MCID: CLS010
MIFTS: 44

Cluster Headache malady

Categories: Rare diseases, Neuronal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Cluster Headache

Aliases & Descriptions for Cluster Headache:

Name: Cluster Headache 50 52 69

Classifications:



External Ids:

ICD10 33 G44.0

Summaries for Cluster Headache

NIH Rare Diseases : 50 cluster headaches are a form of headache notable for their extreme pain and their pattern of occurring in "clusters", usually at the same time(s) of the day for several weeks. the headaches are accompanied by autonomic symptoms, and some people experience restlessness and agitation. a cluster headache begins with severe pain strictly on one side of the head, often behind or around one eye. in some people, it may be preceded by a migraine-like "aura." the pain usually peaks over the next 5 to 10 minutes, and then continues at that intensity for up to three hours before going away. typical attacks may strike up to eight times a day and are relatively short-lived. on average, a cluster period lasts 6 to 12 weeks. autonomic symptoms may include: conjunctival injection (bloodshot eyes), swelling under or around the eye, excessive tearing of the eyes, drooping of the eyelid, runny nose and/or nasal congestion, and forehead and facial sweating. these symptoms generally occur only during the pain attack and are on the same side as the headache pain. cluster headaches usually begin between the ages of 20 and 50, although they can start at any age. males are more commonly affected than females. treatment can be divided into acute therapy aimed at stopping symptoms once they have started and preventive therapy aimed at preventing recurrent attacks during the cluster period. last updated: 7/14/2015

MalaCards based summary : Cluster Headache is related to headache and paroxysmal hemicrania, and has symptoms including headache and recurrent paroxysmal headache. An important gene associated with Cluster Headache is HCRTR2 (Hypocretin Receptor 2), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Neuroscience and Regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes. The drugs Sumatriptan and Rizatriptan have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include eye, brain and hypothalamus, and related phenotypes are behavior/neurological and endocrine/exocrine gland

Wikipedia : 71 Cluster headache (CH) is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent, severe headaches on one... more...

Related Diseases for Cluster Headache

Diseases related to Cluster Headache via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 115)
id Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 headache 11.5
2 paroxysmal hemicrania 10.7
3 hemicrania continua 10.6
4 paranasal sinus cancer, adult 10.2 CALCA INS
5 brain ependymoma 10.2 CALCA INS
6 microscopic colitis 10.2 CACNA1A CALCA
7 wells-jankovic syndrome 10.2 CALCA VIP
8 salpingo-oophoritis 10.2 CACNA1A CALCA
9 placenta accreta 10.2 CALCA VIP
10 volkmann contracture 10.2 CALCA VIP
11 cough variant asthma 10.2 CALCA VIP
12 gemistocytic astrocytoma 10.2 CALCA VIP
13 hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome 10.2 CACNA1A CALCA
14 lipid-rich carcinoma 10.2 CALCA VIP
15 choline deficiency disease 10.2 INS VIP
16 lung occult small cell carcinoma 10.1 CALCA PRL
17 acute pyelonephritis 10.1 INS VIP
18 gerstmann syndrome 10.1 CACNA1A INS
19 maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 13 10.1 INS VIP
20 chronic eosinophilic pneumonia 10.1 CALCA PRL
21 vertebral artery occlusion 10.1 INS PRL
22 olfactory nerve neoplasm 10.1 INS PRL
23 bizarre leiomyoma 10.1 CALCA PRL
24 dacryoadenitis 10.1 INS PRL
25 protein s deficiency 10.1 INS PRL
26 growth retardation hydrocephaly lung hypoplasia 10.1 INS PRL
27 axial osteomalacia 10.1 CALCA PRL
28 sphingolipidosis 10.1 INS PRL
29 merkel cell carcinoma 10.1 INS PRL
30 breast hemangiopericytoma 10.1 HCRTR2 PRL
31 cerebellar hypoplasia with endosteal sclerosis 10.1 CALCA NPY
32 diencephalic neoplasm 10.1 INS PRL
33 pediatric castleman disease 10.1 CALCA NPY
34 epidural spinal canal meningioma 10.1 INS PRL
35 cardioauditory syndrome of sanchez cascos 10.0 CALCA NPY
36 adrenal cortical adenocarcinoma 10.0 INS PRL
37 urethra clear cell adenocarcinoma 10.0 INS PRL
38 dentin dysplasia 10.0 CALCA NPY
39 central nervous system lymphoma 10.0 CALCA NPY
40 pelvic muscle wasting 10.0 INS PRL
41 spinal stenosis 10.0 CALCA INS VIP
42 keloids 10.0 CALCA INS VIP
43 fatty liver disease 10.0 INS PRL
44 limited scleroderma 10.0 NPY VIP
45 bile acid synthesis defect, congenital, 4 10.0 PRL VIP
46 aflatoxins-related hepatocellular carcinoma 10.0 CALCA INS PRL
47 dyspepsia 10.0 NPY PRL
48 papillary craniopharyngioma 10.0 INS PRL
49 carotid artery dissection 9.9
50 capillary lymphangioma 9.9 INS PRL

