MCID: CHL014
MIFTS: 59

Cholera malady

Rare diseases, Infectious diseases categories
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Summaries for Cholera

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8Disease Ontology, 34MedlinePlus, 65Wikipedia, 33MalaCards
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MedlinePlus:34 Cholera is a bacterial infection that causes diarrhea. the cholera bacterium is usually found in water or food contaminated by feces (poop). cholera is rare in the us. you may get it if you travel to parts of the world with inadequate water treatment and poor sanitation, and lack of sewage treatment. outbreaks can also happen after disasters. the disease is not likely to spread directly from one person to another. often the infection is mild or without symptoms, but sometimes it can be severe. severe symptoms include profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, and leg cramps. in severe cases, rapid loss of body fluids leads to dehydration and shock. without treatment, death can occur within hours. doctors diagnose cholera with a stool sample or rectal swab. treatment includes replacing fluid and salts and sometimes antibiotics. anyone who thinks they may have cholera should seek medical attention immediately. dehydration can be rapid so fluid replacement is essential. centers for disease control and prevention

MalaCards: Cholera, also known as cholera due to vibrio cholerae, is related to pancreatic cholera and diarrhea. An important gene associated with Cholera is ARF4 (ADP-ribosylation factor 4), and among its related pathways are Arf6 downstream pathway and Class I PI3K signaling events. The compounds cholera toxin and pacaps have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include small intestine, t cells and b cells.

Disease Ontology:8 A primary bacterial infectious disease that is described as an acute, diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacterium vibrio cholerae, which is characterized by profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, leg cramps, circulatory collapse and shock.

Wikipedia:65 Cholera is an infection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. more...

Aliases & Classifications for Cholera

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8Disease Ontology, 43NIH Rare Diseases, 10DISEASES, 45Novoseek, 49Orphanet, 34MedlinePlus, 62UMLS, 58SNOMED-CT, 27ICD9CM, 35MeSH, 63UMLS via Orphanet, 36MESH via Orphanet, 59SNOMED-CT via Orphanet, 26ICD10 via Orphanet, 25ICD10
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Classifications:

Malacards categories (disease lists): (See all malacards categories)
Global: Rare diseases, Infectious diseases


Characteristics (Orphanet epidemiological data):

49
cholera:
Inheritance: Sporadic; Prevalence: <1/1000000; Age of onset: Variable


Aliases & Descriptions:

cholera 8 43 10 45 49 34 62
cholera due to vibrio cholerae 8
cholera - vibrio cholerae 8
vibrio cholerae infection 43
cholera, unspecified 8
vibrio cholerae 8
cholera nos 8


External Ids:

Disease Ontology8 DOID:1498
ICD9CM27 001.0, 001.9, 001
MeSH35 D002771
UMLS via Orphanet63 C0008354
MESH via Orphanet36 D002771
SNOMED-CT via Orphanet59 63650001
ICD10 via Orphanet26 A00.0, A00.1, A00.9

Related Diseases for Cholera

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17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
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Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Cholera:



Diseases related to cholera

Symptoms for Cholera

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Drugs & Therapeutics for Cholera

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42NIH Clinical Center, 6ClinicalTrials, 62UMLS, 41NDF-RT
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Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Cholera

Search NIH Clinical Center for Cholera

Genetic Tests for Cholera

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Anatomical Context for Cholera

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33MalaCards
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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Cholera:

33
Small intestine, T cells, B cells, Testes, Colon, Monocytes, Brain, Pituitary, Pineal, Pancreatic islet, Skin, Eye, Lung, Kidney, Liver, Adipocyte

Animal Models for Cholera or affiliated genes

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Publications for Cholera

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Sources:
52PubMed
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Articles related to Cholera:

(show top 50)    (show all 782)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Role of PTEN in cholera toxin-induced SWOa8938 glioma cell differentiation. (23595342)
2013
2
National surveillance data on the epidemiology of cholera in Cameroon. (24101652)
2013
3
First outbreak response using an oral cholera vaccine in Africa: vaccine coverage, acceptability and surveillance of adverse events, Guinea, 2012. (24147164)
2013
4
Strategy, demand, management, and costs of an international cholera vaccine stockpile. (24101640)
2013
5
Cholera outbreaks in Nigeria are associated with multidrug resistant atypical El Tor and non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae. (23459673)
2013
6
Knowledge of, attitudes toward, and preventive practices relating to cholera and oral cholera vaccine among urban high-risk groups: findings of a cross-sectional study in Dhaka, Bangladesh. (23509860)
2013
7
Promotion of colonization and virulence by cholera toxin is dependent on neutrophils. (23798539)
2013
8
Human resources for health: lessons from the cholera outbreak in Papua New Guinea. (24319607)
2013
9
Use of oral cholera vaccine in Haiti: a rural demonstration project. (24106187)
2013
10
Identifiability and estimation of multiple transmission pathways in cholera and waterborne disease. (23333764)
2013
11
Effectiveness of an oral cholera vaccine in Zanzibar: findings from a mass vaccination campaign and observational cohort study. (22954655)
2012
12
Cholera toxin activates nonconventional adjuvant pathways that induce protective CD8 T-cell responses after epicutaneous vaccination. (22308317)
2012
13
Occurrence of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in accessible water sources of cholera endemic foci in India. (22814165)
2012
14
Cholera vaccine: new preventive tool for endemic countries. (22634452)
2012
15
Antigen-specific memory T cell responses after vaccination with an oral killed cholera vaccine in Bangladeshi children and comparison to responses in patients with naturally acquired cholera. (22739692)
2012
16
Safety of the recombinant cholera toxin B subunit, killed whole-cell (rBS-WC) oral cholera vaccine in pregnancy. (22848772)
2012
17
Effect of immunization with a recombinant cholera toxin B subunit/somatostatin fusion protein on immune response and growth hormone levels in mice. (22932932)
2012
18
Molecular epidemiologic investigation of Polish avian Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from fowl cholera outbreaks showing restricted geographical and host-specific distribution. (23050470)
2012
19
Cholera outbreak in Senegal in 2005: was climate a factor? (22952995)
2012
20
Cholera in ecuador: current relevance of past lessons learnt. (21731309)
2011
21
The 2008 cholera epidemic in Zimbabwe: experience of the icddr,b team in the field. (22106761)
2011
22
Unusual case of necrotizing fasciitis caused by Vibrio cholerae O137. (21159937)
2011
23
Intradermal immunization in the ear with cholera toxin and its non-toxic I^ subunit promotes efficient Th1 and Th17 differentiation dependent on migrating DCs. (21792876)
2011
24
No quick fix for Haiti cholera. (22012363)
2011
25
Curing Cholera: Pathogens, Places and Poverty in South Asia. (21874162)
2010
26
Stimulation of intestinal secretion by vasoactive intestinal peptide and cholera toxin. (17023221)
2007
27
Waldemar Mordecai Haffkine, CIE (1860-1930): prophylactic vaccination against cholera and bubonic plague in British India. (17356724)
2007
28
Induction of immunomodulator transcriptional responses by cholera toxin. (16023726)
2006
29
Influence of exogenous reproductive hormones on specific antibody production in genital secretions after vaginal vaccination with recombinant cholera toxin B subunit in humans. (16467326)
2006
30
Hypovolemic shock and metabolic acidosis in a refugee secondary to O1 serotype Vibrio cholerae enteritis. (16841506)
2006
31
Upregulation of human mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 in intestinal epithelial cells is modulated by Vibrio cholerae pathogenesis. (15946665)
2005
32
A cellular metalloproteinase activates Vibrio cholerae pro-cytolysin. (15066987)
2004
33
Intranasal immunization of mice with group B streptococcal protein rib and cholera toxin B subunit confers protection against lethal infection. (14742572)
2004
34
Kinetic mechanism of asparagine synthetase from Vibrio cholerae. (14990305)
2004
35
Coleridge's choleras: cholera morbus, Asiatic cholera, and dysentery in early nineteenth-century England. (12955962)
2003
36
George Leith Roupell FRS (1797-1854): significant contributions to the early nineteenth-century understanding of cholera and typhus. (10994040)
2000
37
Kinetics of local and systemic immune responses to an oral cholera vaccine given alone or together with acetylcysteine. (9521151)
1998
38
Cholera toxin can ADP-ribosylate Gs as well as Gi in ACTH-unresponsive human adrenocortical cancer. (7889122)
1994
39
Effects of pertussis and cholera toxin on the interferon-gamma stimulated immunocytochemical staining of ICAM-1 and inositol phosphate formation in a human renal carcinoma cell line. (7908588)
1993
40
Mechanism of cholera toxin action on a polarized human intestinal epithelial cell line: role of vesicular traffic. (1318883)
1992
41
Cholera toxin induces expression of the immediate-early response gene JE via a cyclic AMP-independent signaling pathway. (1702510)
1991
42
Selective amplification of an mRNA and related pseudogene for a human ADP-ribosylation factor, a guanine nucleotide-dependent protein activator of cholera toxin. (2107548)
1990
43
Studies on the binding and hemagglutinating properties of cholera toxin to human erythrocytes. (2280488)
1990
44
Secretin, cholecystokinin, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in pancreatic cholera. (3019205)
1986
45
Successful treatment of therapy-resistant pancreatic cholera with human leucocyte interferon. (2857998)
1985
46
Streptozotocin treatment in pancreatic cholera (Verner-Morrison) syndrome. (6292031)
1982
47
Effect of experimental trichinosis on intestinal secretion and on local antibody formation to cholera toxin. (6937981)
1980
48
Indomethacin-responsive pancreatic cholera. (197410)
1977
49
Pancreatic cholera. (173092)
1975
50
Watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and achlorhydria associated with pancreatic cholera. Case report. (4344758)
1972

