Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital malady

Genetic diseases, Rare diseases, Neuronal diseases, Fetal diseases categories

Aliases & Classifications for Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital

About this section
46OMIM, 9diseasecard, 19GeneReviews, 42NIH Rare Diseases, 20GeneTests, 21Genetics Home Reference, 44Novoseek, 48Orphanet, 22GTR, 61UMLS, 26ICD10 via Orphanet, 62UMLS via Orphanet, 34MESH via Orphanet
See all sources

Aliases & Descriptions for Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital:

Name: Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital 46 44
Congenital Central Alveolar Hypoventilation Syndrome 42 48 61
Central Congenital Hypoventilation Syndrome 42 20 48
Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome 19 42 21
Congenital Central Hypoventilation 21 22 61
Haddad Syndrome 46 21 48
Ondine Syndrome 42 21 48
Cchs 42 21 48
Congenital Failure of Autonomic Control 42 21
Central Hypoventilation Syndrome 46 9
Ondine-Hirschsprung Disease 21 48
Ondine Curse 42 48
Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital, with or Without Hirschsprung Disease 46
Congenital Central Alveolar Hypoventilation - Hirschsprung Disease 48
Idiopathic Congenital Central Alveolar Hypoventilation 42
Central Alveolar Hypoventilation Syndrome 61
Sleep-Related Respiratory Failure 61
Primary Alveolar Hypoventilation 42
Cchs with Hirschsprung Disease 61
Ondine-Hirschsprung Syndrome 48
Congenital Ondine Curse 42
Sleep Apnea, Central 61
Ondine's Curse 42


Characteristics (Orphanet epidemiological data):

congenital central alveolar hypoventilation syndrome:
Inheritance: Autosomal dominant,Not applicable; Age of onset: Infancy,Neonatal; Age of death: normal life expectancy
haddad syndrome:
Inheritance: Autosomal dominant,Multigenic/multifactorial; Prevalence: <1/1000000 (Worldwide); Age of onset: Infancy,Neonatal

External Ids:

OMIM46 209880
Orphanet48 661, 99803
ICD10 via Orphanet26 G47.3
UMLS via Orphanet62 C1275808, C1859587
MESH via Orphanet34 C536209

Summaries for Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital

About this section
OMIM:46 Idiopathic congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, also known as 'Ondine's curse' (Deonna et al., 1974), is a rare... (209880) more...

MalaCards based summary: Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital, also known as congenital central alveolar hypoventilation syndrome, is related to sudden infant death syndrome and neuroblastoma, and has symptoms including respiratory insufficiency, aganglionic megacolon and strabismus. An important gene associated with Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital is PHOX2B (paired-like homeobox 2b), and among its related pathways are Transcription factors in neurogenesis and Amphetamine addiction. The compounds 3-nitropropionic acid and bq 3020 have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include lung, eye and heart, and related mouse phenotypes are pigmentation and no phenotypic analysis.

Genetics Home Reference:21 Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is a disorder that affects breathing. People with this disorder take shallow breaths (hypoventilate), especially during sleep, resulting in a shortage of oxygen and a buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood. Ordinarily, the part of the nervous system that controls involuntary body processes (autonomic nervous system) would react to such an imbalance by stimulating the individual to breathe more deeply or wake up. This reaction is impaired in people with CCHS, and they must be supported with a machine to help them breathe (mechanical ventilation) or a device that stimulates a normal breathing pattern (diaphragm pacemaker). Some affected individuals need this support 24 hours a day, while others need it only at night.

NIH Rare Diseases:42 Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (cchs) is a disorder of the autonomic nervous system that causes individuals to hypoventilate (especially during sleep), resulting in a shortage of oxygen and a buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood. symptoms usually begin shortly after birth; affected infants hypoventilate upon falling asleep and exhibit a bluish appearance of the skin or lips (cyanosis). other features may include difficulty regulating heart rate and blood pressure; decreased perception of pain; low body temperature; occasional episodes of profuse sweating; hirschsprung disease; learning difficulties; eye abnormalities; and a characteristic appearance with a short, wide, somewhat flattened face. it is caused by mutations in the phox2b gene and is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, but over 90 percent of cases result from new mutations and occur in people with no history of the disorder in their family. treatment typically includes mechanical ventilation or use of a diaphragm pacemaker. last updated: 5/28/2012

