24
 
Eyelid Twitching 24
Spasm of Eyelids 24
Beb 46

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology11 DOID:529
ICD1028 G24.5
ICD9CM30 333.81
MeSH37 D001764
NCIt43 C118723

Summaries for Blepharospasm

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NINDS:47 Benign essential blepharospasm (BEB) is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions and spasms of the eyelid muscles. It is a form of a movement disorder in which muscle contractions cause sustained eyelid closure, twitching or repetitive movements. BEB begins gradually with increased frequency of eye blinking often associated with eye irritation. Other symptoms may include increasing difficulty in keeping the eyes open, and light sensitivity. Generally, the spasms occur during the day, disappear in sleep, and reappear after waking. As the condition progresses, the spasms may intensify, forcing the eyelids to remain closed for long periods of time, and thereby causing substantial visual disturbance or functional blindness. It is important to note that the blindness is caused solely by the uncontrollable closing of the eyelids and not by a dysfunction of the eyes. BEB occurs in both men and women, although it is especially common in middle-aged and elderly women.

MalaCards based summary: Blepharospasm, also known as benign essential blepharospasm, is related to oromandibular dystonia and cervical dystonia. An important gene associated with Blepharospasm is DRD5 (Dopamine Receptor D5). Affiliated tissues include eye, brain and testes.

Disease Ontology:11 A focal dystonia that is characterized by the involuntary, forcible contraction of the muscles controlling eye blinks.

NIH Rare Diseases:46 Benign essential blepharospasm is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions and spasms of the eyelid muscles. it is a form of dystonia, a movement disorder in which muscle contractions cause sustained eyelid closure, twitching or repetitive movements. benign essential blepharospasm occurs in both men and women, although it is especially common in middle-aged and elderly women. most cases are treated with botulinum toxin injections. the exact cause of benign essential blepharospasm is unknown. last updated: 7/22/2009

Wikipedia:69 Blepharospasm is any abnormal contraction or twitch of the eyelid. In most cases, symptoms last for a... more...

Related Diseases for Blepharospasm

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Diseases in the Blepharospasm family:

Blepharospasm, Primary Benign

Diseases related to Blepharospasm via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 80)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1oromandibular dystonia30.2DRD5, THAP1, TOR1A
2cervical dystonia30.0GCH1, THAP1, TOR1A
3hemidystonia29.1GNAL, THAP1, TOR1A
4blepharospasm, primary benign12.2
5meige syndrome11.8
6hemifacial spasm10.6
7dystonia10.6
8cervicitis10.4
9apraxia10.2
10limbic encephalitis10.2TIMM8A, TOR1A
11aberrant subclavian artery10.1THAP1, TOR1A
12x-linked dystonia-parkinsonism/lubag10.0THAP1, TOR1A
13multifocal dystonia10.0THAP1, TOR1A
14ptosis10.0
15bell's palsy10.0
16strabismus10.0
17aceruloplasminemia9.9
18vernal keratoconjunctivitis9.9
19myasthenia gravis9.9
20focal dystonia9.9
21headache9.9
22myoclonus9.9
23tremor9.9
24schizophrenia9.8
25multiple system atrophy9.8
26entropion9.8
27spasticity9.8
28thiamine metabolism dysfunction syndrome 29.8GCH1, TOR1A
29uterine ligament clear cell adenocarcinoma9.7DRD5, HSPG2
30systemic lupus erythematosus9.7
31cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis9.7
32essential tremor9.7
33obsessive-compulsive disorder9.7
34mohr-tranebjaerg syndrome9.7
35hydrocephalus9.7
36keratopathy9.7
37angiosarcoma9.7
38vitamin b12 deficiency9.7
39basal ganglia calcification9.7
40scoliosis9.7
41endothelial dystrophy9.7
42blepharophimosis9.7
43tetanus9.7
44fuchs' endothelial dystrophy9.7
45astigmatism9.7
46spastic entropion9.7
47olivopontocerebellar atrophy9.7
48ectropion9.7
49communicating hydrocephalus9.7
50bardet-biedl syndrome9.7

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Blepharospasm:



Diseases related to blepharospasm

Symptoms for Blepharospasm

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Drugs & Therapeutics for Blepharospasm

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Drugs for Blepharospasm (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 11)
idNameStatusPhaseClinical TrialsCas NumberPubChem Id
1
SiliconPhase 4887440-21-34082203
Synonyms:
Si
 
