MCID: CHL014
MIFTS: 64

Cholera malady

Rare diseases, Infectious diseases categories
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Summaries for Cholera

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MedlinePlus:33 Cholera is a bacterial infection that causes diarrhea. the cholera bacterium is usually found in water or food contaminated by feces (poop). cholera is rare in the us. you may get it if you travel to parts of the world with inadequate water treatment and poor sanitation, and lack of sewage treatment. outbreaks can also happen after disasters. the disease is not likely to spread directly from one person to another. often the infection is mild or without symptoms, but sometimes it can be severe. severe symptoms include profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, and leg cramps. in severe cases, rapid loss of body fluids leads to dehydration and shock. without treatment, death can occur within hours. doctors diagnose cholera with a stool sample or rectal swab. treatment includes replacing fluid and salts and sometimes antibiotics. anyone who thinks they may have cholera should seek medical attention immediately. dehydration can be rapid so fluid replacement is essential. centers for disease control and prevention

MalaCards based summary: Cholera, also known as cholera due to vibrio cholerae, is related to pancreatic cholera and diarrhea, and has symptoms including nausea/vomiting/regurgitation/merycism/hyperemesis, acute abdominal pain/colic and acute diarrhea. An important gene associated with Cholera is ARF4 (ADP-ribosylation factor 4), and among its related pathways are Arf6 downstream pathway and Class I PI3K signaling events. The compounds pacaps and cholera toxin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include small intestine, t cells and b cells.

Disease Ontology:8 A primary bacterial infectious disease that is described as an acute, diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacterium vibrio cholerae, which is characterized by profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, leg cramps, circulatory collapse and shock.

Wikipedia:65 Cholera is an infection of the small intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. more...

Aliases & Classifications for Cholera

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Sources:
8Disease Ontology, 42NIH Rare Diseases, 10DISEASES, 44Novoseek, 48Orphanet, 33MedlinePlus, 62UMLS, 57SNOMED-CT, 27ICD9CM, 34MeSH, 35MESH via Orphanet, 26ICD10 via Orphanet, 63UMLS via Orphanet, 25ICD10
See all sources

Cholera, Aliases & Descriptions:

Name: Cholera 8 42 10 44 48 33 62
Cholera Due to Vibrio Cholerae 8 62
Vibrio Cholerae Infection 42 62
 
Cholera - Vibrio Cholerae 8
Vibrio Cholerae 8


Classifications:

Malacards categories (disease lists): (See all malacards categories)
Global: Rare diseases, Infectious diseases


Characteristics (Orphanet epidemiological data):

48
cholera:
Inheritance: Sporadic; Prevalence: <1/1000000; Age of onset: Variable


External Ids:

Disease Ontology8 DOID:1498
ICD9CM27 001.0, 001.9, 001
MeSH34 D002771
MESH via Orphanet35 D002771
ICD10 via Orphanet26 A00.0, A00.1, A00.9
UMLS via Orphanet63 C0008354

Related Diseases for Cholera

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Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Cholera:



Diseases related to cholera

Symptoms for Cholera

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Symptoms:

48 (show all 14)
  • nausea/vomiting/regurgitation/merycism/hyperemesis
  • acute abdominal pain/colic
  • acute diarrhea
  • respiratory distress/dyspnea/respiratory failure/lung volume reduction
  • seizures/epilepsy/absences/spasms/status epilepticus
  • muscle weakness/flaccidity
  • dehydration/hydroelectrolytic loss
  • hot flushes/sensation of cold
  • mouth dryness/xerostomia
  • collapse/sudden death/cardiac arrest/cardiorespiratory arrest
  • hypoglycemia
  • obnubilation/coma/lethargia/desorientation
  • early death/lethality
  • fever/chilling

HPO human phenotypes related to Cholera:

(show all 13)
id Description Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 seizures hallmark (90%) HP:0001250
2 muscle weakness hallmark (90%) HP:0001324
3 dehydration hallmark (90%) HP:0001944
4 diarrhea hallmark (90%) HP:0002014
5 nausea and vomiting hallmark (90%) HP:0002017
6 abdominal pain hallmark (90%) HP:0002027
7 respiratory insufficiency hallmark (90%) HP:0002093
8 impaired temperature sensation hallmark (90%) HP:0010829
9 xerostomia typical (50%) HP:0000217
10 sudden cardiac death occasional (7.5%) HP:0001645
11 hypoglycemia occasional (7.5%) HP:0001943
12 abnormality of temperature regulation occasional (7.5%) HP:0004370
13 reduced consciousness/confusion occasional (7.5%) HP:0004372

