MCID: CHL069
MIFTS: 51

Cholesteatoma malady

Categories: Rare diseases, Skin diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Cholesteatoma

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Aliases & Descriptions for Cholesteatoma:

Name: Cholesteatoma 11 48 50 39 13 68
Secondary Acquired Cholesteatoma 48
 
Primary Acquired Cholesteatoma 48
Congenital Cholesteatoma 48

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology11 DOID:869
ICD1030 H71.9, H71.90
ICD9CM32 385.30
MeSH39 D002781
NCIt45 C2944

Summaries for Cholesteatoma

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NIH Rare Diseases:48 Cholesteatoma is a type of skin cyst located in the middle ear. It can be congenital (present from birth), but it more commonly occurs as a complication of chronic ear infection. The hallmark symptom is a painless discharge from the ear.Hearing loss, dizziness, and facial muscle paralysis are rare but can result from continued cholesteatoma growth. Surgery can stop infections and prevent complications.   Last updated: 12/30/2009

MalaCards based summary: Cholesteatoma, also known as secondary acquired cholesteatoma, is related to otosclerosis and neuroma, and has symptoms including paraesthesia ear, itching of ear and ear congestion. An important gene associated with Cholesteatoma is LGALS8 (Galectin 8), and among its related pathways are Osteoblast Signaling and Osteoclast Signaling. Affiliated tissues include middle ear, bone and brain, and related mouse phenotypes are Increased shRNA abundance and integument.

Disease Ontology:11 A keratosis characterized by keratinizing squamous epithelium located in middle ear and/or mastoid, subepithelial connective tissue and by the progressive accumulation of keratin debris with or without surrounding inflammatory reaction.

Wikipedia:71 Cholesteatoma is a destructive and expanding growth consisting of keratinizing squamous epithelium in... more...

Related Diseases for Cholesteatoma

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Diseases related to Cholesteatoma via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 168)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1otosclerosis30.1DEFB4A, KRT16
2neuroma29.9MMP9, TNFRSF11B, TNFSF11
3cholesteatoma of middle ear12.2
4cholesteatoma of external ear12.2
5maxillary sinus cholesteatoma12.1
6cholesteatoma of attic11.9
7purulent labyrinthitis10.8
8focal labyrinthitis10.8
9diabetic cataract10.7IL1A, MMP9
10follicular mucinosis10.6MMP9, TNFSF11
11angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia10.6DEFB4A, MMP9
12ichthyosis histrix, curth-macklin type10.6KRT10, KRT16
13osteopetrosis, autosomal recessive 710.5TNFRSF11B, TNFSF11
14epidermolytic acanthoma10.5KRT10, KRT14
15hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome10.5TNFRSF11B, TNFSF11
16tibial hemimelia10.5TNFRSF11B, TNFSF11
17myopia10.5TNFRSF11B, TNFSF11
18metatypical basal cell carcinoma10.5KRT10, KRT14
19hemoglobin d disease10.5KRT10, KRT14
20solar retinopathy10.5TNFRSF11B, TNFSF11
21craniodiaphyseal dysplasia, autosomal dominant10.5KRT10, KRT16
22gastric squamous cell carcinoma10.5KRT10, KRT14
23ameloblastic carcinoma10.5MMP8, MMP9
24small intestine lymphoma10.5IL1A, TNF
25classic endocrine tumor of appendix10.4FLG, MMP9
26otitis media10.4
27complex lethal osteochondrodysplasia10.4KRT10, KRT16
28liver disease10.4IL1A, KRT13, KRT14
29brachydactyly type a310.4FLG, KRT10
30epstein-barr virus hepatitis10.4IL1A, TNF
31zellweger-like syndrome without peroxisomal anomalies10.4MMP2, MMP9
32anaerobic meningitis10.4IL1A, TNFRSF11B, TNFSF11
33gonococcal synovitis10.4MMP9, TNF
34nerve root neoplasm10.4KRT10, KRT13, KRT14
35pathological gambling10.4MMP2, MMP9
36myosin storage myopathy10.4MMP2, MMP9
37renal pelvis carcinoma10.4MMP2, MMP9
38cannabis dependence10.4MMP9, TNFRSF11B, TNFSF11
39bullous keratopathy10.4KRT10, KRT14, KRT16
40familial retinoblastoma10.3KRT10, KRT14, KRT16
41astrocytoma10.3IL1A, TNF
42meningothelial meningioma10.3MMP2, MMP9
43gingivitis10.3IL1A, MMP9, TNF
44malignant giant cell tumor10.3MMP9, TNF, TNFSF11
45pleomorphic lipoma10.3IL1A, TNF, TNFSF11
46blepharochalasis10.3MMP9, TNF, TNFSF11
47emphysematous cholecystitis10.3MMP2, MMP9
48deletion 5q3510.3MMP2, MMP9
49epiphyseal dysplasia, multiple, with severe proximal femoral dysplasia10.3KRT14, KRT16
50sialadenitis10.3MMP2, MMP9