Silica
Silicate
Silicic acid
2
AcetylcholinePhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 275251-84-3187
Synonyms:
ACh
Acetyl choline ion
Acetylcholine Chloride
Acetylcholine cation
 
Acetylcholinium: acetyl-Choline
Choline acetate
Choline acetate (ester)
O-Acetylcholine
acetylcholine chloride
3
MexiletinePhase 22031828-71-44178
Synonyms:
(+-)-1-(2,6-Dimethylphenoxy)propan-2-amine
(+-)-1-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)propan-2-amine
(2RS)-1-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)-2-aminopropane
1-(2',6'-Dimethylphenoxy)-2-aminopropane
1-(2,6-Dimethylphenoxy)-2-propanamine
1-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)propan-2-amine
1-Methyl-2-(2,6-xylyloxy)ethanamine
1-Methyl-2-(2,6-xylyloxy)ethylamine
1-methyl-2-(2,6-xylyloxy)ethanamine
2-(2-Aminopropoxy)-1,3-DiMethyl-Benzene Hydrochloride
2-(2-aminopropoxy)-1,3-dimethylbenzene
31828-71-4
5370-01-4 (hydrochloride)
AB00053683
AC1L1HL7
AC1Q2BC5
AC1Q2BC6
BPBio1_000026
BRD-A64092382-003-04-3
BRN 2092205
BSPBio_000022
BSPBio_002254
C07220
CHEBI:115958
CHEBI:6916
CHEMBL558
CID4178
D08215
DB00379
DivK1c_000834
EINECS 250-825-7
I01-6374
IDI1_000834
KBio1_000834
KBio2_002082
KBio2_004650
 
KBio2_007218
KBio3_001474
KBioGR_001270
KBioSS_002082
KO-1173
KO1173
KOE-1173
LS-68257
Lopac0_000784
Mexiletene
Mexiletina
Mexiletina [INN-Spanish]
Mexiletine
Mexiletine (INN)
Mexiletine HCL
Mexiletine [INN:BAN]
Mexiletinum
Mexiletinum [INN-Latin]
Mexilitine
Mexilétine
Mexitil
Mexityl
MolPort-001-790-944
NCGC00015659-04
NCGC00162253-01
NCGC00162253-02
NINDS_000834
Prestwick0_000241
Prestwick1_000241
Prestwick2_000241
Prestwick3_000241
SBB070242
SPBio_002241
Spectrum3_000727
Spectrum4_000795
Spectrum5_001279
Spectrum_001602
UNII-1U511HHV4Z
4
EtanerceptPhase 1, Phase 2391185243-69-0
Synonyms:
185243-69-0
CD120b
D00742
Enbrel
Enbrel (TN)
Enbrel Sureclick
Etanercept
Etanercept (USAN/INN)
 
Etanercept (genetical recombination)
Etanercept (genetical recombination) (JAN)
TNF-R2
Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2
Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1B precursor
Tumor necrosis factor receptor type II
etanercept
p75
p80 TNF-alpha receptor
5
Prednisolone111850-24-85755
Synonyms:
(11beta)-11,17,21-Trihydroxypregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione
.DELTA.1-Cortisol
.DELTA.1-Dehydrocortisol
.DELTA.1-Dehydrohydrocortisone
.DELTA.1-Hydrocortisone
.delta.-Cortef
.delta.-Stab
1,2-Dehydrohydrocortisone
1,4-Pregnadiene-11beta,17alpha,21-triol-3,20-dione
1,4-Pregnadiene-3,20-dione-11beta,17alpha,21-triol
1-Dehydrocortisol
1-Dehydrohydrocortisone
3,20-dioxo-11beta,17alpha,21-Trihydroxy-1,4-pregnadiene
46656_FLUKA
46656_RIEDEL
50-24-8
58201-11-9
8056-11-9
AC-1773
AC1L1L2E
Ak-Pred
Ak-Tate
Alphadrol
Articulose-50
BPBio1_000164
BRD-K98039984-001-03-0
BRN 1354103
BSPBio_000148
Bio-0666
Bubbli-Pred
C07369
CCRIS 980
CHEBI:8378
CHEMBL131
CID5755
CO-Hydeltra
CPD000718761
Co-Hydeltra
Codelcortone
Cordrol
Cortalone
Cotogesic
Cotolone
D00472
D011239
DB00860
Decaprednil
Decortin H
Delcortol
Delta F
Delta(1)-dehydrohydrocortisone
Delta-Cortef
Delta-Cortef (TN)
Delta-Ef-Cortelan
Delta-Stab
Delta-stab
Deltacortenol
Deltacortril
Deltacortril Enteric
Deltahydrocortisone
Deltasolone
Deltisilone
Depo-Medrol
Derpo PD
Derpo Pd
Dexa-Cortidelt Hostacortin H
Dexa-Cortidelt hostacortin H
Di Adreson F
Di-Adreson F
Di-Adreson-F
Di-adreson F
DiAdresonF
Dicortol
Donisolone
Dydeltrone
EINECS 200-021-7
Eazolin D
Econopred
Econopred Plus
Erbacort
Erbasona
Estilsona
Fernisolone
Fernisolone P
Fernisolone-P
Flamasone
HMS1568H10
HMS2090J05
HSDB 3385
Hostacortin H
Hydeltra
Hydeltra-Tba
Hydeltrasol
Hydeltrone
Hydrodeltalone
Hydrodeltisone
Hydroretrocortin
Hydroretrocortine
I-Pred
Inflamase Forte
Inflamase Mild
K 1557
Key-Pred
Klismacort
LMST02030179
LS-7669
Lentosone
Lite Pred
M-Predrol
 
