MCID: DBT026
MIFTS: 39

Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent malady

Genetic diseases (common) category
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Summaries for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

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47OMIM, 33MalaCards
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MalaCards: Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent is related to diabetes mellitus and diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent, with acanthosis nigricans and hypertension. An important gene associated with Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent is SLC30A8 (solute carrier family 30 (zinc transporter), member 8), and among its related pathways are Growth hormone receptor signaling and IGF1 pathway. The compounds [3h]2-deoxyglucose and 3-o-methylglucose have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Related mouse phenotypes are adipose tissue and liver/biliary system.

Description from OMIM:47 125853,135853

Aliases & Classifications for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

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47OMIM
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Classifications:

Malacards categories (disease lists): (See all malacards categories)
Global: Genetic diseases (common)


Aliases & Descriptions:

diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent 47


Related Diseases for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

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17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
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Diseases in the Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent family:

Kcnj11-Related Susceptibility to Noninsulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent 1
Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, Late Onset Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent, 2

Diseases related to Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards/GeneDecks gene sharing:

(show all 46)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1diabetes mellitus30.1SLC30A8, ABCC8, IGF2BP2, SLC2A2, SLC2A4, CDKAL1
2diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent, with acanthosis nigricans and hypertension10.6
3diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent, 210.6
4diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent 110.5
5diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent, association with10.5
6diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent, late onset10.5
7hepatic lipase deficiency10.1LIPC
8familial hyperinsulinism10.1ABCC8
9hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia10.1ABCC8
10maturity-onset diabetes of the young10.1NEUROD1, HNF1B, HNF4A
11neonatal diabetes mellitus10.1ABCC8, HNF1B, SLC2A2
12cholestasis10.0LIPC, HNF1B, HNF4A
13rectal neoplasm10.0IRS2, IRS1
14polycystic ovary syndrome10.0IRS2, IRS1, INSR
15uremia10.0RETN, LIPC, INSR
16glucose intolerance10.0SLC2A4, RETN, IRS2, INSR
17galactosemia10.0LIPC, IRS1, RETN, HNF1B, HNF4A
18coronary artery disease10.0LIPC, IRS1, RETN
19liver cirrhosis10.0INSR, IRS1, RETN, SLC2A4
20hypercholesterolemia10.0RETN, LIPC, INSR
21hypertriglyceridemia10.0INSR, LIPC, IRS1, SLC2A4
22lipodystrophy10.0RETN, AKT2, INSR
23fatty liver disease10.0INSR, LIPC, RETN, HNF4A
24sepsis10.0INSR, IRS1, RETN, SLC2A4
25insulinoma10.0ABCC8, INSR, HNF4A, SLC2A2
26primary hyperoxaluria10.0HNF1B, RETN, LIPC
27atherosclerosis10.0LIPC, IRS1, IRS2, RETN, HNF4A
28kidney cancer10.0INSR, HNF1B, HNF4A, SLC2A4
29pancreatic cancer10.0IRS1, IRS2, AKT2, HNF4A, SLC2A4
30hypoglycemia10.0ABCC8, INSR, HNF4A, SLC2A4, SLC2A2
31metabolic syndrome x10.0SLC2A2, HNF4A, RETN, INSR, ABCC8
32type 1 diabetes mellitus10.0INSR, LIPC, NEUROD1, RETN, HNF4A
33ovarian cancer10.0INSR, AKT2, HNF1B, HNF4A, SLC2A4
34hyperinsulinism10.0ABCC8, INSR, IRS1, IRS2, RETN
35hepatocellular carcinoma10.0SLC2A2, HNF4A, HNF1B, IRS1, LIPC, INSR
36ischemia10.0SLC2A4, MAPK8IP1, INSR, ABCC8
37tongue squamous cell carcinoma9.9INSR, IRS1, IRS2, AKT2, HNF4A, SLC2A4
38adenocarcinoma9.9INSR, NEUROD1, AKT2, HNF1B, HNF4A, SLC2A4
39gestational diabetes9.9SLC2A4, HNF4A, RETN, IRS2, IRS1, INSR
40colorectal cancer9.9PPP1R3A, INSR, IRS1, IRS2, HNF4A
41prostate cancer9.9INSR, IRS1, IRS2, AKT2, MAPK8IP1, HNF1B
42breast cancer9.9INSR, IRS1, IRS2, AKT2, HNF4A, SLC2A4
43obesity9.9ABCC8, INSR, LIPC, IRS1, IRS2, RETN
44hyperglycemia9.8HNF1B, RETN, IRS2, IRS1, NEUROD1, LIPC
45type 2 diabetes mellitus9.7SLC2A2, SLC2A4, HNF4A, HNF1B, RETN, IRS2
46insulin resistance9.7SLC2A4, HNF4A, HNF1B, RETN, AKT2, IRS2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent:



