MCID: CHL014
MIFTS: 59

Cholera malady

Rare diseases, Infectious diseases categories

Summaries for Cholera

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9Disease Ontology, 35MedlinePlus, 66Wikipedia, 34MalaCards
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MedlinePlus:35 Cholera is a bacterial infection that causes diarrhea. the cholera bacterium is usually found in water or food contaminated by feces (poop). cholera is rare in the us. you may get it if you travel to parts of the world with inadequate water treatment and poor sanitation, and lack of sewage treatment. outbreaks can also happen after disasters. the disease is not likely to spread directly from one person to another. often the infection is mild or without symptoms, but sometimes it can be severe. severe symptoms include profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, and leg cramps. in severe cases, rapid loss of body fluids leads to dehydration and shock. without treatment, death can occur within hours. doctors diagnose cholera with a stool sample or rectal swab. treatment includes replacing fluid and salts and sometimes antibiotics. anyone who thinks they may have cholera should seek medical attention immediately. dehydration can be rapid so fluid replacement is essential. centers for disease control and prevention

MalaCards: Cholera, also known as cholera due to vibrio cholerae, is related to pancreatic cholera and diarrhea. An important gene associated with Cholera is ARF4 (ADP-ribosylation factor 4), and among its related pathways are Arf6 downstream pathway and Class I PI3K signaling events. The compounds cholera toxin and pacaps have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include small intestine, t cells and b cells.

Disease Ontology:9 A primary bacterial infectious disease that is described as an acute, diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacterium vibrio cholerae, which is characterized by profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, leg cramps, circulatory collapse and shock.

Wikipedia:66 Cholera is an infection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. more...

Aliases & Classifications for Cholera

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9Disease Ontology, 44NIH Rare Diseases, 11DISEASES, 46Novoseek, 50Orphanet, 35MedlinePlus, 63UMLS, 59SNOMED-CT, 28ICD9CM, 36MeSH, 64UMLS via Orphanet, 37MESH via Orphanet, 60SNOMED-CT via Orphanet, 27ICD10 via Orphanet, 26ICD10
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Classifications:

Malacards categories (disease lists): (See all malacards categories)
Global: Rare diseases, Infectious diseases


Characteristics (Orphanet epidemiological data):

50
cholera:
Inheritance: Sporadic; Prevalence: <1/1000000; Age of onset: Variable


Aliases & Descriptions:

cholera 9 44 11 46 50 35 63
cholera due to vibrio cholerae 9
cholera - vibrio cholerae 9
vibrio cholerae infection 44
cholera, unspecified 9
vibrio cholerae 9
cholera nos 9


External Ids:

Disease Ontology9 DOID:1498
ICD9CM28 001.0, 001.9, 001
MeSH36 D002771
UMLS via Orphanet64 C0008354
MESH via Orphanet37 D002771
SNOMED-CT via Orphanet60 63650001
ICD10 via Orphanet27 A00.0, A00.1, A00.9

Related Diseases for Cholera

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18GeneCards, 19GeneDecks
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Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Cholera:



Diseases related to cholera

Symptoms for Cholera

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Drugs & Therapeutics for Cholera

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6CenterWatch, 43NIH Clinical Center, 7ClinicalTrials, 63UMLS, 42NDF-RT
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Approved drugs:

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Drug clinical trials:

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Search NIH Clinical Center for Cholera

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Genetic Tests for Cholera

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Anatomical Context for Cholera

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34MalaCards
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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Cholera:

34
Small intestine, T cells, B cells, Testes, Colon, Monocytes, Brain, Pituitary, Pineal, Pancreatic islet, Skin, Eye, Lung, Kidney, Liver, Adipocyte

Animal Models for Cholera or affiliated genes

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Publications for Cholera

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53PubMed
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Articles related to Cholera:

(show top 50)    (show all 782)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Role of PTEN in cholera toxin-induced SWOa8938 glioma cell differentiation. (23595342)
2013
2
National surveillance data on the epidemiology of cholera in Cameroon. (24101652)
2013
3
First outbreak response using an oral cholera vaccine in Africa: vaccine coverage, acceptability and surveillance of adverse events, Guinea, 2012. (24147164)
2013
4
Strategy, demand, management, and costs of an international cholera vaccine stockpile. (24101640)
2013
5
Cholera outbreaks in Nigeria are associated with multidrug resistant atypical El Tor and non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae. (23459673)
2013
6
Knowledge of, attitudes toward, and preventive practices relating to cholera and oral cholera vaccine among urban high-risk groups: findings of a cross-sectional study in Dhaka, Bangladesh. (23509860)
2013
7
Promotion of colonization and virulence by cholera toxin is dependent on neutrophils. (23798539)
2013
8
Human resources for health: lessons from the cholera outbreak in Papua New Guinea. (24319607)
2013
9
Use of oral cholera vaccine in Haiti: a rural demonstration project. (24106187)
2013
10
Identifiability and estimation of multiple transmission pathways in cholera and waterborne disease. (23333764)
2013
11
Effectiveness of an oral cholera vaccine in Zanzibar: findings from a mass vaccination campaign and observational cohort study. (22954655)
2012
12
Cholera toxin activates nonconventional adjuvant pathways that induce protective CD8 T-cell responses after epicutaneous vaccination. (22308317)
2012
13
Occurrence of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in accessible water sources of cholera endemic foci in India. (22814165)
2012
14
Cholera vaccine: new preventive tool for endemic countries. (22634452)
2012
15
Antigen-specific memory T cell responses after vaccination with an oral killed cholera vaccine in Bangladeshi children and comparison to responses in patients with naturally acquired cholera. (22739692)
2012
16
Safety of the recombinant cholera toxin B subunit, killed whole-cell (rBS-WC) oral cholera vaccine in pregnancy. (22848772)
2012
17
Effect of immunization with a recombinant cholera toxin B subunit/somatostatin fusion protein on immune response and growth hormone levels in mice. (22932932)
2012
18
Molecular epidemiologic investigation of Polish avian Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from fowl cholera outbreaks showing restricted geographical and host-specific distribution. (23050470)
2012
19
Cholera outbreak in Senegal in 2005: was climate a factor? (22952995)
2012
20
Cholera in ecuador: current relevance of past lessons learnt. (21731309)
2011
21
The 2008 cholera epidemic in Zimbabwe: experience of the icddr,b team in the field. (22106761)
2011
22
Unusual case of necrotizing fasciitis caused by Vibrio cholerae O137. (21159937)
2011
23
Intradermal immunization in the ear with cholera toxin and its non-toxic I^ subunit promotes efficient Th1 and Th17 differentiation dependent on migrating DCs. (21792876)
2011
24
No quick fix for Haiti cholera. (22012363)
2011
25
Curing Cholera: Pathogens, Places and Poverty in South Asia. (21874162)
2010
26
Stimulation of intestinal secretion by vasoactive intestinal peptide and cholera toxin. (17023221)
2007
27
Waldemar Mordecai Haffkine, CIE (1860-1930): prophylactic vaccination against cholera and bubonic plague in British India. (17356724)
2007
28
Induction of immunomodulator transcriptional responses by cholera toxin. (16023726)
2006
29
Influence of exogenous reproductive hormones on specific antibody production in genital secretions after vaginal vaccination with recombinant cholera toxin B subunit in humans. (16467326)
2006
30
Hypovolemic shock and metabolic acidosis in a refugee secondary to O1 serotype Vibrio cholerae enteritis. (16841506)
2006
31
Upregulation of human mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 in intestinal epithelial cells is modulated by Vibrio cholerae pathogenesis. (15946665)
2005
32
A cellular metalloproteinase activates Vibrio cholerae pro-cytolysin. (15066987)
2004
33
Intranasal immunization of mice with group B streptococcal protein rib and cholera toxin B subunit confers protection against lethal infection. (14742572)
2004
34
Kinetic mechanism of asparagine synthetase from Vibrio cholerae. (14990305)
2004
35
Coleridge's choleras: cholera morbus, Asiatic cholera, and dysentery in early nineteenth-century England. (12955962)
2003
36
George Leith Roupell FRS (1797-1854): significant contributions to the early nineteenth-century understanding of cholera and typhus. (10994040)
2000
37
Kinetics of local and systemic immune responses to an oral cholera vaccine given alone or together with acetylcysteine. (9521151)
1998
38
Cholera toxin can ADP-ribosylate Gs as well as Gi in ACTH-unresponsive human adrenocortical cancer. (7889122)
1994
39
Effects of pertussis and cholera toxin on the interferon-gamma stimulated immunocytochemical staining of ICAM-1 and inositol phosphate formation in a human renal carcinoma cell line. (7908588)
1993
40
Mechanism of cholera toxin action on a polarized human intestinal epithelial cell line: role of vesicular traffic. (1318883)
1992
41
Cholera toxin induces expression of the immediate-early response gene JE via a cyclic AMP-independent signaling pathway. (1702510)
1991
42
Selective amplification of an mRNA and related pseudogene for a human ADP-ribosylation factor, a guanine nucleotide-dependent protein activator of cholera toxin. (2107548)
1990
43
Studies on the binding and hemagglutinating properties of cholera toxin to human erythrocytes. (2280488)
1990
44
Secretin, cholecystokinin, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in pancreatic cholera. (3019205)
1986
45
Successful treatment of therapy-resistant pancreatic cholera with human leucocyte interferon. (2857998)
1985
46
Streptozotocin treatment in pancreatic cholera (Verner-Morrison) syndrome. (6292031)
1982
47
Effect of experimental trichinosis on intestinal secretion and on local antibody formation to cholera toxin. (6937981)
1980
48
Indomethacin-responsive pancreatic cholera. (197410)
1977
49
Pancreatic cholera. (173092)
1975
50
Watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and achlorhydria associated with pancreatic cholera. Case report. (4344758)
1972

