MCID: CHL014
MIFTS: 61

Cholera malady

Infectious diseases category

Summaries for Cholera

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8Disease Ontology, 33MedlinePlus, 63Wikipedia, 32MalaCards
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MedlinePlus:33 Cholera is a bacterial infection that causes diarrhea. the cholera bacterium is usually found in water or food contaminated by feces (poop). cholera is rare in the us. you may get it if you travel to parts of the world with inadequate water treatment and poor sanitation, and lack of sewage treatment. outbreaks can also happen after disasters. the disease is not likely to spread directly from one person to another. often the infection is mild or without symptoms, but sometimes it can be severe. severe symptoms include profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, and leg cramps. in severe cases, rapid loss of body fluids leads to dehydration and shock. without treatment, death can occur within hours. doctors diagnose cholera with a stool sample or rectal swab. treatment includes replacing fluid and salts and sometimes antibiotics. anyone who thinks they may have cholera should seek medical attention immediately. dehydration can be rapid so fluid replacement is essential. centers for disease control and prevention

MalaCards: Cholera, also known as cholera due to vibrio cholerae, is related to diarrhea and pertussis. An important gene associated with Cholera is ARF4 (ADP-ribosylation factor 4), and among its related pathways are GPCR Pathway and Neuropathic Pain-Signaling in Dorsal Horn Neurons. The compounds calcium and gtp have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include small intestine, t cells and b cells.

Disease Ontology:8 A primary bacterial infectious disease that is described as an acute, diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacterium vibrio cholerae, which is characterized by profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, leg cramps, circulatory collapse and shock.

Wikipedia:63 Cholera is an infection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. more...

Aliases & Classifications for Cholera

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8Disease Ontology, 42NIH Rare Diseases, 10DISEASES, 44Novoseek, 48Orphanet, 33MedlinePlus, 60UMLS, 56SNOMED-CT, 34MeSH, 27ICD9CM, 61UMLS via Orphanet, 35MESH via Orphanet, 57SNOMED-CT via Orphanet, 26ICD10 via Orphanet, 25ICD10
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Classifications:

Malacards categories (disease lists): (See all malacards categories)
Global: Infectious diseases


Characteristics (Orphanet epidemiological data):

48
cholera:
Inheritance: Sporadic; Prevalence: <1/1000000; Age of onset: Variable


Aliases & Descriptions:

cholera 8 42 10 44 48 33 60
cholera due to vibrio cholerae 8
cholera - vibrio cholerae 8
vibrio cholerae infection 42
cholera, unspecified 8
vibrio cholerae 8
cholera nos 8


External Ids:

Disease Ontology8 DOID:1498
MeSH34 D002771
ICD9CM27 001.0, 001.9, 001
UMLS via Orphanet61 C0008354
MESH via Orphanet35 D002771
SNOMED-CT via Orphanet57 63650001
ICD10 via Orphanet26 A00.0, A00.1, A00.9

Related Diseases for Cholera

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17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
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Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Cholera:



Diseases related to cholera

Clinical Features for Cholera

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Drugs & Therapeutics for Cholera

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5CenterWatch, 41NIH Clinical Center, 6ClinicalTrials, 60UMLS, 40NDF-RT
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Approved drugs:

Search CenterWatch for Cholera

Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Cholera

Search NIH Clinical Center for Cholera

Search CenterWatch for Cholera

Genetic Tests for Cholera

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Anatomical Context for Cholera

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32MalaCards
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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Cholera:

32
Small intestine, T cells, B cells, Testes, Monocytes, Colon, Pituitary, Brain, Pineal, Pancreatic islet, Skin, Lung, Liver, Kidney, Adipocyte, Eye

Animal Models for Cholera or affiliated genes

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Publications for Cholera

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Sources:
50PubMed
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Articles related to Cholera:

