MCID: DNT001
MIFTS: 41

Dental Fluorosis malady

Categories: Gastrointestinal diseases, Oral diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Dental Fluorosis

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Aliases & Descriptions for Dental Fluorosis:

Name: Dental Fluorosis 11 13
Intrinsic Enamel Discolouration of Fluorosis 11
Dental Fluorosis, Acquired 68
 
Mottling of Enamel 11
Fluorosis, Dental 39
Mottled Teeth 11

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology11 DOID:13711
ICD1030 K00.3
ICD9CM32 520.3
MeSH39 D009050
NCIt45 C85059

Summaries for Dental Fluorosis

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Wikipedia:71 Dental fluorosis (also termed mottled enamel) is an extremely common disorder, characterized by... more...

MalaCards based summary: Dental Fluorosis, also known as intrinsic enamel discolouration of fluorosis, is related to dental caries and deafness, autosomal recessive 21, and has symptoms including toothache An important gene associated with Dental Fluorosis is COL1A2 (Collagen Type I Alpha 2 Chain), and among its related pathways are Validated transcriptional targets of AP1 family members Fra1 and Fra2 and Development_Hedgehog and PTH signaling pathways in bone and cartilage development. Affiliated tissues include bone, thyroid and testes.

Related Diseases for Dental Fluorosis

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Diseases related to Dental Fluorosis via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 49)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1dental caries10.6
2deafness, autosomal recessive 2110.2ESR1, ESR2
3her2-receptor negative breast cancer10.2ESR1, ESR2
4muscle hypertrophy10.2COL1A2, DSPP
5adams-oliver syndrome 610.2BGLAP, ESR1
6ulceroglandular tularemia10.2ESR1, ESR2
7osteogenesis imperfecta10.2ESR1, ESR2
8acute thyroiditis10.2ESR1, ESR2
9substance abuse10.2ESR1, ESR2
10perinatal jaundice due to hepatocellular damage10.2ESR1, ESR2
11deafness, autosomal recessive 7410.2ESR1, ESR2
12diabetic neuropathy10.2COL1A2, DSPP
13larynx leiomyoma10.2DSPP, ESR1
14carbuncle10.1ESR1, ESR2
15prostatocystitis10.1BGLAP, COL1A2, DSPP
16mental retardation, autosomal recessive 3510.1BGLAP, COL1A2
17amniotic band syndrome10.1AMELX, MMP20
18scapuloperoneal myopathy10.1COL1A2, ESR1, ESR2
19dysbaric osteonecrosis10.1BGLAP, ESR1, ESR2
20osteogenesis imperfecta, type ii10.1COL1A2, DSPP
21taeniasis10.1COL1A2, DSPP, MMP20
22retinitis pigmentosa 5910.1AMELX, AMELY
23peeling skin syndrome10.1ESR1, ESR2
24ocular cancer10.1AMELX, AMELY
25fetal hemoglobin quantitative trait locus 310.1AMELX, AMELY
26intramuscular hemangioma10.0AMELX, AMELY
27childhood endodermal sinus tumor10.0AMELY, DSPP
28reticular perineurioma10.0AMBN, DSPP, MMP20
29carnitine deficiency, systemic primary10.0BGLAP, COL1A2, ESR1, ESR2
30breast cystic hypersecretory carcinoma9.9AMELX, AMELY
31basal cell carcinoma9.9AMELX, AMELY, DSPP
32bronchus cancer9.9AMELX, AMELY, DSPP
33brown-vialetto-van laere syndrome 29.9AMBN, AMELX, MMP20
34angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia9.9AMBN, AMELX, MMP20
35fungal gastritis9.9AMELX, AMELY, DSPP
36thyroiditis9.9
37periodontitis9.9
38diabetes insipidus9.9
39arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 49.9AMBN, AMELX, AMELY
40female breast upper-inner quadrant cancer9.8AMELX, AMELY
41taurodontism9.8
42amelogenesis imperfecta9.8
43burns9.8
44dentin dysplasia9.8
45gingivitis9.8
46periodontal disease9.8
47accommodative spasm9.7AMBN, AMELX, AMELY, DSPP
48ovarian malignant mesothelioma9.6AMBN, AMELX, AMELY, DSPP, MMP20
49neuroschistosomiasis8.7AMBN, AMELX, AMELY, BGLAP, COL1A2, DSPP