Variations for Cholera

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Expression for genes affiliated with Cholera

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2BioGPS, 16Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
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Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Cholera

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Cholera.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Cholera

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51PathCards, 39NCBI BioSystems Database, 54QIAGEN
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Pathways related to Cholera according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
19.9ARF6, ARF1
29.6ARF1, ARF6, ARF5
3
Show member pathways
Paxillin-independent events mediated by a4b1 and a4b739
a4b1 and a4b7 Integrin signaling39
9.6ARF6, MADCAM1
4
Show member pathways
9.1ARF5, ARF6, ARF4, ARF1, ARF3
5
Show member pathways
8.9CD79A, ARF3, ARF1, ARF4, ARF6, ARF5

Compounds for genes affiliated with Cholera

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46Novoseek, 25HMDB, 12DrugBank, 52PharmGKB, 30IUPHAR
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Compounds related to Cholera according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show top 50)    (show all 73)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1cholera toxin4610.5VIP, ADCY10
2pacaps4610.5VIP, ADCY10
38-(4-chlorophenylthio)-camp4610.4ADCY10, VIP
4dihydrexidine4610.4DRD1, ADCY10
5secretoneurin4610.4VIP, SCG2
6eedq4610.4ADCY10, DRD1
7phenylpropanolamine46 25 1212.4DRD1, ADRA2A
8pacap 384610.4ADCY10, VIP
9zuclopenthixol46 52 1212.3DRD1, ADRA2A
10fenoldopam46 1211.3DRD1, ADRA2A
11brimonidine46 30 1212.3ADCY10, ADRA2A
128-bromo-cyclic amp4610.3DRD1, ADCY10, VIP
13salbutamol46 52 30 25 1214.2CD79A, ADCY10, VIP
14naloxone46 30 52 1213.2DRD1, ADCY10, VIP
15amoxapine30 46 1212.2DRD1, ADRA2A
16atropine46 30 1212.2DRD1, ADCY10, VIP
17grp-14610.1ARF1, ARF6
18fluoride4610.1ADCY10, CD79A, ARF6
19dopac4610.1SCG2, DRD1
20butanol4610.1ARF1, ARF6
21carbacyclin30 4611.1ADCY10, VIP
22bromocriptine46 30 1212.1DRD1, ADCY10, ADRA2A, VIP
23suramin46 30 1212.0CD79A, ADCY10, VIP
24methylphenidate46 52 1212.0DRD1, ADRA2A
25carbachol46 30 1212.0VIP, ADCY10, DRD1, CD79A
26gnrh4610.0SCG2, VIP, ADRA2A, DRD1
27morphine46 52 30 1213.0VIP, ADCY10, DRD1
28catecholamine4610.0VIP, ADRA2A, DRD1, ARF6
29epinephrine46 25 1211.9VIP, ADRA2A, ADCY10, CD79A
30histamine46 30 2511.9SCG2, VIP, ADCY10, CD79A
31acetylcholine46 52 30 25 1213.8SCG2, VIP, ADCY10, DRD1, CD79A
32isoproterenol46 1210.8GUCA2A, VIP, ADRA2A, ADCY10
33phentolamine46 30 1211.8ADRA2A, VIP
34adenylate469.8SCG2, VIP, ADRA2A, ADCY10, DRD1
35guanylate469.7ADCY10, VIP, GUCA2A
36norepinephrine46 25 1211.6SCG2, VIP, ADRA2A, ADCY10, DRD1, CD79A
37dopamine46 30 25 1212.6SCG2, VIP, ADRA2A, ADCY10, DRD1, CD79A
38forskolin46 52 1211.6GUCA2A, SCG2, VIP, ADCY10, DRD1
39cyclic amp46 2510.4SCG2, VIP, ADRA2A, ADCY10, DRD1, ENTPD2
40fmlp469.4SCG2, ADCY10, CCL8, ARF1, ARF6
41rantes469.3SCG2, VIP, CCL8, MADCAM1
42glutamate469.3VIP, ADRA2A, ADCY10, DRD1, CD79A
43cysteine469.3GUCA2A, SCG2, VIP, ADRA2A, DRD1, CD79A
44guanine46 25 1211.3ARF6, VIP, ADRA2A, ADCY10, DRD1, ARF1
45Guanosine triphosphate259.2ENTPD2, ARF3, ARF1, ARF4, ARF6, ARF5
46adp46 30 2510.6ADRA2A, ADCY10, ENTPD2, TRIM23, ARF1, ARF6
47tyrosine468.4GUCA2A, SCG2, VIP, ADRA2A, CCL8, DRD1
48atp46 309.4GUCA2A, SCG2, DRD1, ENTPD2, TRIM23, ARF1
49gtp46 309.3VIP, ADCY10, DRD1, TRIM23, ARF3, ARF1
50calcium46 52 25 1211.0OMP, GUCA2A, SCG2, VIP, ADRA2A, ADCY10