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Cluster Headache:



Diseases related to Cluster Headache

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Cluster Headache

UMLS symptoms related to Cluster Headache:


headache, recurrent paroxysmal headache

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Cluster Headache:

44
id Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 9.87 CACNA1A CLOCK HCRTR2 INS NPY PRL
2 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 9.65 CACNA1A CLOCK INS PRL VIP
3 nervous system MP:0003631 9.63 HCRTR2 INS NPY PRL CACNA1A CLOCK
4 normal MP:0002873 9.35 CACNA1A CLOCK INS NPY VIP
5 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.02 CACNA1A CLOCK INS PRL VIP

Drugs & Therapeutics for Cluster Headache

Drugs for Cluster Headache (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 143)
id Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Sumatriptan Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2 103628-46-2 5358
2
Rizatriptan Approved Phase 4 145202-66-0, 144034-80-0 5078
3
Bupivacaine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Early Phase 1 2180-92-9, 38396-39-3 2474
4
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-02-2 5743
5
Triamcinolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 124-94-7 31307
6
Betamethasone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 378-44-9 9782
7
Topiramate Approved Phase 4 97240-79-4 5284627
8 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2
9
Serotonin Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2 50-67-9 5202
10 Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
11 Serotonin Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
12 Vasoconstrictor Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
13 Antiemetics Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2
14 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2
15 Autonomic Agents Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2
16 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2,Early Phase 1
17 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2
18 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2,Early Phase 1
19 Anesthetics Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Early Phase 1
20 Anesthetics, Local Phase 4,Phase 2,Early Phase 1
21 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
22 HIV Protease Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 2
23
protease inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 2
24 Anticonvulsants Phase 4
25 BB 1101 Phase 4
26 Dexamethasone 21-phosphate Phase 4
27 Dexamethasone acetate Phase 4 1177-87-3
28 glucocorticoids Phase 4
29 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
30 Hormones Phase 4
31 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 4
32 Immunosuppressive Agents Phase 4
33 triamcinolone acetonide Phase 4
34 Triamcinolone diacetate Phase 4
35 Triamcinolone hexacetonide Phase 4
36 Anti-Asthmatic Agents Phase 4
37 Respiratory System Agents Phase 4
38 Betamethasone benzoate Phase 4
39 Betamethasone sodium phosphate Phase 4
40 Betamethasone Valerate Phase 4 2152-44-5
41 Betamethasone-17,21-dipropionate Phase 4
42 Anti-Obesity Agents Phase 4
43 Neuroprotective Agents Phase 4
44 Protective Agents Phase 4
45
Verapamil Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 52-53-9 2520
46
Capsaicin Approved Phase 3 404-86-4 1548943
47
Sodium oxybate Approved Phase 3 502-85-2 5360545
48 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
49 calcium channel blockers Phase 2, Phase 3
50 Calcium, Dietary Phase 2, Phase 3