MLS001304083
MLS002154250
MLS002207037
Medrol
Medrol Acetate
Metacortandralone
Methylprednisolone Acetate
Meti-Derm
Meticortelone
Metreton
MolPort-002-507-147
NCGC00179649-01
NSC 9120
NSC9120
NSC9900
Neo-Delta-Cortef
Nisolone
Nor-Pred T.B.A.
Ocu-Pred
Ocu-Pred Forte
Ophtho-Tate
Orapred
P0152_SIGMA
P0637
P6004_SIGMA
PRDL
PRED-G
Panafcortelone
Paracortol
Paracotol
Pediapred
Poly-Pred
Precortalon
Precortancyl
Precortilon
Precortisyl
Pred Forte
Pred Mild
Predair
Predair A
Predair Forte
Predalone 50
Predalone T.B.A.
Predate
Predate Tba
Predate-50
Predcor-25
Predcor-50
Predcor-Tba
Predisolone Sodium Phosphate
Predne-Dome
Prednelan
Predni-Dome
Prednicen
Predniliderm
Predniretard
Prednis
Prednisolona
Prednisolona [INN-Spanish]
Prednisolone (JP15/USP/INN)
Prednisolone (anhydrous)
Prednisolone Acetate
Prednisolone Sodium Phosphate
Prednisolone Tebutate
Prednisolone [INN:BAN:JAN]
Prednisolonum
Prednisolonum [INN-Latin]
Predonin
Predonine
Prelone
Prenolone
Prestwick0_000274
Prestwick1_000274
Prestwick2_000274
Prestwick3_000274
Prestwick_404
Rolisone
S1737_Selleck
SAM002264639
SMR000718761
SPBio_002367
Scherisolon
Solone
Steran
Sterane
Sterolone
Supercortisol
UNII-9PHQ9Y1OLM
Ulacort
Ultra Pred
Ultracorten H
Ultracortene H
Ultracortene-H
Ultracortene-Hydrogen
Ultracortene-hydrogen
ZINC03833821
component of Ataraxoid
component of K-Predne-Dome
delta(1)-Cortisol
delta(1)-Dehydrocortisol
delta(1)-Dehydrohydrocortisone
delta(1)-Hydrocortisone
delta(sup 1)-Cortisol
delta(sup 1)-Dehydrocortisol
delta(sup 1)-Dehydrohydrocortisone
delta(sup 1)-Hydrocortisone
delta-dehydrocortisol
delta-dehydrohydrocortisone
delta-hydrocortisone
prednisolone
6PREDNISOLONE ACETATE1118
7
Cortisone acetate601950-04-4, 50-04-45745
Synonyms:
 
