MCID: CHL014
MIFTS: 56

Cholera malady

Infectious category

Summaries for Cholera

Sources:
8Disease Ontology, 34MedlinePlus, 64Wikipedia, 33MalaCards
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MedlinePlus:34 Cholera is a bacterial infection that causes diarrhea. the cholera bacterium is usually found in water or food contaminated by feces (poop). cholera is rare in the us. you may get it if you travel to parts of the world with inadequate water treatment and poor sanitation, and lack of sewage treatment. outbreaks can also happen after disasters. the disease is not likely to spread directly from one person to another. often the infection is mild or without symptoms, but sometimes it can be severe. severe symptoms include profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, and leg cramps. in severe cases, rapid loss of body fluids leads to dehydration and shock. without treatment, death can occur within hours. doctors diagnose cholera with a stool sample or rectal swab. treatment includes replacing fluid and salts and sometimes antibiotics. anyone who thinks they may have cholera should seek medical attention immediately. dehydration can be rapid so fluid replacement is essential. centers for disease control and prevention

MalaCards: Cholera, also known as cholera due to vibrio cholerae, is related to cystic fibrosis and ulcerative colitis. An important gene associated with Cholera is ARF4 (ADP-ribosylation factor 4), and among its related pathways are GPCR Pathway and Neuropathic Pain-Signaling in Dorsal Horn Neurons. The compounds calcium and gtp have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include skin, liver and brain.

Disease Ontology:8 A primary bacterial infectious disease that is described as an acute, diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacterium vibrio cholerae, which is characterized by profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, leg cramps, circulatory collapse and shock.

Wikipedia:64 Cholera is an infection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. more...

Aliases & Classifications for Cholera

Sources:
8Disease Ontology, 43NIH Rare Diseases, 10DISEASES, 45Novoseek, 49Orphanet, 34MedlinePlus, 61UMLS, 57SNOMED-CT, 35MeSH, 27ICD9CM, 62UMLS via Orphanet, 36MESH via Orphanet, 26ICD10 via Orphanet, 58SNOMED-CT via Orphanet, 25ICD10
See all sources

Classifications:

Malacards categories (disease lists): (See all malacards categories)
Global: Infectious


Characteristics (Orphanet epidemiological data):

49
cholera:
Inheritance: Sporadic; Prevalence: <1/1000000; Age of onset: Variable


Aliases & Descriptions:

cholera 8 43 10 45 49 34 61
cholera due to vibrio cholerae 8
cholera - vibrio cholerae 8
vibrio cholerae infection 43
cholera, unspecified 8
vibrio cholerae 8
cholera nos 8


External Ids:

Disease Ontology8 DOID:1498
MeSH35 D002771
ICD9CM27 001.0, 001.9, 001
UMLS via Orphanet62 C0008354
MESH via Orphanet36 D002771
ICD10 via Orphanet26 A00
SNOMED-CT via Orphanet58 63650001

Related Diseases for Cholera

Sources:
17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
See all sources

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Cholera:



Diseases related to cholera

Clinical Features for Cholera

Drugs & Therapeutics for Cholera

Sources:
5CenterWatch, 42NIH Clinical Center, 6ClinicalTrials, 61UMLS, 41NDF-RT
See all sources

Approved drugs:

Search CenterWatch for Cholera

Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Cholera

Search NIH Clinical Center for Cholera

Search CenterWatch for Cholera

Genetic Tests for Cholera

Anatomical Context for Cholera

Sources:
33MalaCards
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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Cholera:

33
Skin, Liver, Brain, Kidney, Lung, Whole blood, Small intestine, Colon, Adipocyte, Pancreas, Monocytes, T cells, B cells, Pancreatic islet, Pineal, Pituitary

Animal Models for Cholera or affiliated genes

Sources:
28inGenious Targeting Laboratory
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Publications for Cholera

Sources:
51PubMed
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Articles related to Cholera:

