MCID: CHL014
MIFTS: 61

Cholera malady

Infectious diseases category

Summaries for Cholera

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8Disease Ontology, 33MedlinePlus, 63Wikipedia, 32MalaCards
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MedlinePlus:33 Cholera is a bacterial infection that causes diarrhea. the cholera bacterium is usually found in water or food contaminated by feces (poop). cholera is rare in the us. you may get it if you travel to parts of the world with inadequate water treatment and poor sanitation, and lack of sewage treatment. outbreaks can also happen after disasters. the disease is not likely to spread directly from one person to another. often the infection is mild or without symptoms, but sometimes it can be severe. severe symptoms include profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, and leg cramps. in severe cases, rapid loss of body fluids leads to dehydration and shock. without treatment, death can occur within hours. doctors diagnose cholera with a stool sample or rectal swab. treatment includes replacing fluid and salts and sometimes antibiotics. anyone who thinks they may have cholera should seek medical attention immediately. dehydration can be rapid so fluid replacement is essential. centers for disease control and prevention

MalaCards: Cholera, also known as cholera due to vibrio cholerae, is related to diarrhea and pertussis. An important gene associated with Cholera is ARF4 (ADP-ribosylation factor 4), and among its related pathways are GPCR Pathway and Neuropathic Pain-Signaling in Dorsal Horn Neurons. The compounds calcium and gtp have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include small intestine, t cells and b cells.

Disease Ontology:8 A primary bacterial infectious disease that is described as an acute, diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacterium vibrio cholerae, which is characterized by profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, leg cramps, circulatory collapse and shock.

Wikipedia:63 Cholera is an infection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. more...

Aliases & Classifications for Cholera

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8Disease Ontology, 42NIH Rare Diseases, 10DISEASES, 44Novoseek, 48Orphanet, 33MedlinePlus, 60UMLS, 56SNOMED-CT, 34MeSH, 27ICD9CM, 61UMLS via Orphanet, 35MESH via Orphanet, 57SNOMED-CT via Orphanet, 26ICD10 via Orphanet, 25ICD10
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Classifications:

Malacards categories (disease lists): (See all malacards categories)
Global: Infectious diseases


Characteristics (Orphanet epidemiological data):

48
cholera:
Inheritance: Sporadic; Prevalence: <1/1000000; Age of onset: Variable


Aliases & Descriptions:

cholera 8 42 10 44 48 33 60
cholera due to vibrio cholerae 8
cholera - vibrio cholerae 8
vibrio cholerae infection 42
cholera, unspecified 8
vibrio cholerae 8
cholera nos 8


External Ids:

Disease Ontology8 DOID:1498
MeSH34 D002771
ICD9CM27 001.0, 001.9, 001
UMLS via Orphanet61 C0008354
MESH via Orphanet35 D002771
SNOMED-CT via Orphanet57 63650001
ICD10 via Orphanet26 A00.0, A00.1, A00.9

Related Diseases for Cholera

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17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
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Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Cholera:



Diseases related to cholera

Clinical Features for Cholera

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Drugs & Therapeutics for Cholera

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5CenterWatch, 41NIH Clinical Center, 6ClinicalTrials, 60UMLS, 40NDF-RT
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Approved drugs:

Search CenterWatch for Cholera

Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Cholera

Search NIH Clinical Center for Cholera

Search CenterWatch for Cholera

Genetic Tests for Cholera

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Anatomical Context for Cholera

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32MalaCards
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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Cholera:

32
Small intestine, T cells, B cells, Testes, Monocytes, Colon, Pituitary, Brain, Pineal, Pancreatic islet, Skin, Lung, Liver, Kidney, Adipocyte, Eye

Animal Models for Cholera or affiliated genes

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Publications for Cholera

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Sources:
50PubMed
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Articles related to Cholera:

(show top 50)    (show all 796)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Cholera outbreaks in Nigeria are associated with multidrug resistant atypical El Tor and non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae. (23459673)
2013
2
Promotion of colonization and virulence by cholera toxin is dependent on neutrophils. (23798539)
2013
3
Assessment of the relationship between bacteriological quality of dug-wells, hygiene behaviour and well characteristics in two cholera endemic localities in Douala, Cameroon. (23895357)
2013
4
Modern cholera in the Americas: an opportunistic societal infection. (24028256)
2013
5
Comparing sociocultural features of cholera in three endemic African settings. (24047241)
2013
6
Shellfish-acquired Vibrio cholerae cellulitis and sepsis from a vulnerable leg. (24045356)
2013
7
Vibrio cholerae non-O1 and non-O139 bacteremia in a non-traveler Portuguese cirrhotic patient: first case report. (23164747)
2013
8
Environmental factors influencing epidemic cholera. (24306033)
2013
9
Cholera-like illness due to Aeromonas caviae. (24222288)
2013
10
Quantitative detection of Vibrio cholera toxin by real-time and dynamic cytotoxicity monitoring. (24048535)
2013
11
Subcutaneous cholera toxin exposure induces potent CD103a8_ dermal dendritic cell activation and migration. (23794196)
2013
12
Commentary: Nobody loves a critic: Edmund A Parkes and John Snow's cholera. (24415590)
2013
13
Elimination of cholera in the democratic Republic of the Congo: the new national policy. (24101651)
2013
14
Determination of tolerable fatty acids and cholera toxin concentrations using human intestinal epithelial cells and BALB/c mouse macrophages. (23748896)
2013
15
Ganglioside GM1-mediated transcytosis of cholera toxin bypasses the retrograde pathway and depends on the structure of the ceramide domain. (23884419)
2013
16
Molecular characterization of the circulating strains of Vibrio cholerae during 2010 cholera outbreak in Nigeria. (23930335)
2013
17
Did cholera toxin finally get caught? (23684299)
2013
18
A cholera model in a patchy environment with water and human movement. (23958383)
2013
19
The burden of cholera in Uganda. (24340106)
2013
20
Examining rainfall and cholera dynamics in Haiti using statistical and dynamic modeling approaches. (24267876)
2013
21
Costs of illness due to endemic cholera. (21554781)
2012
22
Expression of the cholera toxin B subunit (CT-B) in maize seeds and a combined mucosal treatment against cholera and traveler's diarrhea. (21938449)
2012
23
Infectious diseases. Second bacterium theory stirs Haiti's cholera controversy. (22723386)
2012
24
Cholera: small outbreak in winter season of eastern Nepal. (23272311)
2012
25
Environmental and epidemiological surveillance of Vibrio cholerae in a cholera-endemic region in India with freshwater environs. (22054549)
2012
26
The role of aquatic reservoir fluctuations in long-term cholera patterns. (22325012)
2012
27
Multinational cholera outbreak after wedding in the Dominican Republic. (22204039)
2011
28
Rapid development and use of a nationwide training program for cholera management, Haiti, 2010. (22099112)
2011
29
Cholera prevention training materials for community health workers, Haiti, 2010a892011. (22204034)