Diseases related to diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent

Symptoms for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

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47OMIM
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Clinical features from OMIM:

125853,135853

Drugs & Therapeutics for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

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42NIH Clinical Center, 6ClinicalTrials
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Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

Search NIH Clinical Center for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

Genetic Tests for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

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Anatomical Context for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

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Animal Models for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent or affiliated genes

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37MGI
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MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent:

37
idDescriptionMGI Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MP:00053757.7CDKAL1, RETN, AKT2, IRS2, IRS1, SLC2A4
2MP:00053707.6MAPK8IP1, SLC2A4, CDKAL1, HNF4A, RETN, AKT2
3MP:00053697.6IRS2, PPP1R3A, INSR, IRS1, HNF1B, AKT2
4MP:00107687.6SLC2A4, HNF4A, HNF1B, MAPK8IP1, AKT2, IRS2
5MP:00053847.5CDKAL1, SLC2A2, INSR, NEUROD1, IRS1, IRS2
6MP:00053796.9INSR, SLC2A4, CDKAL1, HNF1B, MAPK8IP1, AKT2
7MP:00053786.7PPP1R3A, SLC2A2, INSR, NEUROD1, SLC30A8, SLC2A4
8MP:00053765.8LIPC, IRS2, INSR, ABCC8, PPP1R3A, AKT2

Publications for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

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Variations for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

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Sources:
64UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 1 National Center for Biotechnology Information (Clinvar), 7dbSNP
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot genetic disease variations for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent:

64 (show all 11)
id Symbol AA change Variation ID SNP ID
1AKT2p.Arg274HisVAR_067310
2HNF1Bp.Ser465ArgVAR_017665
3HNF4Ap.Val402IleVAR_004670rs137853337
4INSRp.Arg1191GlnVAR_004098
5INSRp.Thr858AlaVAR_015917rs182552223
6INSRp.Arg1158GlnVAR_015927
7IRS1p.Ser1043TyrVAR_005302
8IRS1p.Cys1095TyrVAR_005303
9MAPK8IP1p.Ser59AsnVAR_012243
10PPP1R3Ap.Ala931GluVAR_019699rs35449651
11SLC2A4p.Val383IleVAR_007170rs121434581

Clinvar genetic disease variations for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent:

1 (show all 15)
id Gene Name Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1HNF1BNM_000458.2(HNF1B): c.1395C> G (p.Ser465Arg)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs121918673GRCh37Chr 17, 36061127: 36061127
2PAX4NM_006193.2(PAX4): c.361C> T (p.Arg121Trp)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs114202595GRCh37Chr 7, 127254587: 127254587
3AKT2NM_001626.5(AKT2): c.821G> A (p.Arg274His)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs121434593GRCh37Chr 19, 40743886: 40743886
4INSRNM_000208.2(INSR): c.3572G> A (p.Arg1191Gln)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs121913150GRCh37Chr 19, 7120718: 7120718
5INSRNM_000208.2(INSR): c.3034G> A (p.Val1012Met)single nucleotide variantLikely pathogenic, Pathogenicrs1799816GRCh37Chr 19, 7125518: 7125518
6GPD2NM_001083112.2(GPD2): c.1904T> C (p.Phe635Ser)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs121918407GRCh37Chr 2, 157435621: 157435621
7SLC2A2NM_000340.1(SLC2A2): c.589G> A (p.Val197Ile)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs121909741GRCh37Chr 3, 170724960: 170724960
8GCGRNM_000160.4(GCGR): c.118G> A (p.Gly40Ser)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs1801483GRCh37Chr 17, 79767715: 79767715
9IRS1IRS1, 3-BP DEL, GLY723deletionPathogenic
10IRS1NM_005544.2(IRS1): c.1823C> G (p.Thr608Arg)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs104893642GRCh37Chr 2, 227661632: 227661632
11MAPK8IP1NM_005456.3(MAPK8IP1): c.176G> A (p.Ser59Asn)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs119489103GRCh37Chr 11, 45919710: 45919710
12NEUROD1NM_002500.4(NEUROD1): c.332G> T (p.Arg111Leu)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs104893649GRCh37Chr 2, 182543256: 182543256
13ABCC8NM_001287174.1(ABCC8): c.4138C> T (p.Arg1380Cys)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs137852673GRCh37Chr 11, 17417462: 17417462
14ABCC8NM_001287174.1(ABCC8): c.1744C> G (p.Leu582Val)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs137852674GRCh37Chr 11, 17452434: 17452434
15HNF4ANM_000457.4(HNF4A): c.1204G> A (p.Val402Ile)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs137853337GRCh37Chr 20, 43057049: 43057049