Cortisyl
Cortone acetate
8
Methylprednisolone111883-43-26741
Synonyms:
(6S,8S,9S,10R,11S,13S,14S,17R)-11,17-dihydroxy-17-(2-hydroxyacetyl)-6,10,13-trimethyl-7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16-octahydro-6H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3-one
(6a,11b)-11,17,21-Trihydroxy-6-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione
(6alpha,11beta)-11,17,21-Trihydroxy-6-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione
(6α,11β)-11,17,21-trihydroxy-6-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione
.DELTA.1-6.alpha.-Methylhydrocortisone
1-Dehydro-6alpha-methylhydrocortisone
1-dehydro-6alpha-Methylhydrocortisone
1-dehydro-6α-methylhydrocortisone
11-beta,17,21-Trihydroxy-6-alpha-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione
11beta,17,21-Trihydroxy-6alpha-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione
11beta,17alpha,21-Trihydroxy-6alpha-methyl-1,4-pregnadiene-3,20-dione
11beta,17alpha,21-Trihydroxy-6alpha-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione
121673-01-6
4-08-00-03498 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)
46436_FLUKA
46436_RIEDEL
570-35-4
6 Methylprednisolone
6-Methylprednisolone
6-alpha-Methylprednisolone
6.alpha.-Methylprednisolone
6923-42-8
6alpha-Methyl-11beta,17alpha,21-trihydroxy-1,4-pregnadiene-3,20-dione
6alpha-Methyl-11beta,17alpha,21-triol-1,4-pregnadiene-3,20-dione
6alpha-Methylprednisolone
6alpha-methyl-11beta,17alpha,21-triol-1,4-pregnadiene-3,20-dione
83-43-2
AC1L1N7A
Artisone-Wyeth
Artisone-wyeth
BPBio1_000174
BRD-K35240538-001-03-1
BRN 2340300
BSPBio_000158
Besonia
Bio-0658
CHEBI:6888
CHEMBL650
CID6741
CPD000058330
D00407
D008775
DB00959
Depo-Medrol (acetate)
Dopomedrol
EINECS 201-476-4
Esametone
Firmacort
HMS1568H20
HMS2090B13
HSDB 3127
LMST02030178
LS-118498
Lemod
M0639_SIGMA
M1665
MEPRDL
MLS000028541
MLS001148159
MLS002207191
Medesone
Medixon
Medlone 21
 
Medrate
Medrol
Medrol (TN)
Medrol Adt Pak
Medrol Dosepak
Medrol adt pak
Medrol dosepak
Medrol, Solu-Medrol, Medrone, Methylprednisolone
Medrone
Mesopren
Metastab
Methyleneprednisolone
Methylprednisolon
Methylprednisolone
Methylprednisolone (JP15/USP/INN)
Methylprednisolone [USAN:INN:BAN:JAN]
Methylprednisolone, 6-alpha
Methylprednisolonum
Methylprednisolonum [INN-Latin]
Metilbetasone
Metilprednisolona
Metilprednisolona [INN-Spanish]
Metilprednisolone
Metilprednisolone [DCIT]
Metilprednisolone [Dcit]
Metipred
Metrisone
Metrocort
Metysolon
Moderin
MolPort-002-528-554
NCGC00022735-03
NCI60_001657
NSC-19987
NSC19987
Nirypan
Noretona
Predni N Tablinen
Prednol- L
Pregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione, 11beta,17,21-trihydroxy-6alpha-methyl- (8CI)
Prestwick0_000279
Prestwick1_000279
Prestwick2_000279
Prestwick3_000279
Prestwick_622
Promacortine
Reactenol
S1733_Selleck
SAM002589984
SMR000058330
SPBio_002377
Sieropresol
Solomet
Summicort
Suprametil
U 7532
UNII-X4W7ZR7023
Urbason
Urbasone
Wyacort
ZINC03875560
delta(1)-6alpha-Methylhydrocortisone
delta(sup 1)-6-alpha-Methylhydrocortisone
methylprednisolone
methylprenisolone
9
cortisone6053-06-5222786
Synonyms:
Andreson
Anusol HC
Balneol-Hc
Colocort
Compound E
Corlin
Cortadren
Cortandren
Cortef
Cortef Acetate
Cortisal
Cortisate
Cortison
Cortisone Acetate
Cortistal
Cortivite
Cortogen
Cortone
Cortril
Dermacort
Dricort
Flexicort
 
Florinef
Fludrocortisone Acetate
Glycort
Hemsol-Hc
Hi-Cor
Incortin
Kendall'S Compound E
Kendall'S compound
Locoid
Locoid Lipocream
Micort-Hc
Nogenic HC
Orabase HCA
Pandel
Prestwick_132
Reichstein Fa
Reichstein'S Substance FA
Scheroson
Solu-Cortef
Stie-Cort
Texacort
Westcort
beta-Hc
10
Zinc21547440-66-632051, 23994
Synonyms:
30Zn
Cinc
Zinc
Zinc ion
 