Drugs & Therapeutics for Cholera

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Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Cholera

Search NIH Clinical Center for Cholera

Genetic Tests for Cholera

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Anatomical Context for Cholera

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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Cholera:

32
Small intestine, T cells, B cells, Lung, Testes, Colon, Monocytes, Brain, Pituitary, Neutrophil, Eye, Adipocyte, Kidney, Liver, Skin, Pancreatic islet, Pineal

Animal Models for Cholera or affiliated genes

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Publications for Cholera

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Articles related to Cholera:

(show top 50)    (show all 805)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Descriptive characterization of the 2010 cholera outbreak in Nigeria. (25399402)
2014
2
Role of PTEN in cholera toxin-induced SWOa8938 glioma cell differentiation. (23595342)
2013
3
National surveillance data on the epidemiology of cholera in Cameroon. (24101652)
2013
4
First outbreak response using an oral cholera vaccine in Africa: vaccine coverage, acceptability and surveillance of adverse events, Guinea, 2012. (24147164)
2013
5
Strategy, demand, management, and costs of an international cholera vaccine stockpile. (24101640)
2013
6
Cholera outbreaks in Nigeria are associated with multidrug resistant atypical El Tor and non-O1/non-O139 Vibrio cholerae. (23459673)
2013
7
Knowledge of, attitudes toward, and preventive practices relating to cholera and oral cholera vaccine among urban high-risk groups: findings of a cross-sectional study in Dhaka, Bangladesh. (23509860)
2013
8
Promotion of colonization and virulence by cholera toxin is dependent on neutrophils. (23798539)
2013
9
Human resources for health: lessons from the cholera outbreak in Papua New Guinea. (24319607)
2013
10
Use of oral cholera vaccine in Haiti: a rural demonstration project. (24106187)
2013
11
Identifiability and estimation of multiple transmission pathways in cholera and waterborne disease. (23333764)
2013
12
Effectiveness of an oral cholera vaccine in Zanzibar: findings from a mass vaccination campaign and observational cohort study. (22954655)
2012
13
Cholera toxin activates nonconventional adjuvant pathways that induce protective CD8 T-cell responses after epicutaneous vaccination. (22308317)
2012
14
Occurrence of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in accessible water sources of cholera endemic foci in India. (22814165)
2012
15
Cholera vaccine: new preventive tool for endemic countries. (22634452)
2012
16
Antigen-specific memory T cell responses after vaccination with an oral killed cholera vaccine in Bangladeshi children and comparison to responses in patients with naturally acquired cholera. (22739692)
2012
17
Safety of the recombinant cholera toxin B subunit, killed whole-cell (rBS-WC) oral cholera vaccine in pregnancy. (22848772)
2012
18
Effect of immunization with a recombinant cholera toxin B subunit/somatostatin fusion protein on immune response and growth hormone levels in mice. (22932932)
2012
19
Molecular epidemiologic investigation of Polish avian Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from fowl cholera outbreaks showing restricted geographical and host-specific distribution. (23050470)
2012
20
Cholera outbreak in Senegal in 2005: was climate a factor? (22952995)
2012
21
Cholera in ecuador: current relevance of past lessons learnt. (21731309)
2011
22
The 2008 cholera epidemic in Zimbabwe: experience of the icddr,b team in the field. (22106761)
2011
23
Unusual case of necrotizing fasciitis caused by Vibrio cholerae O137. (21159937)
2011
24
Intradermal immunization in the ear with cholera toxin and its non-toxic I^ subunit promotes efficient Th1 and Th17 differentiation dependent on migrating DCs. (21792876)
2011
25
No quick fix for Haiti cholera. (22012363)
2011
26
Curing Cholera: Pathogens, Places and Poverty in South Asia. (21874162)
2010
27
Effect of Vibrio cholerae on chemokine gene expression in HT29 cells and its modulation by Lactobacillus GG. (19281529)
2009
28
Stimulation of intestinal secretion by vasoactive intestinal peptide and cholera toxin. (17023221)
2007
29
Waldemar Mordecai Haffkine, CIE (1860-1930): prophylactic vaccination against cholera and bubonic plague in British India. (17356724)
2007
30
Induction of immunomodulator transcriptional responses by cholera toxin. (16023726)
2006
31
Influence of exogenous reproductive hormones on specific antibody production in genital secretions after vaginal vaccination with recombinant cholera toxin B subunit in humans. (16467326)
2006
32
Hypovolemic shock and metabolic acidosis in a refugee secondary to O1 serotype Vibrio cholerae enteritis. (16841506)
2006
33
Upregulation of human mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 in intestinal epithelial cells is modulated by Vibrio cholerae pathogenesis. (15946665)
2005
34
A cellular metalloproteinase activates Vibrio cholerae pro-cytolysin. (15066987)
2004
35
Kinetic mechanism of asparagine synthetase from Vibrio cholerae. (14990305)
2004
36
Coleridge's choleras: cholera morbus, Asiatic cholera, and dysentery in early nineteenth-century England. (12955962)
2003
37
George Leith Roupell FRS (1797-1854): significant contributions to the early nineteenth-century understanding of cholera and typhus. (10994040)
2000
38
Kinetics of local and systemic immune responses to an oral cholera vaccine given alone or together with acetylcysteine. (9521151)
1998
39
Effects of pertussis and cholera toxin on the interferon-gamma stimulated immunocytochemical staining of ICAM-1 and inositol phosphate formation in a human renal carcinoma cell line. (7908588)
1993
40
Mechanism of cholera toxin action on a polarized human intestinal epithelial cell line: role of vesicular traffic. (1318883)
1992
41
Cholera toxin induces expression of the immediate-early response gene JE via a cyclic AMP-independent signaling pathway. (1702510)
1991
42
Selective amplification of an mRNA and related pseudogene for a human ADP-ribosylation factor, a guanine nucleotide-dependent protein activator of cholera toxin. (2107548)
1990
43
Studies on the binding and hemagglutinating properties of cholera toxin to human erythrocytes. (2280488)
1990
44
Secretin, cholecystokinin, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in pancreatic cholera. (3019205)
1986
45
Successful treatment of therapy-resistant pancreatic cholera with human leucocyte interferon. (2857998)
1985
46
Streptozotocin treatment in pancreatic cholera (Verner-Morrison) syndrome. (6292031)
1982
47
Effect of experimental trichinosis on intestinal secretion and on local antibody formation to cholera toxin. (6937981)
1980
48
Indomethacin-responsive pancreatic cholera. (197410)
1977
49
Pancreatic cholera. (173092)
1975
50
Watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and achlorhydria associated with pancreatic cholera. Case report. (4344758)
1972