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Cholesteatoma:



Diseases related to cholesteatoma

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Cholesteatoma

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UMLS symptoms related to Cholesteatoma:


paraesthesia ear, itching of ear, ear congestion, auricular swelling, erythematous ear canal, earache

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Cholesteatoma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

26
idDescriptionGenomeRNAi Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1GR00327-A9.7DEFB1, FGFR2, KRT14, LGALS8

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Cholesteatoma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

41
idDescriptionMGI Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MP:00107718.5FGFR2, IL1A, KRT14, KRT16, MMP9, TNF
2MP:00053828.1FGFR2, KRT14, KRT16, MMP2, TNF, TNFRSF11B
3MP:00020067.2FGFR2, IL1A, KRT14, MMP2, MMP8, MMP9
4MP:00053877.2FGFR2, IL1A, KRT14, MMP2, MMP8, MMP9

Drugs & Therapeutics for Cholesteatoma

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Drugs for Cholesteatoma (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 15)
idNameStatusPhaseClinical TrialsCas NumberPubChem Id
1
ClonidineapprovedPhase 22264205-90-72803
Synonyms:
1H-Imidazol-2-amine, N-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro- (9CI)
2,6-Dichloro-N-2-imidazolidinylidenebenzenamine
2,6-dichloro-N-(2-imidazolidinylidene)aniline
2,6-dichloro-N-2-imidazolidinylidenebenzenamide
2,6-dichloro-N-imidazolidin-2-ylideneaniline
2-((2,6-Dichlorophenyl)imino)imidazolidine
2-(2,6-Dichloroanilino)-1,3-diazacyclopentene-(2)
2-(2,6-Dichloroanilino)-2-imidazoline
2-(2,6-Dichlorophenylamino)-2-imidazoline
2-(2,6-Dichlorophenylimino)imidazolidine
2-Imidazoline, 2-(2,6-dichloroanilino)- (7CI,8CI)
2-[(2,6-Dichlorophenyl)imino]imidazoline
2-[(2,6-dichlorophenyl)imino]-2-imidazoline
4205-90-7
4205-91-8 (mono-hydrochloride)
57066-25-8
734571A
AB00514634
AC1L1EI5
AC1Q3K6V
AKOS001595470
Adesipress
BIDD:GT0547
BPBio1_000040
BRD-K98530306-001-02-1
BRD-K98530306-003-05-0
BSPBio_000036
BSPBio_001588
BSPBio_002055
Bio1_000470
Bio1_000959
Bio1_001448
Bio2_000308
Bio2_000788
C9H9Cl2N3
CAS-4205-91-8
CATAPRES-TTS-1
CATAPRES-TTS-2
CATAPRES-TTS-3
CCRIS 7787
CHEBI:3757
CHEBI:46632
CHEMBL134
CID2803
Catapres
Catapres- TTS
Catapres-TTS
Catapresan
Catapressan
Catarpres
Catarpres-TTS
Catarpres-TTS (TN)
Catarpresan
Chlofazoline
Chlornidinum
Clofenil
Clonidin
Clonidina
Clonidina [INN-Spanish]
Clonidine (JAN/USAN/INN)
Clonidine HCl
Clonidine [USAN:BAN:INN]
Clonidinhydrochlorid
Clonidinum
Clonidinum [INN-Latin]
Clonistada
Clopheline
D00281
DB00575
DB07566
DivK1c_000774
 