Zincum
Zink
Zn
Zn(ii)
Zn2+
11
MentholPhase 021842216-51-516666
Synonyms:
(−
()-Menthol
(+)-Neo-menthol
(+)-p-Menthan-3-ol
(+-)-(1R*,3R*,4S*)-Menthol
(+-)-Menthol
(+/-)-Menthol
(+/-)-p-Menthan-3-ol
(-)-(1R,3R,4S)-Menthol
(-)-Menthyl alcohol
(-)-menthol
(-)-p-Menthan-3-ol
(-)-trans-p-Menthan-cis-ol
(1R)-(-)-Menthol
(1R,2S,5R)-(-)-menthol
(1R,2S,5R)-Menthol
(1R,3R,4S)-(-)-MENTHOL
(1R,3R,4S)-(-)-Menthol
(1R-(1-alpha,2-beta,5-alpha))-5-Methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)cyclohexanol
(1S, 2S, 5R)-(+)-Neomenthol
(1S,2R,5R)-(+)-Isomenthol
(1S,2R,5S)-(+)-Menthol
(1S,2R,5S)-Menthol
(1alpha,2beta,5alpha)-5-Methyl-2(1-methylethyl)cyclohexanol
(1r,2s,5r)-(-)-menthol
(L)-MENTHOL
(R)-(-)-Menthol
(r)-(-)-menthol
)-Menthol
--MENTHOL
1-Menthol
1490-04-6
15356-60-2
15356-70-4
15785_RIEDEL
15785_SIAL
19863P
2-Isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanol
20747-49-3
2216-51-5
3-p-Menthol
4-Isopropyl-1-methylcyclohexan-3-ol
491-02-1
5-Methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)-cyclohexanol
5-Methyl-2-(1-methylethyl)cyclohexanol
5-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)cyclohexanol
5-methyl-2-propan-2-ylcyclohexan-1-ol
551376_ALDRICH
551376_FLUKA
588733_ALDRICH
613290_ALDRICH
613290_FLUKA
63660_FLUKA
63670_ALDRICH
63670_FLUKA
63975-60-0
6C6A4A8C-A054-468C-A1F0-F29E39838CF2
89-78-1
98167-53-4
AC1L1B2E
AC1L28FR
AC1Q1NQ2
AC1Q2QQM
AI3-08161
AI3-52408
AKOS000119740
AR-1J3337
BB_NC-0057
BRN 1902288
BRN 3194263
BSPBio_003062
C00400
C10H20O
CCRIS 3728
CCRIS 375
CCRIS 4666
CCRIS 9231
CHEBI:15409
CHEBI:545611
CHEMBL256087
CHEMBL470670
CID1254
CID16666
Caswell No. 540
D-(-)-Menthol
D-p-Menthan-3-ol
D00064
D008610
D04849
D04918
DB00825
DivK1c_000820
EINECS 201-939-0
EINECS 207-724-8
EINECS 216-074-4
EINECS 218-690-9
EINECS 239-387-8
EINECS 239-388-3
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 051601
FEMA No. 2665
Fisherman's friend lozenges
Fisherman's friend lozenges (TN)
HMS1922G13
HMS2092L14
HMS502I22
 