Variations for Cholera

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Expression for genes affiliated with Cholera

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Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Cholera

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Cholera.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Cholera

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Pathways related to Cholera according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
19.9ARF6, ARF1
29.6ARF1, ARF6, ARF5
3
Show member pathways
Paxillin-independent events mediated by a4b1 and a4b737
a4b1 and a4b7 Integrin signaling37
9.6ARF6, MADCAM1
4
Show member pathways
9.1ARF1, ARF3, ARF4, ARF6, ARF5
5
Show member pathways
8.9ARF5, CD79A, ARF3, ARF1, ARF4, ARF6

Compounds for genes affiliated with Cholera

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Sources:
44Novoseek, 24HMDB, 11DrugBank, 50PharmGKB, 28IUPHAR
See all sources

Compounds related to Cholera according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show top 50)    (show all 73)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1pacaps4410.5VIP, ADCY10
2cholera toxin4410.5ADCY10, VIP
38-(4-chlorophenylthio)-camp4410.4VIP, ADCY10
4dihydrexidine4410.4ADCY10, DRD1
5secretoneurin4410.4VIP, SCG2
6eedq4410.4DRD1, ADCY10
7phenylpropanolamine44 24 1112.4ADRA2A, DRD1
8pacap 384410.4ADCY10, VIP
9zuclopenthixol44 50 1112.3ADRA2A, DRD1
10fenoldopam44 1111.3ADRA2A, DRD1
11brimonidine44 28 1112.3ADCY10, ADRA2A
128-bromo-cyclic amp4410.3ADCY10, VIP, DRD1
13salbutamol44 50 28 24 1114.2CD79A, ADCY10, VIP
14naloxone44 28 50 1113.2VIP, DRD1, ADCY10
15amoxapine28 44 1112.2ADRA2A, DRD1
16atropine44 28 1112.2VIP, ADCY10, DRD1
17grp-14410.1ARF6, ARF1
18fluoride4410.1ARF6, CD79A, ADCY10
19dopac4410.1SCG2, DRD1
20phentolamine44 28 1112.1VIP, ADRA2A
21butanol4410.1ARF6, ARF1
22carbacyclin28 4411.1ADCY10, VIP
23bromocriptine44 28 1112.1DRD1, ADRA2A, ADCY10, VIP
24suramin44 28 1112.0ADCY10, VIP, CD79A
25carbachol44 28 1112.0CD79A, DRD1, ADCY10, VIP
26gnrh4410.0VIP, SCG2, ADRA2A, DRD1
27morphine44 50 28 1113.0ADCY10, VIP, DRD1
28catecholamine4410.0ADRA2A, DRD1, ARF6, VIP
29epinephrine44 24 1111.9ADCY10, CD79A, ADRA2A, VIP
30histamine44 28 2411.9VIP, SCG2, ADCY10, CD79A
31acetylcholine44 50 28 24 1113.8SCG2, VIP, ADCY10, DRD1, CD79A
32isoproterenol44 1110.8ADCY10, GUCA2A, VIP, ADRA2A
33adenylate449.8ADCY10, SCG2, VIP, ADRA2A, DRD1
34guanylate449.7VIP, ADCY10, GUCA2A
35methylphenidate44 50 1111.7ADRA2A, DRD1
36norepinephrine44 24 1111.6CD79A, DRD1, ADCY10, VIP, SCG2, ADRA2A
37dopamine44 28 24 1112.6ADRA2A, VIP, ADCY10, CD79A, SCG2, DRD1
38forskolin44 50 1111.6SCG2, DRD1, ADCY10, GUCA2A, VIP
39cyclic amp44 2410.4VIP, SCG2, ADRA2A, ADCY10, DRD1, ENTPD2