Variations for Cholera

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Expression for genes affiliated with Cholera

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2BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
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Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Cholera

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Cholera.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Cholera

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50PathCards, 38NCBI BioSystems Database, 53QIAGEN
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Pathways related to Cholera according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
19.9ARF6, ARF1
29.6ARF1, ARF6, ARF5
3
Show member pathways
Paxillin-independent events mediated by a4b1 and a4b738
a4b1 and a4b7 Integrin signaling38
9.6ARF6, MADCAM1
4
Show member pathways
9.1ARF5, ARF6, ARF4, ARF1, ARF3
5
Show member pathways
8.9CD79A, ARF3, ARF1, ARF4, ARF6, ARF5

Compounds for genes affiliated with Cholera

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45Novoseek, 24HMDB, 11DrugBank, 51PharmGKB, 29IUPHAR
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Compounds related to Cholera according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show top 50)    (show all 73)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1cholera toxin4510.5VIP, ADCY10
2pacaps4510.5VIP, ADCY10
38-(4-chlorophenylthio)-camp4510.4ADCY10, VIP
4dihydrexidine4510.4DRD1, ADCY10
5secretoneurin4510.4VIP, SCG2
6eedq4510.4ADCY10, DRD1
7phenylpropanolamine45 24 1112.4DRD1, ADRA2A
8pacap 384510.4ADCY10, VIP
9zuclopenthixol45 51 1112.3DRD1, ADRA2A
10fenoldopam45 1111.3DRD1, ADRA2A
11brimonidine45 29 1112.3ADCY10, ADRA2A
128-bromo-cyclic amp4510.3DRD1, ADCY10, VIP
13salbutamol45 51 29 24 1114.2CD79A, ADCY10, VIP
14naloxone45 29 51 1113.2DRD1, ADCY10, VIP
15amoxapine29 45 1112.2DRD1, ADRA2A
16atropine45 29 1112.2DRD1, ADCY10, VIP
17grp-14510.1ARF1, ARF6
18fluoride4510.1ADCY10, CD79A, ARF6
19dopac4510.1SCG2, DRD1
20butanol4510.1ARF1, ARF6
21carbacyclin29 4511.1ADCY10, VIP
22bromocriptine45 29 1112.1DRD1, ADCY10, ADRA2A, VIP
23suramin45 29 1112.0CD79A, ADCY10, VIP
24methylphenidate45 51 1112.0DRD1, ADRA2A
25carbachol45 29 1112.0VIP, ADCY10, DRD1, CD79A
26gnrh4510.0SCG2, VIP, ADRA2A, DRD1
27morphine45 51 29 1113.0VIP, ADCY10, DRD1
28catecholamine4510.0VIP, ADRA2A, DRD1, ARF6
29epinephrine45 24 1111.9VIP, ADRA2A, ADCY10, CD79A
30histamine45 29 2411.9SCG2, VIP, ADCY10, CD79A
31acetylcholine45 51 29 24 1113.8SCG2, VIP, ADCY10, DRD1, CD79A
32isoproterenol45 1110.8GUCA2A, VIP, ADRA2A, ADCY10
33phentolamine45 29 1111.8ADRA2A, VIP
34adenylate459.8SCG2, VIP, ADRA2A, ADCY10, DRD1
35guanylate459.7ADCY10, VIP, GUCA2A
36norepinephrine45 24 1111.6SCG2, VIP, ADRA2A, ADCY10, DRD1, CD79A
37dopamine45 29 24 1112.6SCG2, VIP, ADRA2A, ADCY10, DRD1, CD79A
38forskolin45 51 1111.6GUCA2A, SCG2, VIP, ADCY10, DRD1
39cyclic amp45 2410.4SCG2, VIP, ADRA2A, ADCY10, DRD1, ENTPD2
40fmlp459.4SCG2, ADCY10, CCL8, ARF1, ARF6
41rantes459.3SCG2, VIP, CCL8, MADCAM1
42glutamate459.3VIP, ADRA2A, ADCY10, DRD1, CD79A
43cysteine459.3GUCA2A, SCG2, VIP, ADRA2A, DRD1, CD79A
44guanine45 24 1111.3ARF6, VIP, ADRA2A, ADCY10, DRD1, ARF1
45Guanosine triphosphate249.2ENTPD2, ARF3, ARF1, ARF4, ARF6, ARF5
46adp45 29 2410.6ADRA2A, ADCY10, ENTPD2, TRIM23, ARF1, ARF6
47tyrosine458.4GUCA2A, SCG2, VIP, ADRA2A, CCL8, DRD1
48atp45 299.4GUCA2A, SCG2, DRD1, ENTPD2, TRIM23, ARF1
49gtp45 299.3VIP, ADCY10, DRD1, TRIM23, ARF3, ARF1
50calcium45 51 24 1111.0OMP, GUCA2A, SCG2, VIP, ADRA2A, ADCY10