HSDB 5662
HSDB 593
Headache crystals
Hexahydrothymol
I06-1216
I14-7371
IDI1_000820
KBio1_000820
KBio2_000785
KBio2_003353
KBio2_005921
KBio3_002562
KBioSS_000785
L-(-)-Menthol
L-(-)-menthol
L-Menthol
L-menthol
LMPR0102090001
LS-2353
LS-57201
LS-886
LS-89531
LS-89533
Levomenthol
Levomenthol [INN:BAN]
Levomentholum
Levomentholum [INN-Latin]
Levomentol
M0321
M0545
M2772_SIAL
MENTHOL
MLS002207256
Menthacamphor
Menthol
Menthol (USP)
Menthol (VAN)
Menthol natural
Menthol natural, brazilian
Menthol racemic
Menthol racemique
Menthol racemique [French]
Menthol solution
Menthol, (1alpha,2beta,5alpha)-Isomer
Menthomenthol
Menthyl alcohol
MolPort-000-849-729
MolPort-001-793-392
NCGC00159382-02
NCGC00159382-03
NCGC00164247-01
NCGC00164247-02
NCI-C50000
NINDS_000820
NOOLISFMXDJSKH-KXUCPTDWBX
NSC 2603
NSC 62788
NSC2603
NSC62788
Neoisomenthol
Peppermint camphor
RACEMIC MENTHOL U.S.P.
Racementhol
Racementhol [INN:BAN]
Racementholum
Racementholum [INN-Latin]
Racementol
Racementol [INN-Spanish]
Racemic menthol
Robitussin Cough Drops
SDCCGMLS-0066659.P001
SMR001306785
SPBio_000869
SPECTRUM1503134
STK802468
Spectrum2_000855
Spectrum3_001561
Spectrum5_001060
Spectrum_000305
Tra-kill tracheal mite killer
U.S.P. Menthol
U.S.p. Menthol
UNII-BZ1R15MTK7
UNII-L7T10EIP3A
UNII-YS08XHA860
W266507_ALDRICH
W266523_ALDRICH
W266590_ALDRICH
WLN: L6TJ AY1&1 BQ D1
WLN: L6TJ AY1&1 DQ D1 -L
ZINC01482164
cis-1 ,3-trans-1,4-(+-)-menthol
cis-1,3-trans-1,4-(+-)-menthol
d,l-Menthol
d-Menthol
d-Neomenthol
dl-3-p-Menthanol
dl-Menthol
dl-Menthol (JP15)
l-(-)-Menthol
l-Menthol
l-Menthol (JP15)
l-Menthol (TN)
l-Menthol (natural)
nchembio862-comp1
p-Menthan-3-ol
rac-Menthol

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 38)
idNameStatusNCT IDPhase
1Efficacy and Safety Study of Meditoxin® to Treat Essential BlepharospasmCompletedNCT01259557Phase 4
2Comparison of Two Botulinum Type A Products in the Treatment of BlepharospasmCompletedNCT00761592Phase 4
3A Retrospective Chart Review of BOTOX® and Xeomin® for the Management of Cervical Dystonia and BlepharospasmCompletedNCT02245958Phase 4
4Post Marketing Surveillance Study of DysportCompletedNCT00210431Phase 4
5Efficacy of Aurosling in Frontalis Sling Suspension SurgeryCompletedNCT00753831Phase 4
6Comparison of Korean Botulinum Toxin Type A Versus Botox in the Treatment of Essential BlepharospasmCompletedNCT00682760Phase 3
7IncobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin) Versus Placebo in the Treatment of BlepharospasmCompletedNCT00406367Phase 3
8Therapeutic Confirmatory Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of "Hugeltox Inj." in Essential BlepharospasmCompletedNCT01791881Phase 3
9Evaluation of Botulinum Toxin Injection Efficacy in the Treatment of Head Essential TremorRecruitingNCT02555982Phase 3
