MCID: CRY002
MIFTS: 61

Cryptorchidism

Categories: Genetic diseases, Reproductive diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Cryptorchidism

MalaCards integrated aliases for Cryptorchidism:

Name: Cryptorchidism 54 12 71 29 13 52 42 14
Cryptorchidism, Unilateral or Bilateral 29
Impaired Testicular Descent 71
Undescended Testicles 12
Undescended Testicle 12
Undescended Testis 12
Cryptosporidiosis 69
Cryptorchism 12
Crypto 71

Characteristics:

OMIM:

54
Inheritance:
autosomal dominant

Miscellaneous:
mutations are frequently maternally inherited


HPO:

32
cryptorchidism:
Inheritance autosomal dominant inheritance


Classifications:



External Ids:

OMIM 54 219050
Disease Ontology 12 DOID:11383
ICD9CM 35 752.51
MeSH 42 D003456
NCIt 47 C12326
MedGen 40 C0010417
UMLS 69 C0010417

Summaries for Cryptorchidism

OMIM : 54
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002). (219050)

MalaCards based summary : Cryptorchidism, also known as cryptorchidism, unilateral or bilateral, is related to noonan syndrome 7 and androgen insensitivity, partial, with or without breast cancer, and has symptoms including renal agenesis, unilateral cryptorchidism and fever. An important gene associated with Cryptorchidism is INSL3 (Insulin Like 3), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Prolactin Signaling Pathway and Development FGFR signaling pathway. The drugs Propofol and Sevoflurane have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include testis, testes and pituitary, and related phenotypes are endocrine/exocrine gland and growth/size/body region

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot : 71 Cryptorchidism: One of the most frequent congenital abnormalities in humans, involving 2-5% of male births. Cryptorchidism is associated with increased risk of infertility and testicular cancer.

Wikipedia : 72 Cryptorchidism is the absence of one or both testes from the scrotum. It is the most common birth defect... more...

Related Diseases for Cryptorchidism

Diseases related to Cryptorchidism via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 193)
id Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 noonan syndrome 7 32.1 PTPN11 RAF1 SOS1
2 androgen insensitivity, partial, with or without breast cancer 31.9 AR CGA NR5A1 SHBG
3 malignant tumor of undescended testis 12.3
4 torticollis, keloids, cryptorchidism, and renal dysplasia 11.9
5 intellectual disability-hypotonia-brachycephaly-pyloric stenosis-cryptorchidism syndrome 11.7
6 spigelian hernia-cryptorchidism syndrome 11.7
7 anophthalmia esophageal atresia cryptorchidism 11.7
8 x-linked microcephaly-growth retardation-prognathism-cryptorchidism syndrome 11.7
9 cryptorchidism arachnodactyly mental retardation 11.7
10 cryptorchidism-arachnodactyly-intellectual disability syndrome 11.7
11 cryptosporidiosis 11.6
12 prune belly syndrome 11.6
13 mcdonough syndrome 11.4
14 fetal akinesia deformation sequence 11.3
15 caudal appendage deafness 11.2
16 ifap syndrome with or without bresheck syndrome 11.2
17 10q22.3q23 microdeletion syndrome 11.0 AZF1 DAZ1
18 persistent mullerian duct syndrome 10.9
19 testicular seminoma 10.9
20 ocular albinism, x-linked 10.9 PTPN11 RAF1
21 splenic disease 10.9 CGA IGFL3 INSL3
22 pepck 1 deficiency 10.9 AR CGA GNRH1
23 internal hordeolum 10.8 PTPN11 SOS1
24 anterior spinal artery stroke 10.8 CGA INSL3 NR5A1 RXFP2
25 vaginal discharge 10.8 AR CGA SHBG
26 multiple synostoses syndrome 10.8 AMH INSL3 NR5A1
27 condrodisplasia punctata rizomélica 10.8 AR CGA SHBG
28 osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis 10.8 AR SHBG
29 capillary disease 10.8 AR CGA SHBG
30 ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome 10.8 AMH CGA GNRH1
31 ulceroglandular tularemia 10.8 AR SHBG
32 porokeratosis 10.7 CGA GNRH1 SHBG
33 noonan syndrome 9 10.7
34 bosma arhinia microphthalmia syndrome 10.7
35 acrofacial dysostosis, catania type 10.7
36 carpenter syndrome 2 10.7
37 noonan syndrome 10 10.7
38 spinal muscular atrophy, x-linked 2, infantile 10.7
39 noonan syndrome 1 10.7
40 pacs1-related syndrome 10.7
41 arroyo garcia cimadevilla syndrome 10.7
42 singh chhaparwal dhanda syndrome 10.7
43 van benthem-driessen-hanveld syndrome 10.7
44 duker weiss siber syndrome 10.7
45 schuurs-hoeijmakers syndrome 10.7
46 medullomyoblastoma 10.7 AR GNRH1 SHBG
47 diencephalic astrocytomas 10.7 FGFR1 PTPN11 RAF1
48 tooth disease 10.7 AR INSL3 NR5A1
49 sphingolipidosis 10.7 AMH AR GNRH1 SHBG
50 acute gonococcal salpingitis 10.7 GNRH1 NR5A1 SHBG

