MCID: CNT075
MIFTS: 52

Central Precocious Puberty

Categories: Genetic diseases, Rare diseases, Endocrine diseases, Reproductive diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Central Precocious Puberty

MalaCards integrated aliases for Central Precocious Puberty:

Name: Central Precocious Puberty 24 55 36 28
Precocious Puberty, Central 13 69
Cpp 24 55
Gonadotropin-Dependent Precocious Puberty 24
Gonadotropin-Dependant Precocious Puberty 55

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

55
central precocious puberty
Inheritance: Autosomal dominant,Not applicable; Age of onset: Childhood,Infancy; Age of death: normal life expectancy;

Classifications:



External Ids:

Orphanet 55 ORPHA759
UMLS via Orphanet 70 C0342543
ICD10 via Orphanet 33 E22.8
KEGG 36 H02018
UMLS 69 C0342543

Summaries for Central Precocious Puberty

Genetics Home Reference : 24 Central precocious puberty is a condition that causes early sexual development in girls and boys. While puberty normally starts between ages 8 and 13 in girls and between ages 9 and 14 in boys, girls with central precocious puberty begin exhibiting signs before age 8, and boys with this disorder begin before age 9. Signs of puberty include development of pubic and underarm hair, a rapid increase in height (commonly referred to as a "growth spurt"), acne, and underarm odor. Girls also develop breasts and begin their menstrual periods. Boys have growth of the penis and testes and deepening of the voice. Because of the early growth spurt, children with central precocious puberty may be taller than their peers; however, they may stop growing abnormally early. Without proper treatment, some affected individuals are shorter in adulthood compared with other members of their family. Developing ahead of their peers can be emotionally difficult for affected individuals and may lead to psychological and behavioral problems.

MalaCards based summary : Central Precocious Puberty, also known as precocious puberty, central, is related to idiopathic central precocious puberty and hypothalamic hamartomas, and has symptoms including isosexual precocious puberty, increased circulating gonadotropin level and overgrowth. An important gene associated with Central Precocious Puberty is KISS1R (KISS1 Receptor), and among its related pathways/superpathways is Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation Pathways and Lineage-specific Markers. The drugs Leuprolide and Deslorelin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include testes, breast and bone, and related phenotypes are Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) and Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2)

Related Diseases for Central Precocious Puberty

Diseases in the Precocious Puberty family:

Precocious Puberty, Central, 1 Precocious Puberty, Central, 2
Central Precocious Puberty Secondary Central Precocious Puberty

Diseases related to Central Precocious Puberty via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 103)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 idiopathic central precocious puberty 32.4 IGF1 KISS1 KISS1R MKRN3
2 hypothalamic hamartomas 31.8 GNRH1 KISS1 KISS1R
3 precocious puberty 30.9 GNRH1 KISS1 KISS1R MKRN3
4 hyperandrogenism 29.9 GNRH1 IGF1
5 insulin-like growth factor i 29.8 IGF1 LEP
6 hyperprolactinemia 29.5 GNRH1 IGF1
7 polycystic ovary syndrome 29.5 GNRH1 IGF1 LEP
8 hypogonadotropism 29.4 GNRH1 KISS1 KISS1R
9 hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 29.4 GNRH1 KISS1 KISS1R
10 hypogonadism 29.4 GNRH1 KISS1 KISS1R
11 prader-willi syndrome 28.8 GNRH1 IGF1 LEP MKRN3
12 secondary central precocious puberty 12.4
13 papilloma of choroid plexus 12.0
14 precocious puberty, central, 2 11.4
15 precocious puberty, central, 1 11.3
16 chondrocalcinosis 2 11.1
17 atypical choroid plexus papilloma 10.9
18 congenital heart defects, hamartomas of tongue, and polysyndactyly 10.5
19 body mass index quantitative trait locus 1 10.4
20 mungan syndrome 10.3
21 aging 10.3
22 prostatitis 10.3
23 episodic pain syndrome, familial, 1 10.3
24 paine syndrome 10.3
25 body mass index quantitative trait locus 7 10.2
26 body mass index quantitative trait locus 12 10.2
27 body mass index quantitative trait locus 14 10.2
28 body mass index quantitative trait locus 11 10.2
29 body mass index quantitative trait locus 18 10.2
30 body mass index quantitative trait locus 9 10.2
31 body mass index quantitative trait locus 8 10.2
32 lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia 10.2
33 body mass index quantitative trait locus 4 10.2
34 body mass index quantitative trait locus 10 10.2
35 vaginitis 10.2
36 williams-beuren syndrome 10.1
37 growth hormone deficiency 10.1
38 amenorrhea 10.1 GNRH1 LEP
39 myoma 10.1 GNRH1 LEP
40 enamel erosion 10.0
41 adrenal hypoplasia, congenital 10.0
42 nevus, epidermal 10.0
43 diabetes mellitus 10.0
44 reproductive system disease 9.9 GNRH1 KISS1
45 pituitary infarct 9.9 GNRH1 IGF1
46 fetal macrosomia 9.9 IGF1 LEP
47 endocrine pancreas disease 9.9 IGF1 LEP
48 langerhans cell histiocytosis 9.9
49 empty sella syndrome 9.9
50 fibrous dysplasia 9.9