10Efficacy and Safety Study of Botulinum Toxin Type A Against Placebo to Treat Abnormal Contraction or Twitch of the EyelidActive, not recruitingNCT01896895Phase 3
11Effects of Botulinum Toxin Injections in Patients With Hereditary Spastic ParaplegiaActive, not recruitingNCT02604186Phase 2, Phase 3
12Study of a Single Administration of 3 Doses of Dysport® for the Treatment of Benign Essential BlepharospasmCompletedNCT00234507Phase 2
13A Study of Acetyl Hexapeptide-8 (AH8) in Treatment of BlepharospasmCompletedNCT00942851Phase 1, Phase 2
14Brain Stimulation to Treat Blepharospasm or Meige SyndromeCompletedNCT00411255Phase 2
15Mexiletine for the Treatment of Focal DystoniaCompletedNCT00001784Phase 2
16Deep Brain Stimulation in Patients With DystoniaCompletedNCT00773604Phase 1, Phase 2
17ASIS for Enbrel in Plaque PsoriasisNot yet recruitingNCT02112097Phase 1, Phase 2
18Acetyl Hexapeptide-8 for BlepharospasmTerminatedNCT01750346Phase 2
19Blepharospasm Short IntervalTerminatedNCT00507637Phase 2
20Trial Evaluating Xeomin® (incobotulinumtoxinA) for Cervical Dystonia or Blepharospasm in the United StatesCompletedNCT01287247
21Brain Changes in BlepharospasmCompletedNCT00500799
22Blepharospasm Patient Survey for Patients With BlepharospasmCompletedNCT01686061
23A Retrospective Chart Review of BOTOX® and Xeomin® for the Treatment of Cervical Dystonia and BlepharospasmCompletedNCT01814774
24MDs on Botox Utility (MOBILITY)CompletedNCT00535938
25Movement Disorder Survey in East ChinaCompletedNCT01168388
26Cognitive Function and Emotional Possessing in Bilateral Facial PalsyCompletedNCT02179450
27Neurophysiological Markers in Patients With Craniofacial Dystonia and Their RelativesCompletedNCT00082615
28Botulinum Toxin in the Treatment of Raynaud'sCompletedNCT01233999
29Blepharospasm ToolsRecruitingNCT02780336
30Comparison of Different Botulinum Toxin A Injection Patterns in the Treatment of BlepharospasmRecruitingNCT02327728
31rTMS and Botulinum Toxin in Benign Essential BlepharospasmRecruitingNCT02370875
32An RCT of a Patient-initiated Treatment Service for BEB and HFSRecruitingNCT02577224
33The Dystonia Coalition Natural History and Biospecimen Repository for Isolated DystoniasRecruitingNCT01373424
34Botulinum Toxin A Versus Steroids for the Treatment of Chronic Plantar FasciitisRecruitingNCT02196155
35Two Different Surgical Methods of BlepharospasmNot yet recruitingNCT02765113Phase 0
36Influence of Gaze Shift and Emotions on Symptoms of BlepharospasmNot yet recruitingNCT01759745
37Testing the Effect of Zinc Supplementation to Improve the Treatment Effect of Botulinum Toxin for Oculofacial SpasmNot yet recruitingNCT01546805
38Brain Changes in BlepharospasmTerminatedNCT00487383