Dixarit
Duraclon
Duraclont
EINECS 224-119-4
Gemiton
HMS1361P10
HMS1791P10
HMS1989P10
HMS2089G11
HSDB 3040
Hemiton
IDI1_000774
IDI1_034058
Ipotensium
Isoglaucon
KBio1_000774
KBio2_000308
KBio2_001821
KBio2_002876
KBio2_004389
KBio2_005444
KBio2_006957
KBio3_000615
KBio3_000616
KBio3_001275
KBioGR_000308
KBioGR_001572
KBioSS_000308
KBioSS_001821
Klofelin
Klofenil
L000193
LS-79606
Lopac-C-7897
Lopac0_000268
M 5041T
M-5041T
MolPort-001-779-668
MolPort-005-932-374
N-(2,6-Dichlorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-amine
NCGC00015268-01
NCGC00015268-02
NCGC00015268-08
NCGC00024734-01
NCGC00024734-02
NCGC00024734-03
NCGC00024734-04
NCGC00024734-05
NCGC00179680-01
NINDS_000774
Prestwick0_000248
Prestwick1_000248
Prestwick2_000248
Prestwick3_000248
SKF 34427
SPBio_001233
SPBio_002255
ST 155BS
ST-155-BS
ST-155BS
Spectrum2_001187
Spectrum3_000358
Spectrum4_000956
Spectrum5_000759
Spectrum_001341
T171
Tenso-Timelets
Tocris-0690
UNII-MN3L5RMN02
ZINC00896484
clonidine
nchembio.79-comp11
nchembio705-10
2
Bupivacaineapproved, investigationalPhase 211312180-92-9, 38396-39-32474
Synonyms:
( inverted exclamation markA)-bupivacaine
(+-)-Bupivacaine
(1)-1-Butyl-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)piperidine-2-carboxamide
(RS)-bupivacaine
(±)-bupivacaine
1-Butyl-2',6'-pipecoloxylidide
1-Butyl-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2-piperidinecarboxamide
1-butyl-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)piperidine-2-carboxamide
15233-43-9
2180-92-9
38396-39-3
AB00053674
AC-2096
AC1L1DRE
AC1Q5LX4
AH 250
AKOS001637202
AR-1A0242
Anekain
BPBio1_000298
BRD-A01636364-003-05-2
BSPBio_000270
BSPBio_002607
Bio-0886
Bloqueina
Bucaine
Bucaine (TN)
Bupivacaina
Bupivacaina [INN-Spanish]
Bupivacaine (INN)
Bupivacaine Carbonate
Bupivacaine HCL
Bupivacaine HCL KIT
Bupivacaine Monohydrochloride, Monohydrate
Bupivacaine [INN:BAN]
Bupivacainum
Bupivacainum [INN-Latin]
Bupivan
C07529
C18H28N2O
CBupivacaine
CHEBI:3215
CHEMBL1098
CID2474
Carbostesin
D07552
DB00297
DL-Bupivacaine
DUR-843
 