Expression for genes affiliated with Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

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Sources:
2BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
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Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

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Sources:
50PathCards, 55Reactome, 38NCBI BioSystems Database, 53QIAGEN, 60Thomson Reuters, 12EMD Millipore, 30KEGG, 61Tocris Bioscience, 54R&D Systems, 5Cell Signaling Technology, 51PharmGKB
See all sources

Pathways related to Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 33)
idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
19.9IRS2, IRS1
29.9IRS2, IRS1
39.9SLC2A4, HNF4A, SLC2A2
49.7ABCC8, SLC2A2, HNF4A
59.5IRS2, RETN, SLC2A4, IRS1
6
Show member pathways
Development ERBB family signaling60
Development GDNF family signaling60
9.5IRS1, AKT2, IRS2
7
Show member pathways
Immune response IL 4 signaling pathway60
Signal transduction AKT signaling60
9.5IRS1, IRS2, AKT2
8
Show member pathways
Prolactin Signaling Pathway38
Development Prolactin receptor signaling60
Leptin signaling pathway38
9.3IRS1, IRS2, AKT2, SLC2A2
9
Show member pathways
9.3IRS2, IRS1, SLC2A4, AKT2
109.3AKT2, IRS2, IRS1, SLC2A4
11
Show member pathways
9.3INSR, NEUROD1, SLC2A2, HNF4A
12
Show member pathways
DNA damage response (only ATM dependent)38
Wnt Signaling Pathway and Pluripotency38
9.2AKT2, INSR, IRS1
13
Show member pathways
Insulin Pathway38
9.2IRS1, AKT2, INSR
149.1INSR, AKT2, HNF4A, SLC2A4
15
Show member pathways
9.1SLC2A2, NEUROD1, AKT2, HNF1B, HNF4A
16
Show member pathways
8.9INSR, IRS1, AKT2, IRS2
17
Show member pathways
8.9IRS1, AKT2, IRS2, INSR
18
Show member pathways
8.9SLC2A2, SLC2A4, HNF4A, HNF1B, AKT2, NEUROD1
19
Show member pathways
8.9INSR, AKT2, PPP1R3A
208.9IRS2, IRS1, ABCC8, SLC2A4, AKT2
21
Show member pathways
8.8SLC2A4, AKT2, IRS1, INSR, MAPK8IP1
22
Show member pathways
PLK2 and PLK4 events38
Polo-like kinase signaling events in the cell cycle38
8.8AKT2, IRS1, IRS2, SLC2A4, INSR
23
Show member pathways
8.8IRS1, INSR, IRS2, AKT2, SLC2A4
24
Show member pathways
8.8IRS1, SLC2A4, AKT2, IRS2, INSR
258.7PPP1R3A, INSR, AKT2, SLC2A4
26
Show member pathways
8.6IRS2, IRS1, INSR, SLC2A4, PPP1R3A
27
Show member pathways
IL-9 Signaling Pathway38
Development Thrombopoietin regulated cell processes60
IL-7 Signaling Pathway38
Immune response IL 9 signaling pathway60
8.5SLC2A4, RETN, AKT2, IRS2, IRS1, INSR
28
Show member pathways
8.5HNF4A, IRS1, MAPK8IP1, AKT2, IRS2, INSR
298.2NEUROD1, INSR, SLC2A4, HNF4A, AKT2, IRS2
308.1PPP1R3A, INSR, IRS1, AKT2, SLC2A4, IRS2
31
Show member pathways
Transcription Receptor mediated HIF regulation60
Development CNTF receptor signaling60
Class IB PI3K non-lipid kinase events38
ErbB2/ErbB3 signaling events38
Development Growth hormone signaling via PI3K AKT and MAPK cascades60
Translation Regulation activity of EIF260
Regulation of lipid metabolism Insulin signaling generic cascades60
Transcription PPAR Pathway60
Cell adhesion PLAU signaling60
Translation Regulation activity of EIF4F60
8.1INSR, PPP1R3A, SLC2A4, IRS2, AKT2, IRS1
32
Show member pathways
7.9SLC2A4, ABCC8, INSR, NEUROD1, IRS1, IRS2
33
Show member pathways
7.9PPP1R3A, AKT2, IRS2, INSR, MAPK8IP1, IRS1