(show top 50)    (show all 796)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
National surveillance data on the epidemiology of cholera in Cameroon. (24101652)
2013
2
Association Between Earthquake Events and Cholera Outbreaks: A Cross-country 15-year Longitudinal Analysis. (24168784)
2013
3
Immunization with cholera toxin B subunit induces high-level protection in the suckling mouse model of cholera. (23468950)
2013
4
Natural selection in a bangladeshi population from the cholera-endemic ganges river delta. (23825302)
2013
5
Correction: Risk Map of Cholera Infection for Vaccine Deployment: The Eastern Kolkata Case. (24260085)
2013
6
Genome Sequences of Clinical Vibrio cholerae Isolates from an Oyster-Borne Cholera Outbreak in Florida. (24265497)
2013
7
The I^-Subunit of Cholera Toxin has a High Affinity for Ganglioside GM1 Embedded into Solid Supported Lipid Membranes with a Lipid Raft-Like Composition. (24122042)
2013
8
Cholera in Haiti takes a turn for the worse. (23589912)
2013
9
Drug response and genetic properties of Vibrio cholerae associated with endemic cholera in north-eastern Thailand, 2003-2011. (23319310)
2013
10
Cholera: pathophysiology and emerging therapeutic targets. (23651092)
2013
11
Cholera toxin disrupts barrier function by inhibiting exocyst-mediated trafficking of host proteins to intestinal cell junctions. (24034615)
2013
12
Performance and utility of a rapid diagnostic test for cholera: notes from Haiti. (23886437)
2013
13
Cholera surveillance in Uganda: an analysis of notifications for the years 2007-2011. (24101649)
2013
14
Uptake of household disinfection kits as an additional measure in response to a cholera outbreak in urban areas of Haiti. (24334836)
2013
15
Molecular characterization of high-level-cholera-toxin-producing El Tor variant Vibrio cholerae strains in the Zanzibar Archipelago of Tanzania. (23325815)
2013
16
An overview of cholera vaccines and their public health implications. (22157363)
2012
17
Plague and cholera in the genomics era. (22369152)
2012
18
Both El Tor and classical cholera toxin bind blood group determinants. (22305717)
2012
19
Rapid assessment of cholera-related deaths, Artibonite Department, Haiti, 2010. (22099119)
2011
20
South Asia instead of Nepal may be the origin of the Haitian cholera outbreak strains. (21990616)
2011
21
Amplified fragment length polymorphism of clinical and environmental Vibrio cholerae from a freshwater environment in a cholera-endemic area, India. (21936962)
2011
22
Preparing health care workers for a cholera epidemic, Dominican Republic, 2010. (22204042)
2011
23
Stability analysis and application of a mathematical cholera model. (21675808)
2011
24
Structural inferences for Cholera toxin mutations in Vibrio cholerae. (21464837)
2011
25
Estrogen inhibits chloride secretion caused by cholera and Escherichia coli enterotoxins in female rat distal colon. (21600231)
2011
26
Natural cholera infection-derived immunity in an endemic setting. (21849288)
2011
27
Evaluation of pot-chlorination of wells during a cholera outbreak, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, 2008. (21942203)
2011
28
Ufd1-Npl4 is a negative regulator of cholera toxin retrotranslocation. (17331469)
2007
29
Protective role of autophagy against Vibrio cholerae cytolysin, a pore-forming toxin from V. cholerae. (17267617)
2007
30
A cellular metalloproteinase activates Vibrio cholerae pro-cytolysin. (15066987)
2004
31
George Leith Roupell FRS (1797-1854): significant contributions to the early nineteenth-century understanding of cholera and typhus. (10994040)
2000
32
Albendazole treatment of children with ascariasis enhances the vibriocidal antibody response to the live attenuated oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR. (10979918)
2000
33
Immune responses in ileostomy fluid and serum after oral cholera vaccination of patients colectomized because of ulcerative colitis. (9673295)
1998
34
Antisera to selected outer membrane proteins of Vibrio cholerae protect against challenge with homologous and heterologous strains of V. cholerae. (9879921)
1998
35
Effects of arfaptin 1 on guanine nucleotide-dependent activation of phospholipase D and cholera toxin by ADP-ribosylation factor. (9694811)
1998
36
Acetorphan prevents cholera-toxin-induced water and electrolyte secretion in the human jejunum. (9355788)
1997
37
Expression of the cholera toxin B subunit in the Golgi apparatus of Swiss 3T3 cells inhibits DNA synthesis induced by basic fibroblast growth factor. (8797101)
1996
38
Prostaglandin E1, E2, and cholera toxin increase transcription of the brain creatine kinase gene in human U87 glioblastoma cells. (8926040)
1995
39
Acute acalculous cholecystitis due to Vibrio cholerae. (7482176)
1995
40
Cholera toxin can ADP-ribosylate Gs as well as Gi in ACTH-unresponsive human adrenocortical cancer. (7889122)
1994
41
Comparison of systemic and mucosal priming for mucosal immune responses to a bacterial protein antigen given with or coupled to cholera toxin (CT) B subunit, and effects of pre-existing anti-CT immunity. (8165853)
1994
42
Cholera toxin beta subunit induces the differentiation of human medulloblastoma cell line DEV in a neuronal pathway. (7850027)
1994
43
Immune response following oral administration of cholera toxin B subunit to HIV-1-infected UK and Kenyan subjects. (8086136)
1994
44
Cholera toxin potentiates TPA-induced mitogenesis and c-fos expression in BALB/c-3T3-derived proadipocytes. (1331128)
1992
45
Cholera toxin inhibits interleukin-2-induced, but enhances pertussis toxin-induced T-cell proliferation: regulation by cyclic nucleotides. (1311282)
1992
46
Characterization of the human gene encoding ADP-ribosylation factor 1, a guanine nucleotide-binding activator of cholera toxin. (1577740)
1992
47
Chloroquine inhibition of cholera toxin. (2175711)
1990
48
Strategies for the development of vaccines for typhoid fever, shigellosis, and cholera. (2698084)
1989
49
Pancreatic cholera. (6322070)
1984
50
The pancreatic cholera syndrome. (6244130)
1980

Genetic Variations for Cholera

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Expression for genes affiliated with Cholera

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1BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
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Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Cholera

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Cholera.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Cholera