DepoBupivacaine
DivK1c_000758
EINECS 218-553-3
EINECS 253-911-2
HMS2090F12
IDI1_000758
KBio1_000758
KBio2_002004
KBio2_004572
KBio2_007140
KBio3_001827
KBioGR_001516
KBioSS_002004
KST-1A4609
L000695
LAC-43
LS-109841
LS-2222
MLS001361336
Marcaina
Marcaine
Marcaine HCL
Marcaine Spinal
MolPort-004-955-820
NCGC00178579-01
NCGC00178579-02
NINDS_000758
NSC119660
Prestwick0_000305
Prestwick1_000305
Prestwick2_000305
Prestwick3_000305
SMR000058218
SPBio_001558
SPBio_002489
Sensorcaine
Sensorcaine-MPF
Sensorcaine-MPF Spinal
Spectrum2_001589
Spectrum3_000974
Spectrum4_001098
Spectrum5_001483
Spectrum_001524
Transdur-Bupivacaine
UNII-Y8335394RO
Win 11318
Win 11318 HCl
bupivacaine
cBupivacaine
dl-1-Butyl-2',6'-pipecoloxylidide
racemic bupivacaine
3Central Nervous System DepressantsPhase 212806
4Neurotransmitter AgentsPhase 217734
5SympatholyticsPhase 2555
6Peripheral Nervous System AgentsPhase 222776
7Autonomic AgentsPhase 29774
8Antihypertensive AgentsPhase 24095
9Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor AgonistsPhase 2911
10Adrenergic AgonistsPhase 22877
11Adrenergic alpha-AgonistsPhase 21625
12AnalgesicsPhase 211287
13Anesthetics, LocalPhase 23272
14AnestheticsPhase 29001
15Adrenergic AgentsPhase 25140

Interventional clinical trials:

idNameStatusNCT IDPhase
1A Study of the Clinicopathologic Behaviour of the Different Types of Unsafe Chronic Otitis MediaUnknown statusNCT00270660Phase 3
2Great Auricular Nerve Block for Tympanomastoid Surgery: Will the Addition of Clonidine Enhance the Duration of Analgesia?CompletedNCT01638052Phase 2
3Taste Disorders in Middle Ear Disease and After Middle Ear SurgeryUnknown statusNCT01584011
4Magnetic Resonance (MR) Imaging in the Post Operative Follow-up of Cholesteatoma in ChildrenCompletedNCT00682409
5Objective Measurement of Ossicular Chain Mobility Using a Palpating Instrument IntraoperativelyCompletedNCT02554422
6Cone Beam CT for Diagnosis of Select Otorhinolaryngology (ENT) Indications at Lower DoseCompletedNCT01855425
7Usefulness of Non EPI-DWI-MRI / CT 3D Static Co-registration Prior to Surgery of CholesteatomasRecruitingNCT02903550
8Comprehensive Wide Bandwidth Test Battery of Auditory Function in VeteransEnrolling by invitationNCT02019888

Search NIH Clinical Center for Cholesteatoma


Cochrane evidence based reviews: cholesteatoma

Genetic Tests for Cholesteatoma

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Anatomical Context for Cholesteatoma

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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Cholesteatoma:

36
Bone, Brain, Skin, Testes, Endothelial, Temporal lobe, Neutrophil

FMA organs/tissues related to Cholesteatoma:

17
Middle ear

Publications for Cholesteatoma

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Articles related to Cholesteatoma:

(show top 50)    (show all 884)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Cytokeratin 13, Cytokeratin 17, and Ki-67 Expression in Human Acquired Cholesteatoma and Their Correlation With Its Destructive Capacity. (28073243)
2017
2
EAONO/JOS Joint Consensus Statements on the Definitions, Classification and Staging of Middle Ear Cholesteatoma. (28059056)
2017
3
Is There A SystemA+c Inflammatory Effect of Cholesteatoma? (28050207)
2017
4
Baro-otolagia Secondary to Cholesteatoma. (28061926)
2017
5
Tubal function tests with optional myringotomy detect Eustachian tube closing failure in acquired pars flaccida retraction cholesteatoma. (27427536)
2016
6
Combined Surgical Approach to Giant Cholesteatoma: A Case Report and Literature Review. (27117903)
2016
7
Clinical Aspects and Surgical Outcomes of Congenital Cholesteatoma in 93 Children: Increasing Trends of Congenital Cholesteatoma from 1997 through 2012. (27942603)
2016
8
Expressions of isopeptide bonds and corneodesmosin in middle ear cholesteatoma. (27390311)
2016
9
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for residual and recurrent cholesteatoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (27701821)
2016
10
Presence of osteoclasts in middle ear cholesteatoma: a study of undecalcified bone sections. (27575923)
2016
11
Fusion of Computed Tomography and PROPELLER Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Detection and Localization of Middle Ear Cholesteatoma. (27414044)
2016
12
Cholesteatoma: Is a second stage necessary? (27083397)
2016
13
The resected area of the posterior wall of the external auditory canal during transcanal endoscopic ear surgery for cholesteatoma. (27346682)
2016
14
The effects of surgery type and different ossiculoplasty materials on the hearing results in cholesteatoma surgery. (27837423)
2016
15
Endoscopic Management of Attic Cholesteatoma: Long-Term Results. (27565391)
2016
16
TREM-2 promotes acquired cholesteatoma-induced bone destruction by modulating TLR4 signaling pathway and osteoclasts activation. (27934908)
2016
17
Giant Petrous Bone Cholesteatoma: Combined Microscopic Surgery and an Adjuvant Endoscopic Approach. (26937334)
2016
18
Attic cholesteatoma with closure of the entrance to pars flaccida retraction pocket. (28041650)
2016
19
Reply to comments on: Is endoscopic ear surgery an alternative to the modified Bondy technique for limited epitympanic cholesteatoma? (27052548)
2016
20
Computed tomography and magnetic resonance fusion imaging in cholesteatoma preoperative assessment. (27921171)
2016
21
Spontaneous external auditory canal cholesteatoma in a young male: Imaging findings and differential diagnoses. (27413272)
2016
22
Soft-wall reconstruction of the canal wall with retrograde bone work for pediatric cholesteatoma: Long-term results. (27863632)
2016
23
Effect of surgical intervention on middle-ear cholesteatoma with associated facial paralysis. (27989248)
2016
24
Congenital Cholesteatoma. (27171804)
2016
25
Cholesteatoma in the Sellar Region Presenting as Hypopituitarism and Diabetes Insipidus. (26962793)
2016
26
Congenital Intratympanic Cholesteatoma in an Adult Patient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. (27340998)
2016
27
Recommendations for Potassium-Titanyl-Phosphate Laser in the Treatment of Cholesteatoma. (27897130)
2016
28
Mean Platelet Volume as a Potential Predictor of Cholesteatoma in Children. (27526246)
2016
29
The role of bone resorption in the etiopathogenesis of acquired middle ear cholesteatoma. (27981350)
2016
30
Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to tympanoplasty for contaminated cholesteatoma. (27497428)
2016
31
An Iatrogenic Cholesteatoma of the Squamous Part of the Temporal Bone. (27897131)
2016
32
Cholesteatoma of Maxillary Sinus: What Is the Best Surgical Approach? (27171957)
2016
33
Fibrous Dysplasia of the Temporal Bone with External Auditory Canal Stenosis and Secondary Cholesteatoma. (27340999)
2016
34
Acquired cholesteatoma epithelial hyperproliferation: Roles of cell proliferation signal pathways. (26989841)
2016
35
An Iatrogenic Cholesteatoma of the Squamous Part of the Temporal Bone. (28031158)
2016
36
Clinical findings and surgical results of middle ear cholesteatoma behind an intact tympanic membrane in adults. (27163897)
2016
37
Non-echoplanar diffusion weighted imaging in the detection of post-operative middle ear cholesteatoma: navigating beyond the pitfalls to find the pearl. (27558789)
2016
38
Staging and classification criteria for middle ear cholesteatoma proposed by the Japan Otological Society. (27616746)
2016
39
The role of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in assessing residual/recurrent cholesteatoma after canal wall down mastoidectomy. (26909511)
2016
40
School performance in cholesteatoma-operated children in Denmark: a nationwide population-based register-study. (26924562)
2016
41
Efficacy of Posterior Canal Wall Reconstruction Using Autologous Auricular Cartilage and Bone PActAc in Chronic Otitis Media with Cholesteatoma. (27879225)
2016
42
Gustatory Dysfunction and Decreased Number of Fungiform Taste Buds in Patients With Chronic Otitis Media With Cholesteatoma. (27141029)
2016
43
Letter to the Editor "Is endoscopic ear surgery an alternative to the modified Bondy technique for limited epitympanic cholesteatoma?" by Prasad et al. (26924740)
2016
44
Clinical analysis on surgical management of type III external auditory canal cholesteatoma: a report of 12 cases. (27118359)
2016
45
MicroRNA-21 promotes the proliferation and invasion of cholesteatoma keratinocytes. (27376830)
2016
46
Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cholesteatoma Using PROPELLER at 1.5T: A Single-Centre Retrospective Study. (27625184)
2016
47
Single dose intratympanic mesna application inhibits propylene glycol induced cholesteatoma formation. (27995828)
2016
48
Pediatric Endoscopic Cholesteatoma Surgery. (26932974)
2016
49
Cost analysis and outcomes of a second-look tympanoplasty-mastoidectomy strategy for cholesteatoma. (26928951)
2016
50
Role of Malleus relocation in cholesteatoma surgery: Our experience in 145 patients. (27086553)
2016