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 81)
id Name Status NCT ID Phase
1 Sumatriptan 4 mg Statdose in the Acute Treatment of Cluster Headache Unknown status NCT00399243 Phase 4
2 A Research Study to Examine Cutaneous Allodynia and Cluster Headache Completed NCT00329836 Phase 4
3 Rizatriptan in Acute Treatment of Migraine in Patients With Unilateral Trigeminal-autonomic Symptoms. Completed NCT00753311 Phase 4
4 A Comparison of Dexamethasone and Triamcinolone for Ultrasound-guided Occipital C2 Nerve Blocks Recruiting NCT02655523 Phase 4
5 Sphenopalatine Ganglion Nerve Block for Postdural Puncture Headache in Obstetrics Recruiting NCT03181464 Phase 4
6 GON-block in Chronic Migraine: a Randomized, Double- Blind, Placebo-controlled Study Not yet recruiting NCT02686983 Phase 4
7 A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Examining the Use of Topiramate in the Treatment of Cluster Headache Terminated NCT00203190 Phase 4
8 Anodal Transcranial Direct Stimulation (tDCS) for the Treatment of Chronic Cluster Headache Completed NCT02462395 Phase 2, Phase 3
9 Cluster Headache Cortivazol Injection (CHCI) Completed NCT00804895 Phase 2, Phase 3
10 Study Of Sumatriptan Succinate Injection Kit In Patients With Migraine or Cluster Headache In Japan Completed NCT00356603 Phase 3
11 Intranasal Civamide for Episodic Cluster Headache Completed NCT00069082 Phase 3
12 A Phase III Study of Civamide Nasal Solution (Zucapsaicin) for the Treatment of Episodic Cluster Headache Completed NCT00033839 Phase 3
13 The Efficacy of a Cognitive and Physical Intervention to Reduce Head and Muscle Pain in a Working Community Completed NCT00551980 Phase 3
14 High Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in Schizophrenia : a Randomized Controlled Study Completed NCT01022489 Phase 2, Phase 3
15 A Study of LY2951742 in Participants With Episodic Cluster Headache Recruiting NCT02397473 Phase 3
16 A Study of LY2951742 in Participants With Chronic Cluster Headache Recruiting NCT02438826 Phase 3
17 Occipital Nerve Stimulation in Medically Intractable Chronic Cluster Headache Recruiting NCT01151631 Phase 3
18 A Study Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of TEV-48125 (Fremanezumab) for the Prevention of Chronic Cluster Headache (CCH) Recruiting NCT02964338 Phase 3
19 A Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of TEV-48125 for the Prevention of Episodic Cluster Headache (ECH) Recruiting NCT02945046 Phase 3
20 A Study of LY2951742 (Galcanezumab) in Participants With Cluster Headache Enrolling by invitation NCT02797951 Phase 3
21 A Study to Explore the Long-Term Safety of TEV-48125 for the Prevention of Cluster Headache Enrolling by invitation NCT03107052 Phase 3
22 Civamide Nasal Solution for Cluster Headache Not yet recruiting NCT01341548 Phase 3
23 Sodium Oxybate in Patients With Episodic and Chronic Cluster Headache Not yet recruiting NCT02637648 Phase 3
24 Randomized Evaluation of Octreotide Versus Compazine for Emergency Department Treatment of Migraine Headache Unknown status NCT00274170 Phase 1, Phase 2
25 Botox Injection in Treatment of Cluster Headache Completed NCT02019017 Phase 1, Phase 2
26 Prevention and Acute Treatment of Chronic Cluster Headache Compared to Standard of Care Completed NCT01701245 Phase 2
27 Prophylactic Treatment of Episodic Cluster Headache Completed NCT00184587 Phase 2
28 Occipital Nerve Stimulation to Treat Chronic Headaches Completed NCT00205894 Phase 1, Phase 2
29 Safety and Efficacy Study of SOM230 s.c. in Cluster Headache Recruiting NCT02619617 Phase 2
30 Botulinum Toxin Type A Block of the Otic Ganglion in Chronic Cluster Headache: Safety Issues Recruiting NCT03066635 Phase 1, Phase 2
31 Psilocybin-facilitated Treatment for Cocaine Use Recruiting NCT02037126 Phase 2
32 R-Verapamil for the Prophylaxis of Episodic Cluster Headache Active, not recruiting NCT02209155 Phase 2
33 Pilot Study Evaluating the Use of Nasal Carbon Dioxide for the Treatment of Cluster Headache Terminated NCT02381795 Phase 2
34 A Pilot Study of Demand Valve Oxygen Inhalation Therapy for Cluster Headache Unknown status NCT01298921 Phase 1
35 Psilocybin in Chronic Cluster Headache Recruiting NCT02981173 Phase 1
36 Saccadometry in Primary Headache Syndromes Unknown status NCT01395264
37 Baclofen in the Treatment of Muscle Cramps in Patients With Cirrhosis Unknown status NCT02221570
38 Analysis of the Prevalence and Characteristics of Concomitant Sleep and Headache Disorders, and the Efficacy of CPAP Treatment for Headache Among Those Patients Diagnosed With Obstructive Sleep Apnea Unknown status NCT00520156
39 Inflammatory Markers Identification in Migraine Patients Unknown status NCT01618201
40 Identification of Inflammatory Markers in Migraine Patients Unknown status NCT00969995
41 Sleep, Circadian Rhythms and Cluster Headache Completed NCT01447641
42 Intranasal Cooling for Cluster Headache and Migraine Completed NCT01898455
43 Sphenopalatine Ganglion Stimulation for the Acute Treatment of Cluster Headache Completed NCT01255813
44 Cluster Headache and SPINK-1 Gene Completed NCT02585739
45 Evaluation of Efficacity and Safety of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in Chronic and Treatment-Resistant Cluster Headache(CH) Completed NCT00662935
46 Non-invasive Neurostimulation of the Vagus Nerve for the Treatment of Cluster Headache Completed NCT01792817
47 An Open Label Study Using Consecutive Intravenous Depacon With Oral Depakote ER for the Treatment of Cluster Headaches. Completed NCT00203242
48 A Randomized Multicentre Study for the Acute Relief of Episodic and Chronic Cluster Headache. Completed NCT01958125
49 Administration of Oxygen to Cluster Headache Patients Completed NCT01589588
50 Pathway CH-1 Long-Term Follow-Up Completed NCT01616511