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Dental Fluorosis:



Diseases related to dental fluorosis

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Dental Fluorosis

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UMLS symptoms related to Dental Fluorosis:


toothache

Drugs & Therapeutics for Dental Fluorosis

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Drugs for Dental Fluorosis (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 17)
idNameStatusPhaseClinical TrialsCas NumberPubChem Id
1Cariostatic AgentsPhase 3, Phase 1333
2Protective AgentsPhase 3, Phase 17443
3FluoridesPhase 3, Phase 1462
4sodium fluorideapprovedPhase 12047681-49-4
5
Calcium carbonateapprovedPhase 1215471-34-1
Synonyms:
CaCO3
Calcium carbonate
Calcium carbonate (1:1)
Calciumcarbonat
Carbonate de calcium
 
Carbonato de calcio
Carbonic acid calcium salt (1:1)
E 170
Kalziumkarbonat
Kohlensaurer kalk
Precipitated calcium carbonate
6Gastrointestinal AgentsPhase 18402
7Pharmaceutical SolutionsPhase 18192
8Calcium, DietaryPhase 15713
9Anti-Ulcer AgentsPhase 11842
10ListerinePhase 1204
11AntacidsPhase 11842
12
Ethanolapproved213764-17-5702
Synonyms:
(C6-C9)Alkyl alcohol
02483_FLUKA
02851_FLUKA
02853_FLUKA
02854_FLUKA
02855_FLUKA
02856_FLUKA
02856_SIAL
02857_FLUKA
02857_SIAL
02858_FLUKA
02858_SIAL
02860_FLUKA
02865_FLUKA
02865_SIAL
02870_FLUKA
02870_SIAL
02875_FLUKA
02877_FLUKA
02878_FLUKA
02882_FLUKA
02882_SIAL
02883_FLUKA
02884_FLUKA
02890_FLUKA
02890_SIAL
02891_FLUKA
02891_SIAL
1-Hydroxyethane
100C.NPA
121182-78-3
187380_ALDRICH
187380_SIAL
24102_RIEDEL
24102_SIAL
24103_RIEDEL
24103_SIAL
24105_RIEDEL
24105_SIAL
24106_RIEDEL
24106_SIAL
24194_RIEDEL
24194_SIAL
245119_ALDRICH
245119_SIAL
270741_ALDRICH
270741_SIAL
277649_ALDRICH
277649_SIAL
2858_SIGMA
29221_FLUKA
32205_RIEDEL
32205_SIAL
32221_RIEDEL
32221_SIAL
32294_RIEDEL
32294_SIAL
34870_SIAL
34963_RIEDEL
39278_FLUKA
40210_ALDRICH
40210_RIEDEL
41322_FLUKA
458600_ALDRICH
458600_SIAL
459828_ALDRICH
459828_SIAL
459836_ALDRICH
459836_SIAL
459844_SIAL
48075_SUPELCO
493511_SIAL
493538_ALDRICH
493538_SIAL
493546_ALDRICH
493546_SIAL
64-17-5
676829_SIAL
68475-56-9
71076-86-3
71329-38-9
8000-16-6
8024-45-1
AC1L19TW
AC1Q31MM
AHD 2000
AI3-01706
ALCOHOL 5% IN D5-W
Absolute Alcohol
Absolute Ethanol
Absolute alcohol
Absolute ethanol
Absolute ethyl alcohol
Aethanol
Aethanol [German]
Aethylalkohol
Alcare Hand Degermer
Alcohol
Alcohol (USP)
Alcohol (ethyl)
Alcohol Anhydrous
Alcohol [USP]
Alcohol anhydrous
Alcohol dehydrated
Alcohol denatured
Alcohol etílico
Alcohol, Absolute
Alcohol, Dehydrated
Alcohol, Diluted
Alcohol, Grain
Alcohol, anhydrous
Alcohol, dehydrated
Alcohol, denatured
Alcohol, diluted
Alcohol, ethyl
Alcohols
Alcohols, C1-3
Alcohols, C30
Alcohols, C6-9
Alcool Ethylique
Alcool Etilico
Alcool ethylique
Alcool etilico
Alcool éthylique
Algrain
Alkohol
Alkohol [German]
Alkoholu Etylowego
Alkoholu etylowego
Aminoethanol
Anhydrol
Anhydrol PM 4085
Anhydrous alcohol
Anhydrous ethanol
Beta-Aminoethanol
Beta-Aminoethyl Alcohol
Beta-Ethanolamine
Beta-Hydroxyethylamine
C00469
C2H5OH
C2H6O
CCRIS 945
CDA 19
CDA 19-200
CHEBI:16236
CHEMBL545
CID702
Caswell No. 426
Caswell No. 430
Colamine
Cologne Spirit
Cologne spirit
Cologne spirits
 