Variations for Cholesteatoma

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Expression for genes affiliated with Cholesteatoma

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Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Cholesteatoma.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Cholesteatoma

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GO Terms for genes affiliated with Cholesteatoma

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Cellular components related to Cholesteatoma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1intermediate filamentGO:00058829.9FLG, KRT10, KRT14, KRT16
2proteinaceous extracellular matrixGO:00055788.6MMP2, MMP8, MMP9, TNFRSF11B
3extracellular regionGO:00055766.7DEFB1, DEFB4A, FGFR2, IL1A, MMP2, MMP8
4extracellular spaceGO:00056156.6DEFB1, DEFB4A, IL1A, KRT10, LGALS8, MMP2

Biological processes related to Cholesteatoma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 15)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1establishment of skin barrierGO:006143610.6FLG, KRT16
2hair cycleGO:004263310.5KRT14, KRT16
3keratinocyte differentiationGO:003021610.2FLG, KRT10, KRT16
4positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferationGO:190470710.2MMP2, MMP9
5epithelial cell proliferation involved in salivary gland morphogenesisGO:00606649.9FGFR2, TNF
6positive regulation of osteoclast differentiationGO:00456729.9TNF, TNFSF11
7regulation of osteoclast differentiationGO:00456709.9TNF, TNFSF11
8collagen catabolic processGO:00305749.7MMP2, MMP8, MMP9
9endodermal cell differentiationGO:00359879.7MMP2, MMP8, MMP9
10extracellular matrix disassemblyGO:00226179.7MMP2, MMP8, MMP9
11positive regulation of JNK cascadeGO:00463309.7IL1A, TNF, TNFSF11
12animal organ morphogenesisGO:00098879.6FGFR2, TNF, TNFSF11
13defense response to Gram-positive bacteriumGO:00508309.5DEFB1, DEFB4A, TNF
14immune responseGO:00069559.3DEFB1, DEFB4A, IL1A, TNFRSF11B, TNFSF11
15tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathwayGO:00332098.9TNF, TNFRSF11B, TNFSF11

Molecular functions related to Cholesteatoma according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1CCR6 chemokine receptor bindingGO:003173110.3DEFB1, DEFB4A
2cytokine activityGO:00051259.2IL1A, TNF, TNFRSF11B, TNFSF11
3metalloendopeptidase activityGO:00042229.0MMP2, MMP8, MMP9

Sources for Cholesteatoma

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2CDC
6CNVD
10DGIdb
15ExPASy
16FDA
17FMA
27GTR
28HGMD
29HMDB
30ICD10
31ICD10 via Orphanet
32ICD9CM
33IUPHAR
34KEGG
37MedGen
39MeSH
40MESH via Orphanet
41MGI
44NCI
45NCIt
46NDF-RT
49NINDS
50Novoseek
52OMIM
53OMIM via Orphanet
57PubMed
58QIAGEN
63SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67Tumor Gene Family of Databases
68UMLS
69UMLS via Orphanet