Search NIH Clinical Center for Cluster Headache

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 69 / NDF-RT 48 :


Genetic Tests for Cluster Headache

Anatomical Context for Cluster Headache

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Cluster Headache:

39
Eye, Brain, Hypothalamus, Testes, Pituitary, Spinal Cord, Pineal

Publications for Cluster Headache

Articles related to Cluster Headache:

(show top 50) (show all 657)
id Title Authors Year
1
Improved surgical procedure using intraoperative navigation for the implantation of the SPG microstimulator in patients with chronic cluster headache. ( 28083804 )
2017
2
Identifying a gene expression signature of cluster headache in blood. ( 28074859 )
2017
3
Treatment of intractable chronic cluster headache by occipital nerve stimulation: a cohort of 51 patients. ( 27995704 )
2017
4
Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Cluster Headache. ( 28034970 )
2016
5
Psychedelic and nonpsychedelic LSD and psilocybin for cluster headache. ( 26883890 )
2016
6
Cluster headache in Greece: an observational clinical and demographic study of 302 patients. ( 27670427 )
2016
7
Atypically located cluster headache. ( 27813036 )
2016
8
Age of onset of episodic and chronic cluster headache - a review of a large case series from a single headache centre. ( 27102121 )
2016
9
Oxygen therapy for cluster headache. A mask comparison trial. A single-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study. ( 27013239 )
2016
10
Coexistence of contralateral cluster headache and probable paroxysmal hemicrania: a case report. ( 27047722 )
2016
11
Personality traits in patients with cluster headache: a comparison with migraine patients. ( 26975362 )
2016
12
Bout-associated intrinsic functional network changes in cluster headache: A longitudinal resting-state functional MRI study. ( 27605571 )
2016
13
Treatment of Cluster Headache: The American Headache Society Evidence-Based Guidelines. ( 27432623 )
2016
14
The development and validation of the Cluster Headache Quality of life scale (CHQ). ( 27596922 )
2016
15
Long Lasting Impairment of Taste and Smell as Side Effect of Lithium Carbonate in a Cluster Headache Patient. ( 27317012 )
2016
16
The anterior hypothalamus in cluster headache. ( 27530226 )
2016
17
Headache: Cluster headache treatment - RCTs versus real-world evidence. ( 27615424 )
2016
18
Current Understanding on Pain Mechanism in Migraine and Cluster Headache. ( 27642579 )
2016
19
The use of oxygen in cluster headache treatment worldwide - a survey of the International Headache Society (IHS). ( 27121359 )
2016
20
Radiofrequency Ablation of the Sphenopalatine Ganglion Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography for Intractable Cluster Headache. ( 27676681 )
2016
21
Cluster headache and depression. ( 27694264 )
2016
22
Ipsilateral Alteration of Resting State Activity Suggests That Cortical Dysfunction Contributes to the Pathogenesis of Cluster Headache. ( 27815646 )
2016
23
Living With Cluster Headache: A Qualitative Study of Patients' Perspectives. ( 27432624 )
2016
24
Chronic cluster headache and the pituitary gland. ( 26969187 )
2016
25
The role of methysergide in migraine and cluster headache treatment worldwide - A survey in members of the International Headache Society. ( 27449673 )
2016
26
What is cluster headache? Fact sheet for patients and their families. A publication to mark Cluster Headache Day 2016. ( 27678213 )
2016
27
Abnormal tyrosine metabolism in chronic cluster headache. ( 27009563 )
2016
28
Vagus Nerve Stimulation for the Acute Treatment of Cluster Headache. ( 27593725 )
2016
29
Sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation in cluster headache and other types of headache. ( 27152017 )
2016
30
Acute, transitional and long-term cluster headache treatment: pharmacokinetic issues. ( 27310148 )
2016
31
Screening of Two ADH4 Variations in a Swedish Cluster Headache Case-Control Material. ( 27041676 )
2016
32
A Cluster Headache Responsive to Ramelteon, a Selective Melatonin MT1/MT2 Receptor Agonist. ( 27580554 )
2016
33
Non-Invasive Vagus Nerve Stimulation for the ACute Treatment of Cluster Headache: Findings From the Randomized, Double-Blind, Sham-Controlled ACT1 Study. ( 27593728 )
2016
34
Release of PACAP-38 in episodic cluster headache patients - an exploratory study. ( 27475101 )
2016
35
Advances in the understanding of cluster headache. ( 27454989 )
2016
36
Validity of cluster headache diagnoses in an electronic health record data repository. ( 27273524 )
2016
37
Long-term effectiveness of sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation for cluster headache. ( 27165493 )
2016
38
Harlequin Syndrome in Cluster Headache. ( 27238298 )
2016
39
The cavernous sinus in cluster headache - a quantitative structural magnetic resonance imaging study. ( 27009562 )
2016
40
Efficacy and safety of a single occipital nerve blockade in episodic and chronic cluster headache: A prospective observational study. ( 27313215 )
2016
41
Retinal vasculature in cluster headache. ( 27053059 )
2016
42
Long-term use of daily sumatriptan injections in severe drug-resistant chronic cluster headache. ( 27698153 )
2016
43
Endoventricular Deep Brain Stimulation of the Third Ventricle: Proof of Concept and Application to Cluster Headache. ( 27244468 )
2016
44
Ventral tegmental area deep brain stimulation for refractory chronic cluster headache. ( 27029635 )
2016
45
Cluster headache attack remission with sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation: experiences in chronic cluster headache patients through 24A months. ( 27461394 )
2016
46
Cluster Headache With Accompanying Migraine-Like Features: A Possible Clinical Phenotype. ( 27861832 )
2016
47
Noninvasive vagus nerve stimulation in the management of cluster headache: clinical evidence and practical experience. ( 27134678 )
2016
48
Diagnostics: Cluster headache and misuse of paracetamol. ( 27103273 )
2016
49
A genome-wide analysis in cluster headache points to neprilysin and PACAP receptor gene variants. ( 27957625 )
2016
50
Cost-effectiveness analysis of non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation for the treatment of chronic cluster headache. ( 27102120 )
2016