GeneReviews summary for ondine

Related Diseases for Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital

About this section

Diseases related to Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 76)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1sudden infant death syndrome30.8TH, PHOX2B
2neuroblastoma30.3TH, PHOX2B, BDNF
3ganglioneuroma30.3RET, TH
4pulmonary hypertension30.3EDN3, EDNRB
5hirschsprung disease 129.7GDNF, EDNRB, EDN3, RET, PHOX2B
6medullary thyroid carcinoma, familial10.4GDNF
8sleep apnea10.4
9anterior spinal artery syndrome10.3
10western equine encephalitis10.2
12renal dysplasia10.2RET, GDNF
13neuroma10.2RET, GDNF
14multiple endocrine neoplasia iia10.2RET, GDNF
15renal hypodysplasia/aplasia 110.2RET, GDNF
16obstructive sleep apnea10.2
17central sleep apnea10.2
20down syndrome10.2
27learning disability10.2
29haemophilus influenzae10.2
31autonomic dysfunction10.2
33cor pulmonale10.2
34neurofibromatosis10.2RET, GDNF
36brain ischemia10.1BDNF, GDNF
37temporal lobe epilepsy10.1GDNF, BDNF
38motor neuron disease10.1GDNF, BDNF
39neuroendocrine tumor10.1RET, ASCL1, GDNF
40neonatal hypoxic and ischemic brain injury10.1BDNF, TH
41neurotic disorder10.0BDNF, TH
42clear cell hidradenoma10.0
43nodular hidradenoma10.0
45pancreatic cancer10.0RET, GDNF
46rett syndrome10.0BDNF, TH
47waardenburg syndrome type 410.0RET, EDN3, EDNRB
48waardenburg's syndrome10.0EDNRB, EDN3, RET
49paraganglioma10.0RET, TH
50multiple system atrophy10.0TH, GDNF

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital:

Diseases related to central hypoventilation syndrome, congenital

Symptoms for Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital

About this section

Symptoms by clinical synopsis from OMIM:


Clinical features from OMIM:



 48 (show all 21)
  • dolichocolon/megacolon/megadolichocolon/hirschsprung's disease
  • respiratory distress/dyspnea/respiratory failure/lung volume reduction
  • stillbirth/neonatal death
  • hypotonia
  • seizures/epilepsy/absences/spasms/status epilepticus
  • intellectual deficit/mental/psychomotor retardation/learning disability
  • central nervous system/peripheral nerves neoplasm/tumor/carcinoma/cancer
  • strabismus/squint
  • respiratory rhythm disorder
  • apnea/sleep apnea
  • dysautonomia/autonomous nervous sytem anomalies
  • autosomal dominant inheritance
  • short stature/dwarfism/nanism
  • failure to thrive/difficulties for feeding in infancy/growth delay
  • gastroesophageal reflux/pyrosis/esophagitis/hiatal hernia/gastroparesia
  • death in infancy
  • sensorineural deafness/hearing loss
  • neuroblastoma
  • oligoamnios
  • polyhydramnios
  • fetal immobility/abnormal fetal movements

HPO human phenotypes related to Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital:

(show all 31)
id Description Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 respiratory insufficiency hallmark (90%) HP:0002093
2 aganglionic megacolon hallmark (90%) HP:0002251
3 strabismus hallmark (90%) HP:0000486
4 apnea hallmark (90%) HP:0002104
5 short stature hallmark (90%) HP:0004322
6 seizures typical (50%) HP:0001250
7 muscular hypotonia typical (50%) HP:0001252
8 cognitive impairment typical (50%) HP:0100543
9 seizures occasional (7.5%) HP:0001250
10 muscular hypotonia occasional (7.5%) HP:0001252
11 neoplasm of the nervous system occasional (7.5%) HP:0004375
12 cognitive impairment occasional (7.5%) HP:0100543
13 sensorineural hearing impairment occasional (7.5%) HP:0000407
14 prenatal movement abnormality occasional (7.5%) HP:0001557
15 polyhydramnios occasional (7.5%) HP:0001561
16 oligohydramnios occasional (7.5%) HP:0001562
17 neuroblastoma occasional (7.5%) HP:0003006
18 autosomal dominant inheritance HP:0000006
19 abnormality of the mouth HP:0000153
20 posteriorly rotated ears HP:0000358
21 low-set ears HP:0000369
22 downslanted palpebral fissures HP:0000494
23 hyperhidrosis HP:0000975
24 abnormality of the cardiovascular system HP:0001626
25 constipation HP:0002019
26 aganglionic megacolon HP:0002251
27 hypoventilation HP:0002791
28 ganglioneuroma HP:0003005
29 abnormality of temperature regulation HP:0004370
30 ganglioneuroblastoma HP:0006747
31 feeding difficulties HP:0011968