40fmlp449.4ARF6, ADCY10, CCL8, ARF1, SCG2
41rantes449.3MADCAM1, CCL8, VIP, SCG2
42glutamate449.3DRD1, ADCY10, CD79A, ADRA2A, VIP
43cysteine449.3CD79A, SCG2, DRD1, VIP, ADRA2A, GUCA2A
44guanine44 24 1111.3ARF4, VIP, ARF1, DRD1, ADCY10, ADRA2A
45Guanosine triphosphate249.2ENTPD2, ARF3, ARF5, ARF1, ARF6, ARF4
46adp44 28 2410.6ADRA2A, ADCY10, ARF6, ARF1, TRIM23, ENTPD2
47tyrosine448.4ARF6, ADRA2A, CCL8, DRD1, ARF1, SCG2
48atp44 289.4SCG2, DRD1, ENTPD2, TRIM23, ARF1, GUCA2A
49gtp44 289.3DRD1, ARF6, VIP, ARL1, ARF1, ARF3
50calcium44 50 24 1111.0CCL8, ADRA2A, OMP, DRD1, VIP, SCG2

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Cholera

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Cellular components related to Cholera according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1perinuclear region of cytoplasmGO:0484719.4ARF5, ARF1, ARF3, ADCY10
2Golgi membraneGO:0001398.5ARL1, TRIM23, ARF3, ARF1
3plasma membraneGO:0058867.2ENTPD2, CD79A, ARF1, ARF6, ART1, ARF5

Biological processes related to Cholera according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 12)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1activation of phospholipase D activityGO:03158410.2ARL1, ARF4
2positive regulation of adenylate cyclase activity involved in G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathwayGO:01057910.2VIP, DRD1
3positive regulation of potassium ion transportGO:04326810.1DRD1, ADRA2A
4positive regulation of vasodilationGO:04590910.1ADRA2A, VIP
5long term synaptic depressionGO:0602929.9ARF1, DRD1
6cellular component movementGO:0069289.8ARF6, ADRA2A, SCG2
7protein secretionGO:0093069.8SCG2, PPY
8vesicle-mediated transportGO:0161929.7ARF3, ARF4, ARF6, ARF5
9protein ADP-ribosylationGO:0064719.7ARF4, ART1
10protein transportGO:0150319.3ARF6, ARF4, ARF1, ARF3, ARF5
11GTP catabolic processGO:0061848.5ARF5, ARF6, ARL1, ARF1, ARF3, TRIM23
12small GTPase mediated signal transductionGO:0072648.3ARL1, ARF4, ARF1, ARF3, TRIM23, ARF6

Molecular functions related to Cholera according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1thioesterase bindingGO:03199610.0ARF6, ADRA2A
2hormone activityGO:0051799.2PPY, VIP, GUCA2A
3GTPase activityGO:0039248.1ARF5, ARF1, ARF6, ARL1, TRIM23, ARF3
4GTP bindingGO:0055258.0ARF5, TRIM23, ARF3, ARF1, ARF4, ARL1

Products for genes affiliated with Cholera

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Sources for Cholera

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3CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
28IUPHAR
29KEGG
34MeSH
35MESH via Orphanet
36MGI
39NCIt
40NDF-RT
43NINDS
44Novoseek
46OMIM
47OMIM via Orphanet
51PubMed
52QIAGEN
58SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
62UMLS
63UMLS via Orphanet