(show top 50)    (show all 813)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Predictors of disease severity in patients admitted to a cholera treatment center in urban Haiti. (24106188)
2013
2
Cholera in coastal Africa: a systematic review of its heterogeneous environmental determinants. (24101653)
2013
3
Haitian variant ctxB producing Vibrio cholerae O1 with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin is persistent in Yavatmal, Maharashtra, India after causing a cholera outbreak. (24102849)
2013
4
Mapping the glycation sites in the neoglycoconjugate from hexasaccharide antigen of Vibrio cholerae, serotype Ogawa and the recombinant tetanus toxin C-fragment carrier. (24130011)
2013
5
Cholera vaccination campaign contributes to improved knowledge regarding cholera and improved practice relevant to waterborne disease in rural Haiti. (24278498)
2013
6
An Adult Mouse Model of Vibrio cholerae-induced Diarrhea for Studying Pathogenesis and Potential Therapy of Cholera. (23826402)
2013
7
Ganglioside GM1-mediated transcytosis of cholera toxin bypasses the retrograde pathway and depends on the structure of the ceramide domain. (23884419)
2013
8
Laboratory-confirmed cholera and rotavirus among patients with acute diarrhea in four hospitals in Haiti, 2012-2013. (24106190)
2013
9
Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, WAC and NMR Studies of S-Galactosides and Non-Carbohydrate Ligands of Cholera Toxin Based on Polyhydroxyalkylfuroate Moieties. (24264882)
2013
10
Comparison of two recombinant systems for expression of cholera toxin B subunit from Vibrio cholerae. (23508422)
2013
11
Antigen-specific memory T cell responses after vaccination with an oral killed cholera vaccine in Bangladeshi children and comparison to responses in patients with naturally acquired cholera. (22739692)
2012
12
Disease outbreaks: support for a cholera vaccine stockpile. (22763542)
2012
13
Haiti's cholera outbreak provides important lessons for global health. (22234911)
2012
14
Dorsal lateral geniculate substructure in the long-evans rat: a cholera toxin B subunit study. (23055955)
2012
15
Unmasking adenosine 2A receptors (A2ARs) in monkey basal ganglia output neurons using cholera toxin subunit B (CTB). (22659306)
2012
16
Activation of cholera toxin production by anaerobic respiration of trimethylamine N-oxide in Vibrio cholerae. (23019319)
2012
17
Cholera, 2011. (22905370)
2012
18
The Haitian Health Cluster Experience: A comparative evaluation of the professional communication response to the 2010 earthquake and the subsequent cholera outbreak. (23074693)
2012
19
The Portuguese Cholera morbus epidemic of 1853-56 as seen by the press. (22530391)
2012
20
The global burden of cholera. (22461716)
2012
21
Cholera in ecuador: current relevance of past lessons learnt. (21731309)
2011
22
No quick fix for Haiti cholera. (22012363)
2011
23
Implications of the introduction of cholera to Haiti. (21762593)
2011
24
Meeting cholera's challenge to Haiti and the world: a joint statement on cholera prevention and care. (21655350)
2011
25
Oral rehydration salt solution for treating cholera: a8o 270 mOsm/L solutions vs a8Y 310 mOsm/L solutions. (22161381)
2011
26
&quot;A wild and wondrous ride&quot;: CDC field epidemiologists in the east Pakistan smallpox and cholera epidemics of 1958. (21340324)