2011
30
Association of cholera toxin with Vibrio cholerae outer membrane vesicles which are internalized by human intestinal epithelial cells. (21510946)
2011
31
LPLUNC1 modulates innate immune responses to Vibrio cholerae. (21900486)
2011
32
Lessons from cholera &amp; Vibrio cholerae. (21415490)
2011
33
Reply to &quot;South Asia instead of Nepal may be the origin of the Haitian cholera outbreak strain&quot;. (22045990)
2011
34
Molecular characterization reveals involvement of altered El Tor biotype Vibrio cholerae O1 strains in cholera outbreak at Hyderabad, India. (21538250)
2011
35
Vibrio cholerae cytolysin is essential for high enterotoxicity and apoptosis induction produced by a cholera toxin gene-negative V. cholerae non-O1, non-O139 strain. (17919878)
2008
36
Cholera toxin up-regulates endoplasmic reticulum proteins that correlate with sensitivity to the toxin. (18222971)
2008
37
Waldemar Mordecai Haffkine, CIE (1860-1930): prophylactic vaccination against cholera and bubonic plague in British India. (17356724)
2007
38
Human intestinal epithelial cell cytokine mRNA responses mediated by NF-kappaB are modulated by the motility and adhesion process of Vibrio cholerae. (17590380)
2007
39
Experimental immunisation and protection of guinea pigs with Vibrio cholerae toxoid and mucinases, neuraminidase and proteinase. (15149770)
2004
40
Molecular cloning and characterization of an ABC multidrug efflux pump, VcaM, in Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae. (12878498)
2003
41
Analysis of toxin genetic determinants of Vibrio cholerae virulence cassette and neuraminidase with DNA probes]. (11548252)
2001
42
Adjuvant effects of cholera toxin b subunit on immune response to recombinant thyrotropin receptor in mice. (10648115)
2000
43
Vibrio cholerae O139 conjugate vaccines: synthesis and immunogenicity of V. cholerae O139 capsular polysaccharide conjugates with recombinant diphtheria toxin mutant in mice. (10948122)
2000
44
Phospholipid- and GTP-dependent activation of cholera toxin and phospholipase D by human ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 1 (HARL1). (9624189)
1998
45
In vivo effects of the 5-HT3 antagonist alosetron on basal and cholera toxin-induced secretion in the human jejunum: a segmental perfusion study. (9663837)
1997
46
Cholera toxin-induced Gs alpha down-regulation in neural tissue: studies on the pineal gland. (8199855)
1994
47
Regulation of the human serotonin transporter. Cholera toxin-induced stimulation of serotonin uptake in human placental choriocarcinoma cells is accompanied by increased serotonin transporter mRNA levels and serotonin transporter-specific ligand binding. (8408014)
1993
48
Gs alpha availability to cholera toxin-catalysed ADP-ribosylation is decreased in membranes of retinoic acid-treated leukemic cell lines HL-60 and THP-1. A posttranslational effect. (1659820)
1991
49
Biphasic regulation of adenylate cyclase by cholera toxin in neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cells is due to the activation and subsequent loss of the alpha subunit of the stimulatory GTP binding protein (GS). (2119204)
1990
50
Transmissible disease aspects of garbage feeding other than trichinosis and hog cholera. (5258004)
1968