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Cholera

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16Gene Ontology
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Cellular components related to Cholera according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1perinuclear region of cytoplasmGO:0484719.4ARF5, ARF1, ARF3, ADCY10
2Golgi membraneGO:0001398.5TRIM23, ARF3, ARF1, ARL1
3plasma membraneGO:0058867.2ARF5, ADRA2A, ADCY10, MADCAM1, DRD1, ENTPD2

Biological processes related to Cholera according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 12)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1activation of phospholipase D activityGO:03158410.2ARL1, ARF4
2positive regulation of adenylate cyclase activity involved in G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathwayGO:01057910.2DRD1, VIP
3positive regulation of potassium ion transportGO:04326810.1DRD1, ADRA2A
4positive regulation of vasodilationGO:04590910.1ADRA2A, VIP
5long term synaptic depressionGO:0602929.9ARF1, DRD1
6protein ADP-ribosylationGO:0064719.9ART1, ARF4
7cellular component movementGO:0069289.8SCG2, ADRA2A, ARF6
8vesicle-mediated transportGO:0161929.7ARF5, ARF6, ARF4, ARF3
9protein secretionGO:0093069.6SCG2, PPY
10protein transportGO:0150319.3ARF3, ARF1, ARF4, ARF6, ARF5
11GTP catabolic processGO:0061848.5ARF5, ARF6, ARL1, ARF1, ARF3, TRIM23
12small GTPase mediated signal transductionGO:0072648.3TRIM23, ARF3, ARF1, ARF4, ARL1, ARF6

Molecular functions related to Cholera according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1thioesterase bindingGO:03199610.0ARF6, ADRA2A
2hormone activityGO:0051799.2VIP, GUCA2A, PPY
3GTPase activityGO:0039248.1TRIM23, ARF3, ARF1, ARL1, ARF6, ARF5
4GTP bindingGO:0055258.0ARF5, TRIM23, ARF3, ARF1, ARF4, ARL1

Products for genes affiliated with Cholera

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Sources for Cholera

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4CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
29IUPHAR
30KEGG
35MeSH
36MESH via Orphanet
37MGI
40NCIt
41NDF-RT
44NINDS
45Novoseek
47OMIM
48OMIM via Orphanet
52PubMed
53QIAGEN
59SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
62UMLS
63UMLS via Orphanet