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Cryptorchidism:



Diseases related to Cryptorchidism

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Cryptorchidism

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

54

Genitourinary- Internal Genitalia Male:
cryptorchidism, unilateral or bilateral
oligozoospermia, mild (in some patients)
normozoospermia (in some patients)


Clinical features from OMIM:

219050

Human phenotypes related to Cryptorchidism:

32
id Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 renal agenesis 32 HP:0000104
2 unilateral cryptorchidism 32 HP:0012741

UMLS symptoms related to Cryptorchidism:


fever, pruritus

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Cryptorchidism:

44
id Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.18 AMH AR CGA FGFR1 GNRH1 HOXA10
2 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.15 FGFR1 GNRH1 HOXA10 LBX1 NR5A1 PTPN11
3 embryo MP:0005380 10.09 ANKRD11 AR FGFR1 LBX1 NR5A1 PTPN11
4 integument MP:0010771 9.92 AR FGFR1 GNRH1 PTPN11 RAF1 RXFP2
5 nervous system MP:0003631 9.9 FGFR1 GNRH1 HOXA10 LBX1 NR5A1 PTPN11
6 neoplasm MP:0002006 9.73 AMH AR GNRH1 PTPN11 RAF1 RXFP2
7 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.7 HOXA10 INSL3 NR5A1 PTPN11 RXFP2 SMCHD1
8 skeleton MP:0005390 9.32 ANKRD11 AR FGFR1 GNRH1 HOXA10 INSL3

Drugs & Therapeutics for Cryptorchidism

Drugs for Cryptorchidism (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 61)
id Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Propofol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 2078-54-8 4943
2
Sevoflurane Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2 28523-86-6 5206
3 Anesthetics Phase 4,Phase 2
4 Anesthetics, General Phase 4,Phase 2
5 Anesthetics, Intravenous Phase 4
6 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 4,Phase 2
7 Hypnotics and Sedatives Phase 4,Phase 2
8
Benzocaine Approved Phase 2 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
9
Bupivacaine Approved, Investigational Phase 2 2180-92-9, 38396-39-3 2474
10
Dexmedetomidine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2 76631-46-4, 113775-47-6 68602 5311068 56032
11
Levobupivacaine Approved Phase 2 27262-47-1 92253
12 tannic acid Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 2
13 Narcotics Phase 2
14 Adrenergic Agents Phase 2
15 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 2
16 Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists Phase 2
17 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 2
18 Analgesics Phase 2
19 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 2
20 Anesthetics, Inhalation Phase 2
21 Anesthetics, Local Phase 2
22 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 2
23 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 2
24 Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors Phase 2
25
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved 50-02-2 5743
26
Ropivacaine Approved 84057-95-4 71273 175805
27
Acetaminophen Approved 103-90-2 1983
28
Ketorolac Approved 74103-06-3, 66635-83-4 3826
29
Morphine Approved, Investigational 57-27-2 5288826
30
Ondansetron Approved 99614-02-5 4595
31
Remifentanil Approved 132875-61-7 60815
32 Androgens
33 Estrogens
34 Hormone Antagonists
35 Hormones
36 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
37 Antiemetics
38 Anti-Inflammatory Agents
39 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
40 Autonomic Agents
41 BB 1101
42 Dexamethasone acetate 1177-87-3
43 Gastrointestinal Agents
44 glucocorticoids
45 HIV Protease Inhibitors
46
protease inhibitors
47 Analgesics, Opioid
48 Anti-Anxiety Agents
49 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
50 Antipruritics