D000431
D00068
DB00898
Dehydrated Ethanol
Dehydrated alcohol
Dehydrated ethanol
Denatured Alcohol
Denatured Alcohol Cd-10
Denatured Alcohol Cd-5
Denatured Alcohol Cd-5a
Denatured Alcohol Sd-1
Denatured Alcohol Sd-13a
Denatured Alcohol Sd-17
Denatured Alcohol Sd-23a
Denatured Alcohol Sd-28
Denatured Alcohol Sd-30
Denatured Alcohol Sd-39b
Denatured Alcohol Sd-39c
Denatured Alcohol Sd-3a
Denatured Alcohol Sd-40m
Denatured Ethanol
Denatured alcohol
Denatured ethanol
Desinfektol EL
Diluted Alcohol
Distilled spirits
E2385_SIGMA
E7023_ALDRICH
E7023_SIAL
E7148_ALDRICH
E7148_SIAL
E7517_SIGMA
EINECS 200-578-6
EINECS 270-649-4
EOH
EOX
ETA
Envision Conditioner Pdd 9020
Esumiru WK 88
EtOH
Etanolo
Etanolo [Italian]
Ethanol (9CI)
Ethanol 200 Proof
Ethanol 200 proof
Ethanol Absolute
Ethanol Absolute Bp
Ethanol Anhydrous
Ethanol Extra Pure
Ethanol Vapor
Ethanol [JAN]
Ethanol solution
Ethanol, Silent Spirit
Ethanol, undenatured
Ethanolum anhydricum
Ethicap
Ethyl Alcohol
Ethyl Alcohol & Water, 10%
Ethyl Alcohol & Water, 20%
Ethyl Alcohol & Water, 30%
Ethyl Alcohol & Water, 40%
Ethyl Alcohol & Water, 5%
Ethyl Alcohol & Water, 50%
Ethyl Alcohol & Water, 60%
Ethyl Alcohol & Water, 70%
Ethyl Alcohol & Water, 80%
Ethyl Alcohol & Water, 95%
Ethyl Alcohol & Water, 96%
Ethyl Alcohol Anhydrous
Ethyl Alcohol, Anhydrous
Ethyl Alcohol, Denatured
Ethyl Hydrate
Ethyl Hydroxide
Ethyl alc
Ethyl alcohol
Ethyl alcohol anhydrous
Ethyl alcohol in alcoholic beverages
Ethyl alcohol usp
Ethyl hydrate
Ethyl hydroxide
Ethylalcohol
Ethylalcohol [Dutch]
Ethylol
Ethylolamine
Ethyloxy Group
Etylowy alkohol
FEMA No. 2419
FEMA Number 2419
Fermentation alcohol
Glycinol
Grain alcohol
HSDB 531
HSDB 82
HYDROXYETHYL GROUP
Hinetoless
Hydroxyethane
I14-12648
IMS 99
Infinity Pure
Jaysol
Jaysol S
LS-1539
LTBB002977
Lux
Methylated Spirit Mineralised
Methylated spirit
Methylcarbinol
MolPort-001-785-844
Molasses alcohol
NCGC00091458-01
NCI-C03134
NSC 85228
NSC85228
Oxydimethylene Group
Potato alcohol
Punctilious ethyl alcohol
Pyro
QMHAIh@
Reagent Alcohol
Ru-Tuss Expectorant
SDA 3A
SDA 40-2
SDM No. 37
SY Fresh M
Sekundasprit
Silent spirit
Spirit
Spirits of wine
Spiritus vini
Spirt
Synasol
Tecsol
Tecsol C
Thanol
Thiofaco M-50
UNII-3K9958V90M
USAF EK-1597
Undenatured Ethanol
WLN: Q2
absolute alcohol
alcohol
alcohol etilico
bmse000297
etanol
ethanol
ethyl alcohol
grain alcohol
nchem.651-comp3c
nchembio.552-comp10
nchembio.94-comp20
spiritus vini
Äthanol
Äthylalkohol
éthanol
13Immunoconjugates78
14
Hydrogen peroxide637722-84-1784
Synonyms:
Adeka Super EL
Albone
Albone 35
Albone DS
Anti-Keim 50
Asepticper
Baquashock
CIX
Clarigel Gold
Crestal Whitestrips
Crystacide
Dentasept
Deslime LP
Hioxyl
Hipox
Hybrite
Hydrogen dioxide
Hydrogen peroxide
Inhibine
Lase Peroxide
Lensan A
 