Search NIH Clinical Center for Blepharospasm


Cochrane evidence based reviews: blepharospasm

Genetic Tests for Blepharospasm

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Genetic tests related to Blepharospasm:

id Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Blepharospasm25

Anatomical Context for Blepharospasm

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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Blepharospasm:

34
Eye, Brain, Testes, Thalamus, Caudate nucleus, Globus pallidus, Endothelial

Animal Models for Blepharospasm or affiliated genes

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Publications for Blepharospasm

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Articles related to Blepharospasm:

(show top 50)    (show all 552)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Alleviating Maneuvers for Benign Essential Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm. (27607413)
2016
2
Clinical Analysis of Patients with Primary Blepharospasm: A Report of 100 Cases in China. (25997849)
2015
3
Cost-Effectiveness of Incobotulinumtoxin-A With Flexible Treatment Intervals Compared to Onabotulinumtoxin-A In The Management of Blepharospasm And Cervical Dystonia. (26534253)
2015
4
Blink reflex studies in postparalytic facial syndrome and blepharospasm: trigeminal and extratrigeminal somatosensory stimulation. (25462139)
2014
5
Mosapride (5HT4 agonist) in the treatment of blepharospasm. (24682196)
2014
6
A case of Bell's palsy associated with blepharospasm. (22494605)
2013
7
Variability in the duration of the onset of idiopathic Parkinson's disease after essential blepharospasm. (23605608)
2013
8
Comparison of preferences between onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox) and incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin) in the treatment of benign essential blepharospasm. (23552607)
2013
9
Long-term efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin a injections to treat blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. (23844601)
2013
10
Quantification of macular carotenoids using autofluorescence imaging in patients with photosensitive migraine and benign essential blepharospasm. (22332230)
2012
11
In the wink of an eye: nature and nurture in blepharospasm. (21775742)
2011
12
Upper lid orbicularis oculi muscle strip and sequential brow suspension with autologous fascia lata is beneficial for selected patients with essential blepharospasm. (18927593)
2009
13
A double-blind, randomized, crossover study of prosigne versus botox in patients with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. (17272968)
2007
14
Staged deep brain stimulation for refractory craniofacial dystonia with blepharospasm: case report and physiology. (15670394)
2005
15
Botulinum toxin type A therapy for blepharospasm. (15674969)
2005
16
Botulinum toxin a in the treatment of blepharospasm: a 10-year experience. (16100966)
2005
17
Blepharospasm associated with olanzapine: a case report. (15363484)
2004
18
Cannabinoid agonists in the treatment of blepharospasm--a case report study. (15159681)
2004
19
Botulinum toxin type B in blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. (12700325)
2003
20
Treatment of essential blepharospasm with quetiapine. (14502683)
2003
21
Botulinum toxin improves lid opening delays in blepharospasm-associated apraxia of lid opening. (12084888)
2002
22
Menopause and menarche in patients with primary blepharospasm: an exploratory case-control study. (11914554)
2002
23
Ganglioglioma of the lateral ventricle presenting with blepharospasm - case report and review of the literature. (11386809)
2001
24
Botulinum toxin for blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm: stability of duration of effect and dosage over time. (11794389)
2001
25
The stimulus intensity modifies the blink reflex recovery cycle in healthy subjects and in blepharospasm. (11738202)
2001
26
Idiopathic blepharospasm does not lead to a parkinsonian syndrome: results of a questionnaire-based follow-up study. (10367696)
1999
27
A novel mechanism for benign essential blepharospasm. (10588244)
1999
28
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in primary blepharospasm. (9748053)
1998
29
Effect of photic conditioning on blink reflex recovery function in blepharospasm. (8913199)
1996
30
Electrophysiological studies in patients with blepharospasm before and after botulinum toxin A therapy. (8926500)
1996
31
Blepharospasm in association with a lower pontine lesion. (8614517)
1996
32
Exteroceptive reflexes in dystonia: a study of the recovery cycle of the R2 component of the blink reflex and of the exteroceptive suppression of the contracting sternocleidomastoid muscle in blepharospasm and torticollis. (8196680)
1994
33
Auditory brain-stem responses in blepharospasm. (7681381)
1993
34
Muscle loss from doxorubicin injections into the eyelids of a patient with blepharospasm. (8238231)
1993
35
A new variant of blepharospasm. (1602309)
1992
36
Idiopathic blepharospasm-oromandibular dystonia syndrome (Meige's syndrome) presenting as chronic temporomandibular joint dislocation. (2049364)
1991
37
Facial dystonia, essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. (2042553)
1991
38
Torticollis and blepharospasm in systemic lupus erythematosus. (2811894)
1989
39
Long-term results and complications of botulinum A toxin in the treatment of blepharospasm. (3211461)
1988
40
Surgical management of blepharospasm. (3278554)
1988
41
Etiology and differential diagnosis of blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonia. (3278535)
1988
42
Ophthalmologic causes of blepharospasm. (3278557)
1988
43
Blepharospasm: a review of 264 patients. (3404184)
1988
44
Treatment of blepharospasm with botulinum A toxin. (3508221)
1987
45
Treatment of blepharospasm with high dose brow injection of botulinum toxin. (3154571)
1987
46
Botulinum injection therapy for blepharospasm: a review and report of 75 patients. (3533250)
1986
47
Treatment of essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm by selective sections of the facial nerve. (3715241)
1986
48
Blepharospasm and Meige syndrome: a review of diagnostic, aetiological and treatment approaches. (3920392)
1985
49
Blepharospasm, Meige syndrome, and hemifacial spasm: treatment with botulinum toxin. (4033932)
1985
50
Treatment of essential blepharospasm. II. A modification of exposure for the muscle stripping technique. (6696676)
1984

Variations for Blepharospasm

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Expression for genes affiliated with Blepharospasm

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Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Blepharospasm.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Blepharospasm

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GO Terms for genes affiliated with Blepharospasm

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Biological processes related to Blepharospasm according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1chaperone-mediated protein transportGO:00723219.9TIMM8A, TOR1A
2activation of adenylate cyclase activityGO:00071909.6DRD5, GNAL
3negative regulation of blood pressureGO:00457769.5DRD5, GCH1
4adenylate cyclase-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathwayGO:00071919.5DRD5, GNAL
5adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathwayGO:00071899.3DRD5, GNAL

Sources for Blepharospasm

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2CDC
6CNVD
10DGIdb
15ExPASy
16FDA
17FMA
25GTR
26HGMD
27HMDB
28ICD10
29ICD10 via Orphanet
30ICD9CM
31IUPHAR
32KEGG
35MedGen
37MeSH
38MESH via Orphanet
39MGI
42NCI
43NCIt
44NDF-RT
47NINDS
48Novoseek
50OMIM
51OMIM via Orphanet
55PubMed
56QIAGEN
61SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
65Tumor Gene Family of Databases
66UMLS
67UMLS via Orphanet