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 23)

id Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 The Effect of Induction Technique on Postoperative Pain and Agitation Completed NCT02110745 Phase 4 Sevofluorane;Propofol
2 Comparing Oxygen Saturation in Post Anesthesia Care Unit After Different Methods of Pain Relief Completed NCT00435383 Phase 2
3 Caudal Versus Intravenous Dexmedetomidine for Supplementation of Caudal Analgesia in Children Completed NCT01701778 Phase 2 Caudal Dexmedetomidine;Intravenous Dexmedetomidine;Placebo;sevoflurane
4 The Incidence of Congenital Undescended Testis Among Dutch Infants Unknown status NCT00264121
5 Odense Androgen Study: Study of Androgens, Body Composition, and Muscle Function in Danish Men Unknown status NCT00150163
6 Cryptorchidism: Impact of in Utero Exposure to Xenobiotics With Hormonal Action Completed NCT00565513
7 A Novel Technique of Circumcision Incision Orchidopexy Completed NCT02249637
8 Long-Term Outcome in Congenital Undescended Testis After Surgical Treatment by Orchidopexy Completed NCT00253253
9 Comparison of Dexamethasone Added to Ropivacaine and Ropivacaine Alone in Caudal Analgesia in Children Undergoing Orchiopexy Completed NCT01604915
10 Can the Hypertrophy of Contralateral Testis Predict the Absence of the Non-palpable Testis in the Boys Aged From 6months to 18months of Age ? Completed NCT02203318
11 Visual Guidelines and Tutoring in Pediatric Urological Surgery Completed NCT02040389
12 The Caudal Space in Children: Ultrasound Evaluation Completed NCT01896076
13 A Case-Control Study of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors Among U.S. Military Servicemen Completed NCT00341588
14 Genetics of Familial Testicular Cancer Completed NCT00342537
15 Comparison Between the Clinical Assessment of the Undescended Testis and Its' Ultrasonographic Size Recruiting NCT02731989
16 Orchidopexy Randomized Clinical Assessment Recruiting NCT02235623
17 One Stage vs. Two Stage Gubernaculum Sparing Laparoscopic Orchidopexy (GSLO) Recruiting NCT02936024
18 Expertise-Based Randomized Controlled Trial of Scrotal Versus Inguinal Orchidopexy on Post-operative Pain Recruiting NCT02158780
19 Evaluating Pain Outcomes of Caudal vs Ilioinguinal Nerve Block in Children Undergoing Orchiopexy Repair Recruiting NCT03041935 Acetaminophen;Sevoflurane;Remifentanil;Propofol;Morphine;Ondansetron;Dexamethasone;Ketorolac;Ropivacaine
20 Impact of Exposure to Environmental Pollutants on Birth Outcomes in an Israeli Cohort Recruiting NCT03084445
21 DNA Analysis in Samples From Younger Patients With Germ Cell Tumors and Their Parents or Siblings Recruiting NCT01434355
22 The Genetic Investigation of Reproductive Disorders (Including Kallmann Syndrome) Recruiting NCT01601171
23 Impact of Percutaneous Laparoscopic Assisted Internal Ring Ligation During Lap Orchiopexy Not yet recruiting NCT03291678

Search NIH Clinical Center for Cryptorchidism

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 69 / NDF-RT 48 :


Cochrane evidence based reviews: cryptorchidism

Genetic Tests for Cryptorchidism

Genetic tests related to Cryptorchidism:

id Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Cryptorchidism, Unilateral or Bilateral 29
2 Cryptorchidism 29

Anatomical Context for Cryptorchidism

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Cryptorchidism:

39
Testis, Testes, Pituitary, Breast, Placenta, Heart, Prostate

Publications for Cryptorchidism

Articles related to Cryptorchidism:

(show top 50) (show all 715)
id Title Authors Year
1
First reported case of paratesticular seminoma in a postpubertal cryptorchid testis. ( 28698791 )
2017
2
Expression patterns and changes of the LCN2 gene in the testes of induced cryptorchidism and busulfan-treated mice. ( 28771045 )
2017
3
Canadian Urological Association-Pediatric Urologists of Canada (CUA-PUC) guideline for the diagnosis, management, and followup of cryptorchidism. ( 28761584 )
2017
4
Cryptorchidism: experience and reason. ( 28832317 )
2017
5
Risk factors for cryptorchidism. ( 28654092 )
2017
6
An inguinal hernia with cryptorchidism with a Leydig cell tumor in an elderly man: A case report. ( 28171846 )
2017
7
Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with nonsyndromic cryptorchidism in Mexican patients. ( 28295519 )
2017
8
Exomic and Epigenomic Analyses in a Pair of Monozygotic Twins Discordant for Cryptorchidism. ( 28606200 )
2017
9
A population-based study of prevalence trends and geospatial analysis of hypospadias and cryptorchidism compared with non-endocrine mediated congenital anomalies. ( 28351651 )
2017
10
Scrotal testis size in unilateral non-palpable cryptorchidism, what it can and cannot tell: Study of a Middle Eastern population. ( 28254240 )
2017
11
Rural versus urban compliance in the management of cryptorchidism: is there a difference? ( 28639144 )
2017
12
Copy number variants of Ras/MAPK pathway genes in patients with isolated cryptorchidism. ( 28914499 )
2017
13
Cryptorchidism: A practical review for all community healthcare providers. ( 28265313 )
2017
14
A Case-Control Study of Maternal Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Exposure and Cryptorchidism in Canadian Populations. ( 28557710 )
2017
15
Pediatric urologists must advocate for improved quality of care in patients with cryptorchidism. ( 28265314 )
2017
16
Health Disparities in the Appropriate Management of Cryptorchidism. ( 28408128 )
2017
17
Genetic analysis of HOXA11 gene in Chinese patients with cryptorchidism. ( 28261830 )
2017
18
Analgesia use during pregnancy and risk of cryptorchidism: a systematic review and meta-analysis. ( 28333256 )
2017
19
Feasibility and Efficacy of a Urologic Profession Campaign on Cryptorchidism Using Internet and Social Media. ( 27806367 )
2016
20
A Rare Association of Obesity, Diabetes Mellitus and Bilateral Cryptorchidism: Prader - Willi Syndrome. ( 27805351 )
2016
21
Acquired cryptorchidism: More harm than thought? ( 27318547 )
2016
22
Mutational screening of the INSL3 gene in azoospermic males with a history of cryptorchidism. ( 26840636 )
2016
23
Positive Oct -3/4 and D2-40 Immunohistochemical Expression in Germ Cells and Suspected Histology Pattern of Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia in Boys with Cryptorchidism Vanish after the Age of 2 Years. ( 27606906 )
2016
24
Molecular mechanisms of cryptorchidism development: update of the database, disease comorbidity, and initiative for standardization of reporting in scientific literature. ( 27370962 )
2016
25
Sertoli cell tumor arising in a cryptorchid testis presenting as a content of inguinal hernial sac. ( 27510681 )
2016
26
Corrigendum: Environmental chemicals impact dog semen quality in vitro and may be associated with a temporal decline in sperm motility and increased cryptorchidism. ( 27633184 )
2016
27
Association between two single nucleotide polymorphisms of interleukin-27 gene and increased cryptorchidism risk. ( 25988814 )
2016
28
Genomic copy number variation association study in Caucasian patients with nonsyndromic cryptorchidism. ( 27769252 )
2016
29
Hormonal Aspects of the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Cryptorchidism. ( 27642852 )
2016
30
Environmental chemicals impact dog semen quality in vitro and may be associated with a temporal decline in sperm motility and increased cryptorchidism. ( 27503122 )
2016
31
Establishment of a surgically induced cryptorchidism canine recipient model for spermatogonial stem cell transplantation. ( 28053620 )
2016
32
The Effectiveness of hCG and LHRH in Boys with Cryptorchidism: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. ( 27050251 )
2016
33
Proximally Directed Double-looped Epididymis and Vas Deferens Simulating Vas Duplication: The Importance of Precise Definition of Abnormal Ductal Anatomy in Cryptorchidism. ( 27397099 )
2016
34
Can Hypertrophy of the Contralateral Testis Predict the Absence of a Viable Testis in Infancy with Cryptorchidism: A Prospective Analysis. ( 26990979 )
2016
35
TESTICULAR GROWTH DURING PUBERTY IN BOYS WITH AND WITHOUT A HISTORY OF CONGENITAL CRYPTORCHIDISM. ( 27049351 )
2016
36
Mixed Germ Cell Tumour in an Infertile Male Having Unilateral Cryptorchidism: A Rare Case Report. ( 27042527 )
2016
37
The diagnostic impact of testicular biopsies for intratubular germ cell neoplasia in cryptorchid boys and the subsequent risk of testicular cancer in men with prepubertal surgery for syndromic or non-syndromic cryptorchidism. ( 27614808 )
2016
38
A systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies assessing the efficacy of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone therapy for children with cryptorchidism. ( 26898822 )
2016
39
Post-fertilization effect of bilateral primary testicular damage induced by unilateral cryptorchidism in the rat model. ( 26757429 )
2016
40
A allele of SNP12 in estrogen receptor 1 was a risk factor for cryptorchidism in Asians: a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis. ( 27376826 )
2016
41
Pantaloon Hernia: Obstructed Indirect Component and Direct Component with Cryptorchidism. ( 27579208 )
2016
42
Cryptorchidism: An Update. ( 27723902 )
2016
43
Cryptorchidism and pesticides: Is there a connection? ( 27956069 )
2016
44
Re: Hormonal Therapy Using Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone for Improvement of Fertility Index among Children with Cryptorchidism: AA Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review. ( 27628840 )
2016
45
Long-Term Follow-Up after Treatment of Cryptorchidism. ( 27589079 )
2016
46
Computed Tomographic Features in a Case of Bilateral Neoplastic Cryptorchidism with Suspected Torsion in a Dog. ( 27200365 )
2016
47
The functional and predictive roles of miR-210 in cryptorchidism. ( 27562222 )
2016
48
Mutational analysis of HOXA10 gene in Chinese patients with cryptorchidism. ( 27108669 )
2016
49
Prenatal diagnosis of cryptorchid testicular teratoma. ( 27081226 )
2016
50
Genetic, Maternal, and Environmental Risk Factors for Cryptorchidism: An Update. ( 27642851 )
2016