Magic Bleaching
Metrokur
Mirasept
Nite White Excel 2
Odosat D
Opalescence Xtra
Oxigenal
Oxydol
Oxyfull
Oxysept
Oxysept I
Pegasyl
Perhydrol
Perone
Peroxaan
Peroxclean
Quasar Brite
Select Bleach
Superoxol
T-Stuff
Whiteness HP
Whitespeed
Xtra White
15Anti-Infective Agents, Local1880
16Anti-Infective Agents22062
17Anesthetics9596

Interventional clinical trials:

idNameStatusNCT IDPhase
1Effect of pH and Fluoride Concentration of Dentifrices on Caries ControlCompletedNCT01049503Phase 3
2Anticaries Potential and Fluorosis Risk From Different Fluoride ToothpastesCompletedNCT01589991Phase 1
3Systemic Fluoride Bioavailability From Toothpastes Containing Calcium Carbonate or Silica as AbrasivesCompletedNCT01571050Phase 1
4Fluoride Bioavailability After Ingestion of Water or Foods Prepared With Fluoridated WaterCompletedNCT01978041Phase 1
5Resin Infiltration and Resin Infiltration With Bleaching in Improving the Esthetics for Fluorosis StainsCompletedNCT01733888
6Fluoride Intake From Toothbrushig With Children's or Regular ToothpastesCompletedNCT01568541
7Dental Health Epidemiology Among Israel Defense Forces (IDF) RecruitsActive, not recruitingNCT02958891
8Action of Infiltration Resin Icon in Fluorosis, Clinical Trial, Monitoring for 12 MonthNot yet recruitingNCT02925780

Search NIH Clinical Center for Dental Fluorosis


Cochrane evidence based reviews: fluorosis, dental

Genetic Tests for Dental Fluorosis

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Anatomical Context for Dental Fluorosis

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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Dental Fluorosis:

36
Bone, Thyroid, Testes, Brain

Publications for Dental Fluorosis

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Articles related to Dental Fluorosis:

(show top 50)    (show all 440)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Protective effect of lycopene on fluoride-induced ameloblasts apoptosis and dental fluorosis through oxidative stress-mediated Caspase pathways. (27871895)
2017
2
Impact of Dental Fluorosis, Socioeconomic Status and Self-Perception in Adolescents Exposed to a High Level of Fluoride in Water. (28085102)
2017
3
Risk factors and prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries in school children of North India. (28025807)
2017
4
Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley. (27472351)
2016
5
Dental Fluorosis and Catalase Immunoreactivity of the Brain Tissues in Rats Exposed to High Fluoride Pre- and Postnatally. (27052310)
2016
6
Independent and Additive Effects of Different Sources of Fluoride and Dental Fluorosis. (27306248)
2016
7
The prevalence of dental fluorosis and exposure to fluoride in drinking water: A systematic review. (27651877)
2016
8
Validation of ICMR index for identification of dental fluorosis in epidemiological studies. (27834326)
2016
9
Grading and quantification of dental fluorosis in zebrafish larva. (27300491)
2016
10
Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis and associated Risk Factors in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India. (27843259)
2016
11
LS8 cell apoptosis induced by NaF through p-ERK and p-JNK - a mechanism study of dental fluorosis. (27624793)
2016
12
Application of quantitative light-induced fluorescence to determine the depth of demineralization of dental fluorosis in enamel microabrasion: a case report. (27508165)
2016
13
Is there an association between the presence of dental fluorosis and dental trauma amongst school children? (26960108)
2016
14
Dental fluorosis, fluoride in urine, and nutritional status in adolescent students living in the rural areas of Guanajuato, Mexico. (28032042)
2016
15
Prevalence of dental fluorosis among primary school children in association with different water fluoride levels in Mysore district, Karnataka. (27237204)
2016
16
Chronic Exposure to Bisphenol A Exacerbates Dental Fluorosis in Growing Rats. (27257137)
2016
17
Dental fluorosis and urinary fluoride concentration as a reflection of fluoride exposure and its impact on IQ level and BMI of children of Laxmisagar, Simlapal Block of Bankura District, W.B., India. (26960765)
2016
18
Natural history and long-term impact of dental fluorosis: a prospective cohort study. (26763813)
2016
19
Caries with Dental Fluorosis and Oral Health Behaviour Among 12-Year School Children in Moderate-Fluoride Drinking Water Community in Quetta, Pakistan. (27671177)
2016
20
The prevalence of dental fluorosis and its associated factors in Salem district. (27307668)
2016
21
Enzymatic Activity of Glutathione S-Transferase and Dental Fluorosis Among Children Receiving Two Different Levels of Naturally Fluoridated Water. (27449362)
2016
22
Nutritional status and dental fluorosis among schoolchildren in communities with different drinking water fluoride concentrations in a central region in Mexico. (26426374)
2015
23
Dental fluorosis and its influence on children's life. (25590503)
2015
24
Differential diagnosis of dental fluorosis made by undergraduate dental students. (26761552)
2015
25
Association of Temporomandibular Joint Signs & Symptoms with Dental Fluorosis & Skeletal Manifestations in Endemic Fluoride Areas of Dungarpur District, Rajasthan, India. (26816986)
2015
26
Evaluation of Fluoride Retention Due to Most Commonly Consumed Estuarine Fishes Among Fish Consuming Population of Andhra Pradesh as a Contributing Factor to Dental Fluorosis: A Cross-Sectional Study. (26266208)
2015
27
Fluoride Exposure Effects and Dental Fluorosis in Children in Mexico City. (26609898)
2015
28
Collagenase 1A2 (COL1A2) gene A/C polymorphism in relation to severity of dental fluorosis. (26564713)
2015
29
DENTAL FLUOROSIS AND ITS RELATION TO SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS, PARENTS' KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS AMONG 12-YEAR-OLD SCHOOL CHILDREN IN QUETTA, PAKISTAN. (26513940)
2015
30
Dental fluorosis in the Blue Mountains and Hawkesbury, New South Wales, Australia: policy implications. (25511082)
2015
31
Dental fluorosis and skeletal fluoride content as biomarkers of excess fluoride exposure in marsupials. (26188404)
2015
32
Severe dental fluorosis and cognitive deficits. (25576911)
2015
33
Timing of fluoride intake and dental fluorosis on late-erupting permanent teeth. (26198477)
2015
34
Dental fluorosis: A histological study using Light and Confocal microscopy. (26275189)
2015
35
Correction: Methodological discussion about prevalence of the dental fluorosis on dental health surveys. (26153681)
2015
36
Association between urine fluoride and dental fluorosis as a toxicity factor in a rural community in the state of San Luis Potosi. (25789336)
2015
37
Borderline" fluorotic region in Serbia: correlations among fluoride in drinking water, biomarkers of exposure and dental fluorosis in schoolchildren. (26423526)
2015
38
Adult perceptions of dental fluorosis and select dental conditions-an Asian perspective. (26564646)
2015
39
Dental fluorosis: prevalence and associated factors in 12-year-old schoolchildren in GoiAcnia, GoiA!s. (26247182)
2015
40
Relationship Between Dental Fluorosis and Intelligence Quotient of School Going Children In and Around Lucknow District: A Cross-Sectional Study. (26673535)
2015
41
Comment on "Severe dental fluorosis and cognitive deficits". (25986437)
2015
42
Fluoride exposure from groundwater as reflected by urinary fluoride and children's dental fluorosis in the Main Ethiopian Rift Valley. (25084227)
2014
43
Bovine calves as ideal bio-indicators for fluoridated drinking water and endemic osteo-dental fluorosis. (24671615)
2014
44
Factors associated with dental fluorosis in school children in southern Brazil: a cross-sectional study. (24878674)
2014
45
Prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity in Chinese rural adults with dental fluorosis. (24484047)
2014
46
The role of partial recording protocols in reporting prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis. (24995860)
2014
47
The effect of non-fluoride factors on risk of dental fluorosis: evidence from rural populations of the Main Ethiopian Rift. (24462132)
2014
48
Enamel crystals of mice susceptible or resistant to dental fluorosis: an AFM study. (25025555)
2014
49
A comparative study of fluoride ingestion levels, serum thyroid hormone & TSH level derangements, dental fluorosis status among school children from endemic and non-endemic fluorosis areas. (24455464)
2014
50
Retention of fissure sealants in young permanent molars affected by dental fluorosis: a 12-month clinical study. (24737141)
2014