Drugs & Therapeutics for Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital

About this section

Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital

Search NIH Clinical Center for Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital

Genetic Tests for Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital

About this section

Genetic tests related to Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital:

id Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome20 PHOX2B
2 Congenital Central Hypoventilation22

Anatomical Context for Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital

About this section

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital:

Lung, Eye, Heart, Skin

Animal Models for Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital or affiliated genes

About this section

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital:

35 (show all 15)
idDescriptionMGI Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MP:00011868.8ASCL1, EDN3, EDNRB
2MP:00030128.6ASCL1, RET, BDNF, TH
3MP:00053808.4EDNRB, EDN3, RET, PHOX2B
4MP:00028738.4ASCL1, RET, PHOX2B, BDNF, TH
5MP:00053798.2GDNF, TH, ASCL1, RET
6MP:00053918.1EDNRB, PHOX2B, BDNF, TH, ASCL1
7MP:00107718.0ASCL1, BDNF, EDNRB, EDN3, TH
8MP:00053817.8EDNRB, EDN3, GDNF, RET, BDNF
9MP:00053857.8PHOX2B, GDNF, EDNRB, TH, RET
10MP:00053887.7PHOX2B, TH, ASCL1, RET, EDNRB, BDNF
12MP:00053787.0ASCL1, GDNF, BDNF, RET, TH, EDNRB
14MP:00036316.7BDNF, PHOX2B, RET, ASCL1, TH, EDN3
15MP:00107686.7PHOX2B, RET, ASCL1, TH, EDN3, EDNRB

Publications for Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital

About this section

Variations for Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital

About this section

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot genetic disease variations for Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital:

id Symbol AA change Variation ID SNP ID

Clinvar genetic disease variations for Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital:

id Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1RETNM_020975.4(RET): c.341G> A (p.Arg114His)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs76397662GRCh37Chr 10, 43597793: 43597793
2EDN3EDN3, 1-BP INSinsertionPathogenic
3NM_170731.4(BDNF): c.29C> T (p.Thr10Ile)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs8192466GRCh37Chr 11, 27680107: 27680107
4ASCL1NM_004316.3(ASCL1): c.52C> A (p.Pro18Thr)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs267606667GRCh37Chr 12, 103352074: 103352074
5ASCL1ASCL1, 15-BP DEL, NT111deletionPathogenic
6PHOX2BLRG_513p1: p.Ala260(5_9)NT expansionPathogenic
7PHOX2BNM_003924.3(PHOX2B): c.618dupC (p.Ser207Glnfs)duplicationPathogenicGRCh37Chr 4, 41748151: 41748151
8PHOX2BPHOX2B, 37-BP DEL, NT722deletionPathogenic
9GDNFNM_000514.3(GDNF): c.277C> T (p.Arg93Trp)single nucleotide variantPathogenic, risk factorrs36119840GRCh37Chr 5, 37816112: 37816112

Expression for genes affiliated with Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital

About this section
Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital

About this section

Pathways related to Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Development ERBB family signaling59
Development GDNF family signaling59

Compounds for genes affiliated with Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital

About this section

Compounds related to Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 85)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
13-nitropropionic acid449.7BDNF, TH
2bq 302044 2810.6EDN3, EDNRB
3pd 142893449.6EDNRB, EDN3
4bq610449.6EDNRB, EDN3
5propargylamine449.6BDNF, GDNF
6fr13931744 2810.6EDN3, EDNRB
7tezosentan449.6EDN3, EDNRB
8sarafotoxin449.6EDN3, EDNRB
9irl 162044 2810.6EDN3, EDNRB
10bq78844 2810.6EDN3, EDNRB
11riluzole44 28 1111.5GDNF, BDNF
12bq12344 2810.5EDNRB, EDN3
13bosentan44 1110.4EDN3, EDNRB
14mhpg449.4TH, BDNF
15tetrodotoxin44 60 2811.4EDN3, TH, BDNF
16dbc-amp449.3BDNF, GDNF, EDN3
17carbachol44 28 1111.2EDN3, TH, BDNF
18dopac449.2BDNF, TH, GDNF
191 methyl 4 phenylpyridinium449.2TH, GDNF, BDNF
20selegiline44 1110.2BDNF, GDNF, TH
216-hydroxydopamine449.2TH, BDNF, GDNF
22mptp449.2BDNF, GDNF, TH
23kainate44 2810.1GDNF, TH, BDNF
24thapsigargin44 6010.1BDNF, EDN3, TH
25cocaine44 1110.0BDNF, TH, GDNF
26rasagiline44 1110.0BDNF, GDNF
27phenylalanine449.0ASCL1, BDNF, RET, TH
28levodopa44 119.8BDNF, GDNF, EDN3, TH
29melatonin44 28 60 24 1112.8GDNF, BDNF, EDNRB
30catecholamine448.8BDNF, TH, RET, GDNF
31choline44 24 1110.8GDNF, TH, BDNF, RET
32ly294002448.7GDNF, BDNF, TH, RET
33testosterone44 60 24 1111.7EDN3, RET, BDNF, TH
34lysine448.7EDNRB, EDN3, BDNF, ASCL1
35potassium44 24 1110.5EDNRB, BDNF, EDN3, GDNF
36h2o2448.1BDNF, EDNRB, GDNF, TH
37dexamethasone44 50 28 1111.1EDNRB, GDNF, EDN3, TH
38phosphatidylinositol448.0RET, EDN3, GDNF, BDNF, EDNRB
39cyclic amp44 249.0PHOX2B, RET, EDN3, BDNF, GDNF, TH
40acetylcholine44 50 28 24 1112.0BDNF, TH, EDN3, EDNRB, GDNF
41adenylate448.0EDNRB, BDNF, EDN3, GDNF, TH
42glutamate448.0EDNRB, GDNF, TH, BDNF, EDN3
43alanine447.7TH, EDNRB, EDN3, GDNF, PHOX2B, RET
44norepinephrine44 24 119.7TH, GDNF, EDNRB, EDN3, BDNF, PHOX2B
45dopamine44 28 24 1110.7GDNF, EDN3, TH, ASCL1, RET, PHOX2B
46retinoic acid44 248.6EDNRB, RET, BDNF, ASCL1, TH, GDNF
47aspartate447.6EDN3, EDNRB, GDNF, BDNF, TH, RET
48vegf447.6BDNF, RET, TH, EDN3, EDNRB, GDNF
49serine447.5GDNF, BDNF, RET, EDN3, EDNRB
50tyrosine446.8PHOX2B, ASCL1, BDNF, RET, TH, EDN3

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital

About this section

Cellular components related to Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1synaptic vesicleGO:00080219.4BDNF, TH

Biological processes related to Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 18)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1noradrenergic neuron developmentGO:000335810.0PHOX2B, ASCL1
2sympathetic ganglion developmentGO:006154910.0PHOX2B, ASCL1
3inner ear developmentGO:00488399.7PHOX2B, BDNF
4negative regulation of neuron differentiationGO:00456659.7PHOX2B, ASCL1
5ureteric bud developmentGO:00016579.6BDNF, RET
6cerebral cortex developmentGO:00219879.6TH, ASCL1
7vein smooth muscle contractionGO:00148269.5EDN3, EDNRB
8positive regulation of neuron differentiationGO:00456669.5ASCL1, PHOX2B, BDNF
9posterior midgut developmentGO:00074979.5EDNRB, RET
10regulation of gene expressionGO:00104689.5PHOX2B, ASCL1
11vasoconstrictionGO:00423109.4EDNRB, EDN3
12sympathetic nervous system developmentGO:00484859.4PHOX2B, ASCL1, GDNF
13melanocyte differentiationGO:00303189.4EDN3, EDNRB
14response to painGO:00482659.4EDNRB, RET
15nervous system developmentGO:00073998.7GDNF, EDNRB, BDNF
16negative regulation of apoptotic processGO:00430668.7ASCL1, EDNRB, GDNF
17enteric nervous system developmentGO:00484848.6PHOX2B, RET, EDNRB, GDNF
18neural crest cell migrationGO:00017558.5GDNF, EDNRB, EDN3, RET

Sources for Central Hypoventilation Syndrome, Congenital

About this section
26ICD10 via Orphanet
34MESH via Orphanet
47OMIM via Orphanet
57SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
62UMLS via Orphanet