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Central Precocious Puberty:



Diseases related to Central Precocious Puberty

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Central Precocious Puberty

Human phenotypes related to Central Precocious Puberty:

55 31 (show all 15)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 isosexual precocious puberty 55 31 obligate (100%) Obligate (100%) HP:0008236
2 increased circulating gonadotropin level 55 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0000837
3 overgrowth 55 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0001548
4 accelerated bone age after puberty 55 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0002805
5 proportionate short stature 55 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0003508
6 abnormality of secondary sexual hair 55 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0009888
7 premature thelarche 55 31 frequent (33%) Frequent (79-30%) HP:0010314
8 acne 55 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001061
9 obesity 55 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0001513
10 hypothalamic hamartoma 55 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002444
11 prenatal maternal abnormality 55 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0002686
12 hydrocephalus 55 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0000238
13 cafe-au-lait spot 55 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0000957
14 meningitis 55 31 very rare (1%) Very rare (<4-1%) HP:0001287
15 increased body weight 55 Frequent (79-30%)

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Central Precocious Puberty according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

25 (show all 17)
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-104 9.62 IGF1 LEP
2 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-112 9.62 LEP
3 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-116 9.62 KISS1R
4 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-134 9.62 IGF1
5 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-139 9.62 IGF1
6 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-144 9.62 IGF1
7 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-153 9.62 IGF1
8 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-180 9.62 KISS1R
9 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-193 9.62 IGF1
10 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-20 9.62 KISS1R
11 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-200 9.62 IGF1
12 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-213 9.62 IGF1 KISS1R LEP
13 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-216 9.62 LEP
14 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-34 9.62 IGF1
15 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-55 9.62 LEP
16 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-60 9.62 KISS1R
17 Decreased shRNA abundance (Z-score < -2) GR00366-A-84 9.62 IGF1

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Central Precocious Puberty:

43
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 9.77 IGF1 KISS1 KISS1R LEP GNRH1
2 adipose tissue MP:0005375 9.73 IGF1 KISS1 KISS1R LEP
3 integument MP:0010771 9.72 GNRH1 IGF1 KISS1 KISS1R LEP
4 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 9.71 GNRH1 KISS1 KISS1R LEP
5 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 9.56 GNRH1 KISS1 KISS1R LEP
6 nervous system MP:0003631 9.55 GNRH1 IGF1 KISS1 KISS1R LEP
7 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.35 GNRH1 IGF1 KISS1 KISS1R LEP
8 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.02 GNRH1 IGF1 KISS1 KISS1R LEP

Drugs & Therapeutics for Central Precocious Puberty

Drugs for Central Precocious Puberty (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 19)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Leuprolide Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3 53714-56-0 657181 3911
2 Deslorelin Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
3 Fertility Agents Phase 4,Phase 3
4 Contraceptive Agents Phase 4,Phase 3
5 Triptorelin Pamoate Phase 4,Phase 3
6 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
7 Luteolytic Agents Phase 4,Phase 3
8 Hormones Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
9 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 3
10
Testosterone Approved, Investigational Phase 2 58-22-0 6013
11
Spironolactone Approved Phase 2 1952-01-7, 52-01-7 5833
12
Testolactone Approved, Investigational Phase 2 968-93-4 13769
13 diuretics Phase 2
14 Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists Phase 2
15 Mineralocorticoids Phase 2
16 Natriuretic Agents Phase 2
17 Hormone Antagonists Phase 2
18 Diuretics, Potassium Sparing Phase 2
19 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 2