Compounds for genes affiliated with Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

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Sources:
29IUPHAR, 45Novoseek, 11DrugBank, 51PharmGKB, 61Tocris Bioscience, 24HMDB
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Compounds related to Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show top 50)    (show all 72)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1[3h]2-deoxyglucose2910.3SLC2A4, SLC2A2
23-o-methylglucose4510.0INSR, SLC2A2, SLC2A4
3thiazolidinedione4510.0RETN, SLC2A4, IRS1
4phosphoenolpyruvate45 1111.0SLC2A2, HNF4A, IRS1, SLC2A4
5repaglinide51 45 1112.0ABCC8, SLC30A8, NEUROD1
6vanadium459.9INSR, IRS1, SLC2A4
7sulfonylurea459.8SLC2A4, IRS1, SLC2A2, ABCC8
8streptozotocin459.7SLC2A2, IRS1, SLC2A4, INSR
9phenylarsine oxide459.7SLC2A4, IRS1, INSR
10gliclazide45 51 1111.7SLC2A4, INSR, ABCC8
11okadaic acid45 6110.7IRS1, HNF4A, SLC2A4, IRS2
12glucosamine45 24 1111.6IRS2, INSR, IRS1, SLC2A4
13palmitate459.6SLC2A4, HNF4A, IRS1, INSR
14ibmx45 61 2911.6INSR, IRS1, SLC2A4, SLC2A2
15anisomycin45 1110.6INSR, SLC2A4, IRS2, IRS1
16glimepiride45 51 1111.5ABCC8, INSR, SLC2A4, RETN
17phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate45 2410.5IRS2, INSR, IRS1, SLC2A4
18troglitazone45 29 61 1112.5SLC2A4, IRS2, IRS1, INSR
19fenofibrate45 51 1111.5RETN, INSR, LIPC
20glibenclamide45 29 51 6112.4SLC2A4, INSR, ABCC8, LIPC
21rosiglitazone29 45 51 24 1113.4IRS1, INSR, RETN, SLC2A4, IRS2
22vanadyl sulfate459.4IRS1, INSR
23pioglitazone29 45 51 1112.3RETN, IRS1, INSR, SLC2A4, LIPC
24glycerol45 24 1111.3SLC2A4, INSR, LIPC, IRS1, HNF4A
25phosphotyrosine459.3SLC2A4, IRS2, IRS1, INSR, MAPK8IP1
26pd 98,059459.3IRS2, INSR, IRS1, SLC2A4, HNF4A
27tamoxifen45 51 29 1112.3IRS1, SLC2A4, AKT2, IRS2
28sterol459.2SLC2A4, RETN, IRS2, IRS1, LIPC, HNF4A
29c-peptide459.1INSR, LIPC, SLC2A2, HNF4A, RETN, IRS1
302-deoxyglucose45 1110.1INSR, SLC2A2, SLC2A4, PPP1R3A, IRS1
31rapamycin459.1AKT2, INSR, SLC2A4, IRS2, IRS1
32wortmannin459.0SLC2A4, AKT2, IRS2, IRS1, INSR
33cycloheximide459.0IRS2, INSR, IRS1, RETN, SLC2A4
34metformin45 51 1111.0ABCC8, RETN, IRS1, IRS2, INSR, SLC2A4
35dexamethasone45 51 29 1112.0INSR, SLC2A4, IRS2, RETN, HNF4A, IRS1
36retinoic acid45 2410.0HNF4A, NEUROD1, IRS1, IRS2, HNF1B, SLC2A4
37fatty acid459.0RETN, HNF4A, IRS2, IRS1, LIPC, ABCC8
38alanine458.9IRS1, INSR, RETN, HNF4A, SLC2A4, IRS2
39sb 20358045 619.9INSR, IRS1, AKT2, SLC2A4
40ly294002458.9INSR, IRS2, RETN, SLC2A4, AKT2, IRS1
41testosterone45 61 24 1111.7HNF4A, RETN, IRS1, LIPC, INSR, ABCC8
42arginine458.7INSR, ABCC8, IRS1, HNF1B, HNF4A, SLC2A2
43phosphatidylinositol458.7INSR, IRS2, AKT2, RETN, HNF4A, SLC2A4
44estrogen458.5INSR, RETN, AKT2, IRS2, LIPC, IRS1
45threonine458.4IRS1, SLC2A4, HNF4A, MAPK8IP1, AKT2, IRS2
46serine458.0SLC2A4, MAPK8IP1, IRS2, IRS1, AKT2, HNF4A
47tyrosine457.9RETN, HNF4A, AKT2, IRS2, IRS1, LIPC
48glycogen45 248.2SLC2A2, INSR, IRS1, IRS2, AKT2, RETN
49lipid457.0IRS2, ABCC8, PPP1R3A, SLC2A4, HNF4A, RETN
50glucose456.4RETN, AKT2, IRS2, IRS1, NEUROD1, LIPC