2011
27
Host response in rabbits to infection with Pasteurella multocida serogroup F strains originating from fowl cholera. (22210996)
2011
28
On the emergence of atypical Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor &amp; cholera epidemic. (21537088)
2011
29
Epidemiology of rotavirus and cholera in children aged less than five years in rural Bangladesh. (21528784)
2011
30
Detection of Vibrio cholerae and Acanthamoeba species from same natural water samples collected from different cholera endemic areas in Sudan. (21470437)
2011
31
Lessons from cholera &amp; Vibrio cholerae. (21415490)
2011
32
Cholera--modern pandemic disease of ancient lineage. (22099113)
2011
33
Mucosal adjuvant activity of cholera toxin requires Th17 cells and protects against inhalation anthrax. (20479237)
2010
34
Structural and kinetic features of family I inorganic pyrophosphatase from Vibrio cholerae. (19747093)
2009
35
Caveolin-1 regulation of dynamin-dependent, raft-mediated endocytosis of cholera toxin-B sub-unit occurs independently of caveolae. (19438805)
2009
36
Oral sensitization to peanut is highly enhanced by application of peanut extracts to intact skin, but is prevented when CpG and cholera toxin are added. (17191005)
2007
37
The effects of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, cholera toxin, prostaglandin E2 and norepinephrine on inducible nitric oxide synthase activation induced by lipopolysaccharide in C6 cells. (17047412)
2006
38
Upregulation of human mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 in intestinal epithelial cells is modulated by Vibrio cholerae pathogenesis. (15946665)
2005
39
Vascular changes in duodenal mucosa in shigellosis and cholera. (12794915)
2003
40
D-glucose and NaCl enhance the expression of aquaporin-1: inhibition of both by cholera toxin. (12218304)
2002
41
Immunogenicity and protective role of an IgA reactive 31-kDa antigen of Vibrio cholerae O139. (11393286)
2001
42
Cholera toxin induces maturation of human dendritic cells and licences them for Th2 priming. (10940931)
2000
43
Cholera toxin induces tumor necrosis factor alpha production in human monocytes. (10542136)
1999
44
Signs of endolymphatic hydrops after perilymphatic perfusion of the guinea pig cochlea with cholera toxin; a pharmacological model of acute endolymphatic hydrops. (10545638)
1999
45
Immune response to the mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin in patients with cholera due to Vibrio cholerae O1 and O0139. (9220159)
1997
46
Mode of primary binding to target membranes and pore formation induced by Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (hemolysin). (9249028)
1997
47
Comparison of immune responses in patients infected with Vibrio cholerae O139 and O1. (9284121)
1997
48
Evaluation of cyclic AMP accumulation in EBV-transformed human B-lymphocytes: effects of dopamine agonists, isoproterenol, prostaglandin E1, cholera toxin, forskolin, and phorbol 12-myristate-13 acetate. (8861180)
1996
49
ADP ribosylation by cholera toxin identifies three G-proteins that are activated by the galanin receptor. Studies with RINm5F cell membranes. (7505245)
1994
50
Clinical and immunologic significance of cholera-like toxin and cytotoxin production by Campylobacter species in patients with acute inflammatory diarrhea in the USA. (2760498)
1989