Variations for Cryptorchidism

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot genetic disease variations for Cryptorchidism:

71
id Symbol AA change Variation ID SNP ID
1 INSL3 p.Pro93Leu VAR_013235 rs104894697
2 INSL3 p.Arg102Cys VAR_013236 rs104894698
3 INSL3 p.Asn110Lys VAR_017122 rs121912555
4 RXFP2 p.Thr222Pro VAR_015386 rs28939382

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Cryptorchidism:

6
id Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1 INSL3 NM_005543.3(INSL3): c.330C> G (p.Asn110Lys) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs121912555 GRCh37 Chromosome 19, 17927729: 17927729
2 INSL3 NM_005543.3(INSL3): c.278C> T (p.Pro93Leu) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs104894697 GRCh37 Chromosome 19, 17927781: 17927781
3 INSL3 NM_005543.3(INSL3): c.304C> T (p.Arg102Cys) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs104894698 GRCh37 Chromosome 19, 17927755: 17927755
4 INSL3 NM_005543.3(INSL3): c.305G> A (p.Arg102His) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs121912556 GRCh37 Chromosome 19, 17927754: 17927754
5 INSL3 NM_005543.3(INSL3): c.217C> T (p.Arg73Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs398122886 GRCh37 Chromosome 19, 17927842: 17927842
6 ANKRD11 NM_013275.5(ANKRD11): c.5317G> T (p.Glu1773Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs1114167291 GRCh37 Chromosome 16, 89347633: 89347633
7 SMCHD1 NM_015295.2(SMCHD1): c.511T> G (p.Phe171Val) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs1135402740 GRCh38 Chromosome 18, 2674018: 2674018

Copy number variations for Cryptorchidism from CNVD:

7
id CNVD ID Chromosom Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 45068 10 6700000 12300000 Gain Cryptorchidism
2 62278 12 107500000 132349534 Gain Cryptorchidism
3 89249 15 17000000 23300000 Loss Cryptorchidism
4 202447 5 8200000 15100000 Gain Cryptorchidism
5 260236 X 146900000 154913754 Gain Cryptorchidism
6 266753 Y 1 57772954 Microdeletion Cryptorchidism

Expression for Cryptorchidism

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Cryptorchidism.

Pathways for Cryptorchidism

GO Terms for Cryptorchidism

Biological processes related to Cryptorchidism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 negative regulation of cell proliferation GO:0008285 9.8 AR GNRH1 LBX1 RAF1 RXFP2
2 regulation of gene expression GO:0010468 9.67 AR FGFR1 GNRH1 HOXA10
3 male gonad development GO:0008584 9.56 AR HOXA10 NR5A1 RXFP2
4 hormone metabolic process GO:0042445 9.46 NR5A1 PTPN11
5 multicellular organism growth GO:0035264 9.46 ANKRD11 AR PTPN11 SOS1
6 gonad development GO:0008406 9.43 AMH CGA
7 sex determination GO:0007530 9.32 AMH NR5A1
8 neurotrophin TRK receptor signaling pathway GO:0048011 9.13 PTPN11 RAF1 SOS1
9 cell-cell signaling GO:0007267 9.1 AMH AR CGA GNRH1 INSL3 NR5A1

Molecular functions related to Cryptorchidism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 androgen binding GO:0005497 8.96 AR SHBG
2 hormone activity GO:0005179 8.92 AMH CGA GNRH1 INSL3

Sources for Cryptorchidism

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 MedGen
42 MeSH
43 MESH via Orphanet
44 MGI
46 NCI
47 NCIt
48 NDF-RT
51 NINDS
52 Novoseek
54 OMIM
55 OMIM via Orphanet
59 PubMed
60 QIAGEN
65 SNOMED-CT via HPO
66 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67 TGDB
68 Tocris
69 UMLS
70 UMLS via Orphanet
Content
Loading form....