Variations for Dental Fluorosis

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Expression for genes affiliated with Dental Fluorosis

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Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Dental Fluorosis.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Dental Fluorosis

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GO Terms for genes affiliated with Dental Fluorosis

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Cellular components related to Dental Fluorosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1extracellular matrixGO:00310129.9AMELY, COL1A2, MMP20
2endoplasmic reticulum lumenGO:00057889.6AMBN, AMELX, BGLAP, COL1A2
3extracellular regionGO:00055768.2AMBN, AMELX, BGLAP, COL1A2, DSPP, ESR2
4proteinaceous extracellular matrixGO:00055787.7AMBN, AMELX, AMELY, COL1A2, DSPP, MMP20

Biological processes related to Dental Fluorosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1odontogenesisGO:004247610.4BGLAP, COL1A2
2intracellular estrogen receptor signaling pathwayGO:003052010.3ESR1, ESR2
3odontogenesis of dentin-containing toothGO:004247510.0AMBN, AMELX
4skeletal system developmentGO:00015019.5BGLAP, COL1A2, DSPP
5tooth mineralizationGO:00345059.3AMELX, AMELY
6biomineral tissue developmentGO:00312148.8AMBN, AMELX, AMELY, BGLAP, DSPP

Molecular functions related to Dental Fluorosis according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 9)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1core promoter sequence-specific DNA bindingGO:000104610.3ESR1, ESR2
2estrogen receptor activityGO:003028410.2ESR1, ESR2
3estrogen response element bindingGO:003405610.2ESR1, ESR2
4RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, estrogen-activated sequence-specific DNA bindingGO:003805210.2ESR1, ESR2
5RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, ligand-activated sequence-specific DNA bindingGO:000487910.2ESR1, ESR2
6hydroxyapatite bindingGO:004684810.2AMELX, BGLAP
7steroid bindingGO:000549610.2ESR1, ESR2
8steroid hormone receptor activityGO:00037079.8ESR1, ESR2
9structural constituent of tooth enamelGO:00303458.8AMBN, AMELX, AMELY

Sources for Dental Fluorosis

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2CDC
6CNVD
10DGIdb
15ExPASy
16FDA
17FMA
27GTR
28HGMD
29HMDB
30ICD10
31ICD10 via Orphanet
32ICD9CM
33IUPHAR
34KEGG
37MedGen
39MeSH
40MESH via Orphanet
41MGI
44NCI
45NCIt
46NDF-RT
49NINDS
50Novoseek
52OMIM
53OMIM via Orphanet
57PubMed
58QIAGEN
63SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67Tumor Gene Family of Databases
68UMLS
69UMLS via Orphanet