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Cholera

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17Gene Ontology
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Cellular components related to Cholera according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1perinuclear region of cytoplasmGO:0484719.4ARF5, ARF1, ARF3, ADCY10
2Golgi membraneGO:0001398.5TRIM23, ARF3, ARF1, ARL1
3plasma membraneGO:0058867.2ARF5, ADRA2A, ADCY10, MADCAM1, DRD1, ENTPD2

Biological processes related to Cholera according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 12)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1activation of phospholipase D activityGO:03158410.2ARL1, ARF4
2positive regulation of adenylate cyclase activity involved in G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathwayGO:01057910.2DRD1, VIP
3positive regulation of potassium ion transportGO:04326810.1DRD1, ADRA2A
4positive regulation of vasodilationGO:04590910.1ADRA2A, VIP
5long term synaptic depressionGO:0602929.9ARF1, DRD1
6protein ADP-ribosylationGO:0064719.9ART1, ARF4
7cellular component movementGO:0069289.8SCG2, ADRA2A, ARF6
8vesicle-mediated transportGO:0161929.7ARF5, ARF6, ARF4, ARF3
9protein secretionGO:0093069.6SCG2, PPY
10protein transportGO:0150319.3ARF3, ARF1, ARF4, ARF6, ARF5
11GTP catabolic processGO:0061848.5ARF5, ARF6, ARL1, ARF1, ARF3, TRIM23
12small GTPase mediated signal transductionGO:0072648.3TRIM23, ARF3, ARF1, ARF4, ARL1, ARF6

Molecular functions related to Cholera according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1thioesterase bindingGO:03199610.0ARF6, ADRA2A
2hormone activityGO:0051799.2VIP, GUCA2A, PPY
3GTPase activityGO:0039248.1TRIM23, ARF3, ARF1, ARL1, ARF6, ARF5
4GTP bindingGO:0055258.0ARF5, TRIM23, ARF3, ARF1, ARF4, ARL1

Products for genes affiliated with Cholera

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Sources for Cholera

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4CDC
14ExPASy
15FMA
23GTR
24HGMD
25HMDB
26ICD10
27ICD10 via Orphanet
28ICD9CM
30IUPHAR
31KEGG
36MeSH
37MESH via Orphanet
38MGI
41NCIt
42NDF-RT
45NINDS
46Novoseek
48OMIM
49OMIM via Orphanet
53PubMed
54QIAGEN
60SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
63UMLS
64UMLS via Orphanet