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51QIAGEN, 37NCBI BioSystems Database, 53Reactome
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Pathways related to Cholera according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1
Hide members
11.2ARF1, ARF4, ARF3, ARF6, ARF5, CD79A
2
Hide members
11.1ARF5, ARF6, ARF3, ARF4, ARF1
310.8ARF1, ARF6, ARF5
410.7ARF6, ARF1
5
Hide members
10.7ARF3, ARF1

Compounds for genes affiliated with Cholera

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44Novoseek, 49PharmGKB, 11DrugBank, 24HMDB, 28IUPHAR, 59Tocris Bioscience
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Compounds related to Cholera according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 39)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1calcium44 49 11 2415.1VIP, CCL8, GUCA2A, ARF6, OMP, MUC2
2gtp44 2812.7VIP, ARF1, ARF3, ARF6, ARL1, TRIM23
3guanine44 11 2413.6ADCY10, ADRA2A, ARF6, ARF4, ARF1, VIP
4adp44 28 2413.6ARF1, ARF6, TRIM23, ENTPD2, ADRA2A, ADCY10
5fmlp4411.5CCL8, ARF1, ARF6, ADORA2B, ADCY10
6forskolin44 49 1113.5ADCY10, ADORA2B, MUC2, GUCA2A, VIP
7cyclic amp44 2412.4VIP, ENTPD2, ADORA2B, ADRA2A, ADCY10
8Guanosine-5'-Diphosphate1111.4ARF1, ARF4, ARF6, ARL1
9isoproterenol44 1112.3VIP, GUCA2A, ADRA2A, ADCY10
10epinephrine44 11 2413.3VIP, CD79A, ADRA2A, ADCY10
11salbutamol44 49 28 11 2415.2VIP, CD79A, ADCY10
12norepinephrine44 11 2413.2VIP, CD79A, ADRA2A, ADCY10
13fluoride4411.2ADCY10, CD79A, ARF6
14bromocriptine28 44 1113.2VIP, ADRA2A, ADCY10
15theophylline44 28 11 2414.2CD79A, ADORA2B, ADCY10
16pge14411.2VIP, ADORA2B, ADCY10
17cholera toxin4411.1VIP, ADCY10
18pacaps4411.1VIP, ADCY10
198-(4-chlorophenylthio)-camp4411.1ADCY10, VIP
20suramin44 28 1113.1ADCY10, CD79A, VIP
21enprofylline44 1112.1ADCY10, ADORA2B
22grp-14411.1ARF1, ARF6
23catecholamine4411.1VIP, ARF6, ADRA2A
24cgs216804411.1ADORA2B, ADCY10
25pacap 384411.0ADCY10, VIP
262 chloroadenosine4411.0ADORA2B, ADCY10
275-n-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine4411.0ADORA2B, ADCY10
28brimonidine28 44 1113.0ADRA2A, ADCY10
29butanol4411.0ARF6, ARF1
30guanylate4410.9ADCY10, GUCA2A, VIP
318-bromo-cyclic amp4410.9ADCY10, VIP
32carbacyclin44 2811.9ADCY10, VIP
33sodium fluoride4410.9VIP, ADCY10
34phentolamine28 44 1112.9VIP, ADRA2A
35agmatine44 28 11 2413.8ART1, ARF1
368-bromo cgmp4410.7VIP, GUCA2A
37ptdins(3)p4410.7ARF6, ARF1
38phosphoinositide4410.7ADCY10, ADORA2B, ARF6, ARF1
39bumetanide44 59 28 1113.6VIP, GUCA2A

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Cholera

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16Gene Ontology
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Cellular components related to Cholera according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1plasma membraneGO:00588611.4ARF6, ART1, ARF4, ARF1, ARF5, MADCAM1
2Golgi apparatusGO:00579411.1ARF6, ARF5, ARL1, STX16, ARF4
3Golgi membraneGO:00013911.0TRIM23, STX16, ARL1, ARF3, ARF1

Biological processes related to Cholera according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1small GTPase mediated signal transductionGO:00726411.3ARF1, ARF4, ARF3, ARF6, ARF5, ARL1
2GTP catabolic processGO:00618411.3TRIM23, ARL1, ARF5, ARF6, ARF3, ARF1
3G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathwayGO:00718611.0ADRA2A, ADORA2B, ENTPD2, VIP
4vesicle-mediated transportGO:01619210.9ARF4, ARF3, ARF6, ARF5
5protein transportGO:01503110.8ARF1, ARF4, ARF3, ARF6, ARF5

Molecular functions related to Cholera according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1GTP bindingGO:00552511.2TRIM23, ARF1, ARF4, ARF3, ARF6, ARF5
2GTPase activityGO:00392410.9ARF1, ARF3, ARF6, ARF5, ARL1, TRIM23
3thioesterase bindingGO:03199610.7ADRA2A, ARF6

Products for genes affiliated with Cholera

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  • Antibodies
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  • Lysates
  • Antibodies

Sources for Cholera

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3CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
28IUPHAR
29KEGG
34MeSH
35MESH via Orphanet
36MGI
39NCIt
40NDF-RT
43NINDS
44Novoseek
46OMIM
47OMIM via Orphanet
50PubMed
51QIAGEN
57SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
60UMLS
61UMLS via Orphanet