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 18)

# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Comparative Validation of the Triptorelin Test for the Diagnosis of CPP in Girls Unknown status NCT01278290 Phase 4 Triptorelin acetate and Gonadorelin acetate;Gonadorelin acetate and Triptorelin acetate
2 Analysis of Genetic and Environmental Parameters Influencing Growth Rate of Precocious Puberty Children Unknown status NCT00438217 Phase 4 Triptorelin (GnRH agonists);Leuprolide (GnRH agonists)
3 Study of Comprehensive Diagnosis and Treatment for Children Precocious Puberty Completed NCT02920515 Phase 4 Triptorlin or Leuprorelin;Zhibo dihuang pills;Dabu ying pills
4 The Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Luphere Depot Inj. 3.75mg(Leuprolide Acetate 3.75mg) in Patients With Precocious Puberty Completed NCT01634321 Phase 4 Luphere depot 3.75mg(Leuprolide acetate 3.75mg)
5 Leuprorelin Acetate DPS (Leuplin DPS) Treatment Quarterly in Patients With Central Precocious Puberty Recruiting NCT03316482 Phase 4 Leuplin DPS 11.25mg
6 Analysis of Body Mass Index in Central Precocious Puberty Patients Treated With Leuprolide Acetate Recruiting NCT02974270 Phase 4 Leuprolide
7 A Study to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of Leuprorelin in Central Precocious Puberty in Chinese Patients Active, not recruiting NCT02427958 Phase 4 Leuprorelin
8 Histrelin Subcutaneous Implant in Children With Central Precocious Puberty Completed NCT00779103 Phase 3 Histrelin Subcutaneous Implant
9 Safety Extension Study Of Leuprolide Acetate (Lupron Depot) In The Treatment Of Central Precocious Puberty Completed NCT00667446 Phase 3 Leuprolide Acetate 3 Month Depot
10 Efficacy, Safety, and Pharmacokinetics (PK) of Triptorelin 6-month Formulation in Patients With Central Precocious Puberty Completed NCT01467882 Phase 3 Triptorelin
11 Study of Lupron Depot In The Treatment of Central Precocious Puberty Completed NCT00660010 Phase 3 Lupron (leuprolide acetate)
12 A Study of Leuprolide 11.25 mg and 30 mg Administered Every 3 Months to Treat Central Precocious Puberty Completed NCT00635817 Phase 3 Leuprolide acetate 11.25 mg;Leuprolide acetate 30 mg
13 Pharmacokinetic Study of Leuprolide Acetate Injectable Suspension in the Treatment of Central Precocious Puberty Active, not recruiting NCT02452931 Phase 3 Leuprolide Acetate 45 mg
14 Treatment of Boys With Precocious Puberty Completed NCT00001202 Phase 2 Spironolactone;Testolactone;Deslorelin
15 Markers of Pubertal Suppression During Therapy for Precocious Puberty Unknown status NCT02006680
16 Psychosocial Impact of Early Puberty in Girls Aged 6 to 8 Years Completed NCT01679925
17 A Study to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of Leuprorelin in Central Precocious Puberty (CPP) Among Chinese Participants Recruiting NCT02993926 Leuprorelin
18 Long-term Outcome of GnRH Analogues Treatment of Children With Idiopathic Central Precocious Puberty Enrolling by invitation NCT02790112

Search NIH Clinical Center for Central Precocious Puberty

Genetic Tests for Central Precocious Puberty

Genetic tests related to Central Precocious Puberty:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Central Precocious Puberty 28 KISS1R

Anatomical Context for Central Precocious Puberty

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Central Precocious Puberty:

38
Testes, Breast, Bone, Pituitary, Ovary, Brain, Pineal

Publications for Central Precocious Puberty

Articles related to Central Precocious Puberty:

(show top 50) (show all 415)
# Title Authors Year
1
Triptorelin (Triptodur) for central precocious puberty. ( 29294465 )
2018
2
Increased high molecular weight adiponectin, but decreased total adiponectin and kisspeptin, in central precocious puberty compared with aged-matched prepubertal girls. ( 28610651 )
2017
3
The influence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists on anthropometric change in girls with central precocious puberty. ( 29302264 )
2017
4
Treatment outcomes of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in obese girls with central precocious puberty. ( 29301187 )
2017
5
Long-term Outcomes of Patients with Central Precocious Puberty due to Hypothalamic Hamartoma After GnRH Analog Treatment: Anthropometric, Metabolic and Reproductive Aspects. ( 28558376 )
2017
6
The first Japanese case of central precocious puberty with a novel MKRN3 mutation. ( 28546864 )
2017
7
Central Precocious Puberty Secondary to Adrenocortical Adenoma in a Female Child: Case Report and Review of the Literature. ( 28578183 )
2017
8
Genetic Variations of the KISS1R Gene in Korean Girls with Central Precocious Puberty. ( 27914139 )
2017
9
Metabolic Outcomes, Bone Health, and Risk of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Girls with Idiopathic Central Precocious Puberty Treated with Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analogues. ( 28391271 )
2017
10
Effects of pomegranate extract in supplementing gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy on idiopathic central precocious puberty in Chinese girls: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. ( 28091641 )
2017
11
Commentary: Cognitive, Emotional, and Psychosocial Functioning of Girls Treated with Pharmacological Puberty Blockage for Idiopathic Central Precocious Puberty. ( 28167925 )
2017
12
There is no association between vitamin D status and characteristics of central precocious puberty in girls. ( 28963633 )
2017
13
Insulin resistance and bone age advancement in girls with central precocious puberty. ( 29025204 )
2017
14
Lung Function in Women with Idiopathic Central Precocious Puberty: A Pilot Studya8c. ( 28114141 )
2017
15
Meta-Analysis of Paediatric Patients with Central Precocious Puberty Treated with Intramuscular Triptorelin 11.25 mg 3-Month Prolonged-Release Formulationa8c. ( 28334719 )
2017
16
GnRH agonist treatment for idiopathic central precocious puberty can improve final adult height in Chinese girls. ( 29312590 )
2017
17
Corrigendum to: Increased high molecular weight adiponectin, but decreased total adiponectin and kisspeptin, in central precocious puberty compared with aged-matched prepubertal girls. ( 29145926 )
2017
18
Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty. ( 28791667 )
2017
19
MKRN3 levels in girls with central precocious puberty and correlation with sexual hormone levels: a pilot study. ( 28299573 )
2017
20
Paternally Inherited DLK1 Deletion Associated With Familial Central Precocious Puberty. ( 28324015 )
2017
21
Marked geographic patterns in the incidence of idiopathic central precocious puberty: a nationwide study in France. ( 28890442 )
2017
22
Change in body mass index and insulin resistance after 1-year treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists in girls with central precocious puberty. ( 28443256 )
2017
23
Molecular Screening of MKRN3, DLK1, and KCNK9 Genes in Girls with Idiopathic Central Precocious Puberty. ( 28672280 )
2017
24
The mystery of puberty initiation: genetics and epigenetics of idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP). ( 28251550 )
2017
25
The different effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist therapy on body mass index and growth between normal-weight and overweight girls with central precocious puberty. ( 28443259 )
2017
26
Assessment of stress levels in girls with central precocious puberty before and during long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment: a pilot study. ( 28599388 )
2017
27
SERUM NESFATIN-1 LEVELS IN GIRLS WITH IDIOPATHIC CENTRAL PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY. ( 28739555 )
2017
28
A Critical Appraisal of the Effect of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormon Analog Treatment on Adult Height of Girls with Central Precocious Puberty. ( 29280737 )
2017
29
Central Precocious Puberty and Response to GnRHa Therapy in Children with Cerebral Palsy and Moderate to Severe Motor Impairment: Data from a Longitudinal, Case-Control, Multicentre, Italian Study. ( 28791047 )
2017
30
Assessment of Estradiol Response after Depot Triptorelin Administration in Girls with Central Precocious Puberty. ( 26675317 )
2016
31
Sexual Precocity--Genetic Bases of Central Precocious Puberty and Autonomous Gonadal Activation. ( 26680572 )
2016
32
Central Precocious Puberty: A Case Report. ( 27941749 )
2016
33
Central precocious puberty due to hypothalamic hamartoma in neurofibromatosis type 1. ( 26732170 )
2016
34
Time Course of Central Precocious Puberty Development Caused by an MKRN3 Gene Mutation: A Prismatic Case. ( 27424312 )
2016
35
Do 6-8 year old girls with central precocious puberty need routine brain imaging? ( 27148371 )
2016
36
Underdiagnosis of central precocious puberty in boys with loss-of function mutations of MKRN3. ( 28043686 )
2016
37
Central precocious puberty: revisiting the diagnosis and therapeutic management. ( 27191050 )
2016
38
Association of genetic polymorphisms around the LIN28B gene and idiopathic central precocious puberty risks among Chinese girls. ( 27304100 )
2016
39
Boy with central precocious puberty probably due to a peripheral cause. ( 27256994 )
2016
40
Low Frequency of MKRN3 Mutations in Central Precocious Puberty Among Korean Girls. ( 25938887 )
2016
41
Basal Serum Neurokinin B Level can be used to Differentiate Idiopathic Central Precocious Puberty from Premature Thelarche in Girls. ( 28008860 )
2016
42
Mutations in the maternally imprinted gene MKRN3 are common in familial central precocious puberty. ( 26431553 )
2016
43
Clinical Exome Sequencing Reveals MKRN3 Pathogenic Variants in Familial and Nonfamilial Idiopathic Central Precocious Puberty. ( 27931036 )
2016
44
The Influence of GnRH Analog Therapy on Growth in Central Precocious Puberty. ( 26935495 )
2016
45
High Frequency of MKRN3 Mutations in Male Central Precocious Puberty Previously Classified as Idiopathic. ( 27225315 )
2016
46
Efficacy and safety of triptorelin 6-month formulation in patients with central precocious puberty. ( 26887034 )
2016
47
Central precocious puberty in children with devastating brain damage: Two cases. ( 27625256 )
2016
48
The Efficacy of GnRHa Alone or in Combination with rhGH for the Treatment of Chinese Children with Central Precocious Puberty. ( 27072597 )
2016
49
Effects and safety of combination therapy with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue and growth hormone in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty: a meta-analysis. ( 27225286 )
2016
50
Leptin and adiponectin levels in girls with central precocious puberty before and during GnRH agonist treatment. ( 28164072 )
2016