Genetic Variations for Cholera

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Expression for genes affiliated with Cholera

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1BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
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Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Cholera

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Cholera.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Cholera

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51QIAGEN, 37NCBI BioSystems Database, 53Reactome
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Pathways related to Cholera according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1
Hide members
11.2ARF1, ARF4, ARF3, ARF6, ARF5, CD79A
2
Hide members
11.1ARF5, ARF6, ARF3, ARF4, ARF1
310.8ARF1, ARF6, ARF5
410.7ARF6, ARF1
5
Hide members
10.7ARF3, ARF1

Compounds for genes affiliated with Cholera

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44Novoseek, 49PharmGKB, 11DrugBank, 24HMDB, 28IUPHAR, 59Tocris Bioscience
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Compounds related to Cholera according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 39)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1calcium44 49 11 2415.1VIP, CCL8, GUCA2A, ARF6, OMP, MUC2
2gtp44 2812.7VIP, ARF1, ARF3, ARF6, ARL1, TRIM23
3guanine44 11 2413.6ADCY10, ADRA2A, ARF6, ARF4, ARF1, VIP
4adp44 28 2413.6ARF1, ARF6, TRIM23, ENTPD2, ADRA2A, ADCY10
5fmlp4411.5CCL8, ARF1, ARF6, ADORA2B, ADCY10
6forskolin44 49 1113.5ADCY10, ADORA2B, MUC2, GUCA2A, VIP
7cyclic amp44 2412.4VIP, ENTPD2, ADORA2B, ADRA2A, ADCY10
8Guanosine-5'-Diphosphate1111.4ARF1, ARF4, ARF6, ARL1
9isoproterenol44 1112.3VIP, GUCA2A, ADRA2A, ADCY10
10epinephrine44 11 2413.3VIP, CD79A, ADRA2A, ADCY10
11salbutamol44 49 28 11 2415.2VIP, CD79A, ADCY10
12norepinephrine44 11 2413.2VIP, CD79A, ADRA2A, ADCY10
13fluoride4411.2ADCY10, CD79A, ARF6
14bromocriptine28 44 1113.2VIP, ADRA2A, ADCY10
15theophylline44 28 11 2414.2CD79A, ADORA2B, ADCY10
16pge14411.2VIP, ADORA2B, ADCY10
17cholera toxin4411.1VIP, ADCY10
18pacaps4411.1VIP, ADCY10
198-(4-chlorophenylthio)-camp4411.1ADCY10, VIP
20suramin44 28 1113.1ADCY10, CD79A, VIP
21enprofylline44 1112.1ADCY10, ADORA2B
22grp-14411.1ARF1, ARF6
23catecholamine4411.1VIP, ARF6, ADRA2A
24cgs216804411.1ADORA2B, ADCY10
25pacap 384411.0ADCY10, VIP
262 chloroadenosine4411.0ADORA2B, ADCY10
275-n-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine4411.0ADORA2B, ADCY10
28brimonidine28 44 1113.0ADRA2A, ADCY10
29butanol4411.0ARF6, ARF1
30guanylate4410.9ADCY10, GUCA2A, VIP
318-bromo-cyclic amp4410.9ADCY10, VIP
32carbacyclin44 2811.9ADCY10, VIP
33sodium fluoride4410.9VIP, ADCY10
34phentolamine28 44 1112.9VIP, ADRA2A
35agmatine44 28 11 2413.8ART1, ARF1
368-bromo cgmp4410.7VIP, GUCA2A
37ptdins(3)p4410.7ARF6, ARF1
38phosphoinositide4410.7ADCY10, ADORA2B, ARF6, ARF1
39bumetanide44 59 28 1113.6VIP, GUCA2A

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Cholera

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16Gene Ontology
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Cellular components related to Cholera according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1plasma membraneGO:00588611.4ARF6, ART1, ARF4, ARF1, ARF5, MADCAM1
2Golgi apparatusGO:00579411.1ARF6, ARF5, ARL1, STX16, ARF4
3Golgi membraneGO:00013911.0TRIM23, STX16, ARL1, ARF3, ARF1

Biological processes related to Cholera according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1small GTPase mediated signal transductionGO:00726411.3ARF1, ARF4, ARF3, ARF6, ARF5, ARL1
2GTP catabolic processGO:00618411.3TRIM23, ARL1, ARF5, ARF6, ARF3, ARF1
3G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathwayGO:00718611.0ADRA2A, ADORA2B, ENTPD2, VIP
4vesicle-mediated transportGO:01619210.9ARF4, ARF3, ARF6, ARF5
5protein transportGO:01503110.8ARF1, ARF4, ARF3, ARF6, ARF5

Molecular functions related to Cholera according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1GTP bindingGO:00552511.2TRIM23, ARF1, ARF4, ARF3, ARF6, ARF5
2GTPase activityGO:00392410.9ARF1, ARF3, ARF6, ARF5, ARL1, TRIM23
3thioesterase bindingGO:03199610.7ADRA2A, ARF6

Products for genes affiliated with Cholera

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  • Antibodies
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  • Lysates
  • Antibodies

Sources for Cholera

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3CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
28IUPHAR
29KEGG
34MeSH
35MESH via Orphanet
36MGI
39NCIt
40NDF-RT
43NINDS
44Novoseek
46OMIM
47OMIM via Orphanet
50PubMed
51QIAGEN
57SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
60UMLS
61UMLS via Orphanet