Genetic Variations for Cholera

Expression for genes affiliated with Cholera

Sources:
1BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
See all sources
Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Cholera

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Cholera.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Cholera

Sources:
52QIAGEN, 38NCBI BioSystems Database, 54Reactome
See all sources

Pathways related to Cholera according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1
Hide members
11.2ARF1, ARF4, ARF3, ARF6, ARF5, CD79A
2
Hide members
11.1ARF5, ARF6, ARF3, ARF4, ARF1
310.8ARF1, ARF6, ARF5
410.7ARF6, ARF1
5
Hide members
10.7ARF3, ARF1

Compounds for genes affiliated with Cholera

Sources:
45Novoseek, 50PharmGKB, 11DrugBank, 24HMDB, 29IUPHAR, 60Tocris Bioscience
See all sources

Compounds related to Cholera according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 39)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1calcium45 50 11 2415.1VIP, CCL8, GUCA2A, ARF6, OMP, MUC2
2gtp45 2912.7VIP, ARF1, ARF3, ARF6, ARL1, TRIM23
3guanine45 11 2413.6ADCY10, ADRA2A, ARF6, ARF4, ARF1, VIP
4adp45 29 2413.6ARF1, ARF6, TRIM23, ENTPD2, ADRA2A, ADCY10
5fmlp4511.5CCL8, ARF1, ARF6, ADORA2B, ADCY10
6forskolin45 50 1113.5ADCY10, ADORA2B, MUC2, GUCA2A, VIP
7cyclic amp45 2412.4VIP, ENTPD2, ADORA2B, ADRA2A, ADCY10
8Guanosine-5'-Diphosphate1111.4ARF1, ARF4, ARF6, ARL1
9isoproterenol45 1112.3VIP, GUCA2A, ADRA2A, ADCY10
10epinephrine45 11 2413.3VIP, CD79A, ADRA2A, ADCY10
11salbutamol45 50 29 11 2415.2VIP, CD79A, ADCY10
12norepinephrine45 11 2413.2VIP, CD79A, ADRA2A, ADCY10
13fluoride4511.2ADCY10, CD79A, ARF6
14bromocriptine29 45 1113.2VIP, ADRA2A, ADCY10
15theophylline45 29 11 2414.2CD79A, ADORA2B, ADCY10
16pge14511.2VIP, ADORA2B, ADCY10
17cholera toxin4511.1VIP, ADCY10
18pacaps4511.1VIP, ADCY10
198-(4-chlorophenylthio)-camp4511.1ADCY10, VIP
20suramin45 29 1113.1ADCY10, CD79A, VIP
21enprofylline45 1112.1ADCY10, ADORA2B
22grp-14511.1ARF1, ARF6
23catecholamine4511.1VIP, ARF6, ADRA2A
24cgs216804511.1ADORA2B, ADCY10
25pacap 384511.0ADCY10, VIP
262 chloroadenosine4511.0ADORA2B, ADCY10
275-n-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine4511.0ADORA2B, ADCY10
28brimonidine29 45 1113.0ADRA2A, ADCY10
29butanol4511.0ARF6, ARF1
30guanylate4510.9ADCY10, GUCA2A, VIP
318-bromo-cyclic amp4510.9ADCY10, VIP
32carbacyclin45 2911.9ADCY10, VIP
33sodium fluoride4510.9VIP, ADCY10
34phentolamine29 45 1112.9VIP, ADRA2A
35agmatine45 29 11 2413.8ART1, ARF1
368-bromo cgmp4510.7VIP, GUCA2A
37ptdins(3)p4510.7ARF6, ARF1
38phosphoinositide4510.7ADCY10, ADORA2B, ARF6, ARF1
39bumetanide45 60 29 1113.6VIP, GUCA2A

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Cholera

Sources:
16Gene Ontology
See all sources

Cellular components related to Cholera according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1plasma membraneGO:00588611.4ARF6, ART1, ARF4, ARF1, ARF5, MADCAM1
2Golgi apparatusGO:00579411.1ARF6, ARF5, ARL1, STX16, ARF4
3Golgi membraneGO:00013911.0TRIM23, STX16, ARL1, ARF3, ARF1

Biological processes related to Cholera according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1small GTPase mediated signal transductionGO:00726411.3ARF1, ARF4, ARF3, ARF6, ARF5, ARL1
2GTP catabolic processGO:00618411.3TRIM23, ARL1, ARF5, ARF6, ARF3, ARF1
3G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathwayGO:00718611.0ADRA2A, ADORA2B, ENTPD2, VIP
4vesicle-mediated transportGO:01619210.9ARF4, ARF3, ARF6, ARF5
5protein transportGO:01503110.8ARF1, ARF4, ARF3, ARF6, ARF5

Molecular functions related to Cholera according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1GTP bindingGO:00552511.2TRIM23, ARF1, ARF4, ARF3, ARF6, ARF5
2GTPase activityGO:00392410.9ARF1, ARF3, ARF6, ARF5, ARL1, TRIM23
3thioesterase bindingGO:03199610.7ADRA2A, ARF6

Products for genes affiliated with Cholera

  • Antibodies
  • Proteins
  • Lysates
  • Antibodies

Sources for Cholera

3CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
29IUPHAR
30KEGG
35MeSH
36MESH via Orphanet
37MGI
40NCIt
41NDF-RT
44NINDS
45Novoseek
47OMIM
48OMIM via Orphanet
51PubMed
52QIAGEN
58SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
61UMLS
62UMLS via Orphanet