Variations for Cluster Headache

Expression for Cluster Headache

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Cluster Headache.

Pathways for Cluster Headache

Pathways related to Cluster Headache according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 11.94 CALCA NPY VIP
2 11.05 INS NPY
3 10.85 INS PRL
4 10.49 CALCA NPY
5 9.98 CACNA1A NPY

GO Terms for Cluster Headache

Cellular components related to Cluster Headache according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 endosome lumen GO:0031904 8.62 INS PRL

Biological processes related to Cluster Headache according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 12)
id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 chemical synaptic transmission GO:0007268 9.54 CACNA1A HCRTR2 NPY
2 regulation of blood pressure GO:0008217 9.51 CALCA NPY
3 cellular protein metabolic process GO:0044267 9.5 CALCA INS PRL
4 regulation of insulin secretion GO:0050796 9.49 CACNA1A CLOCK
5 glucose metabolic process GO:0006006 9.48 CACNA1A INS
6 regulation of protein localization GO:0032880 9.46 INS VIP
7 cellular response to hormone stimulus GO:0032870 9.43 HCRTR2 PRL
8 regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration GO:0051480 9.4 CALCA HCRTR2
9 positive regulation of vasodilation GO:0045909 9.26 CALCA INS
10 response to pain GO:0048265 9.16 CACNA1A CALCA
11 neuropeptide signaling pathway GO:0007218 9.13 CALCA HCRTR2 NPY
12 feeding behavior GO:0007631 8.8 CALCA HCRTR2 NPY

Molecular functions related to Cluster Headache according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hormone activity GO:0005179 9.02 CALCA INS NPY PRL VIP
2 neuropeptide hormone activity GO:0005184 8.96 NPY VIP

Sources for Cluster Headache

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 MedGen
42 MeSH
43 MESH via Orphanet
44 MGI
46 NCI
47 NCIt
48 NDF-RT
51 NINDS
52 Novoseek
54 OMIM
55 OMIM via Orphanet
59 PubMed
60 QIAGEN
65 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67 TGDB
68 Tocris
69 UMLS
70 UMLS via Orphanet
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