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

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16Gene Ontology
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Cellular components related to Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1insulin receptor complexGO:0058999.4IRS1, INSR
2plasma membraneGO:0058867.7INSR, LIPH, IRS1, IRS2, AKT2, SLC2A4

Biological processes related to Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 22)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1lipid homeostasisGO:05508810.1HNF4A, IRS2
2regulation of lipid metabolic processGO:01921610.1IRS2, HNF4A
3insulin secretionGO:03007310.0SLC30A8, HNF1B, NEUROD1
4negative regulation of plasma membrane long-chain fatty acid transportGO:01074810.0AKT2, IRS2
5positive regulation of glucose import in response to insulin stimulusGO:200127510.0IRS1, AKT2
6triglyceride homeostasisGO:0703289.9HNF4A, LIPC
7JAK-STAT cascade involved in growth hormone signaling pathwayGO:0603979.9IRS2, IRS1
8regulation of cell cycle arrestGO:0711569.9NEUROD1, AKT2
9signal transduction involved in regulation of gene expressionGO:0230199.9HNF4A, NEUROD1
10endocrine pancreas developmentGO:0310189.8NEUROD1, HNF1B, HNF4A, SLC2A2
11positive regulation of glucose metabolic processGO:0109079.8AKT2, IRS2, IRS1
12positive regulation of fatty acid beta-oxidationGO:0320009.8AKT2, IRS2, IRS1
13regulation of insulin secretionGO:0507969.6ABCC8, NEUROD1, HNF4A, SLC2A2
14mammary gland developmentGO:0308799.6IRS2, IRS1
15response to glucoseGO:0097499.6NEUROD1, IRS2, HNF1B, HNF4A, SLC30A8
16positive regulation of cell migrationGO:0303359.6IRS2, IRS1, INSR
17carbohydrate metabolic processGO:0059759.4ABCC8, INSR, SLC2A4, SLC2A2
18positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic processGO:0457259.3INSR, IRS1, IRS2, AKT2
19positive regulation of glucose importGO:0463269.3INSR, IRS1, IRS2, AKT2
20insulin receptor signaling pathwayGO:0082869.2INSR, IRS1, IRS2, AKT2
21glucose homeostasisGO:0425939.1SLC30A8, SLC2A4, HNF4A, IRS1, NEUROD1, INSR
22cellular response to insulin stimulusGO:0328699.1SLC2A4, AKT2, IRS2, IRS1, INSR

Molecular functions related to Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1D-glucose transmembrane transporter activityGO:05505610.1SLC2A2, SLC2A4
2insulin receptor bindingGO:0051589.9IRS2, IRS1
3phospholipase activityGO:0046209.7LIPH, LIPC
4phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase bindingGO:0435489.5IRS2, IRS1, INSR
5insulin-like growth factor receptor bindingGO:0051599.4IRS1, INSR

Products for genes affiliated with Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

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Sources for Diabetes Mellitus, Noninsulin-Dependent

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4CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
29IUPHAR
30KEGG
35MeSH
36MESH via Orphanet
37MGI
40NCIt
41NDF-RT
44NINDS
45Novoseek
47OMIM
48OMIM via Orphanet
52PubMed
53QIAGEN
59SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
62UMLS
63UMLS via Orphanet