Variations for Central Precocious Puberty

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Central Precocious Puberty:

6
# Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1 KISS1R NM_032551.4(KISS1R): c.1157G> C (p.Arg386Pro) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic rs121908499 GRCh37 Chromosome 19, 920708: 920708

Expression for Central Precocious Puberty

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Central Precocious Puberty.

Pathways for Central Precocious Puberty

Pathways related to Central Precocious Puberty according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 10.61 IGF1 LEP

GO Terms for Central Precocious Puberty

Cellular components related to Central Precocious Puberty according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular space GO:0005615 8.92 GNRH1 IGF1 KISS1 LEP

Biological processes related to Central Precocious Puberty according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 negative regulation of apoptotic process GO:0043066 9.58 GNRH1 IGF1 LEP
2 regulation of receptor activity GO:0010469 9.54 GNRH1 IGF1 LEP
3 response to ethanol GO:0045471 9.46 GNRH1 LEP
4 female pregnancy GO:0007565 9.43 GNRH1 LEP
5 positive regulation of MAPK cascade GO:0043410 9.33 IGF1 KISS1 LEP
6 positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling GO:0014068 9.32 IGF1 LEP
7 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0042531 9.26 IGF1 LEP
8 bone mineralization involved in bone maturation GO:0035630 8.96 IGF1 LEP
9 positive regulation of luteinizing hormone secretion GO:0033686 8.62 KISS1 LEP

Molecular functions related to Central Precocious Puberty according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hormone activity GO:0005179 8.8 GNRH1 IGF1 LEP

Sources for Central Precocious Puberty

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HGMD
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 MedGen
41 MeSH
42 MESH via Orphanet
43 MGI
45 NCI
46 NCIt
47 NDF-RT
50 NINDS
51 Novoseek
53 OMIM
54 OMIM via Orphanet
58 PubMed
60 QIAGEN
65 SNOMED-CT via HPO
66 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67 TGDB
68 Tocris
69 UMLS
70 UMLS via Orphanet
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