DCM
MCID: DLT002
MIFTS: 76

Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) malady

Categories: Rare diseases, Cardiovascular diseases, Genetic diseases, Neuronal diseases, Ear diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Dilated Cardiomyopathy

Aliases & Descriptions for Dilated Cardiomyopathy:

Name: Dilated Cardiomyopathy 38 12 23 50 24 29 29 52 14
Familial Dilated Cardiomyopathy 12 50 25 69
Idiopathic Dilation Cardiomyopathy 12 69
Dilated Cardiomyopathy, Familial 50 29
Primary Dilated Cardiomyopathy 12 29
Congestive Cardiomyopathy 12 25
Cardiomyopathy, Dilated 42 69
Dcm 50 45
Hypokinetic Dilated Cardiomyopathy, Familial 50
Primary Familial Dilated Cardiomyopathy 25
Cardiomyopathy, Familial Idiopathic 69
Familial Idiopathic Cardiomyopathy 25
Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy 50
Cardiomyopathy, Familial Dilated 50
Fdc 25

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:12930
ICD10 33 I42.0
MeSH 42 D002311
NCIt 47 C84673
UMLS 69 C0007193

Summaries for Dilated Cardiomyopathy

NIH Rare Diseases : 50 dilated cardiomyopathy (dcm) is a disease of the heart muscle which primarily affects the heart's main pumping chamber, the left ventricle. it is the most common type of cardiomyopathy and typically affects those aged 20 to 60. the left ventricle of affected individuals becomes enlarged (dilated) and cannot pump blood to the body with as much force as a healthy heart can. the heart muscle also has difficulty contracting normally, which can lead to irregular heartbeats (arrhythmia), blood clots, or sudden death. over time, the heart becomes weaker and heart failure can occur. while the cause of dilated cardiomyopathy is often unknown (idiopathic), some cases are acquired and roughly half are inherited or familial. also, dcm can be a feature of many genetic syndromes. familial dilated cardiomyopathy is most often inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. familial dilated cardiomyopathy is caused by mutations in several different genes, most commonly in the ttn gene (found in about 20% of cases). dcm treatment may include medication, pacemakers, implantable cardiac defibrillators, or heart transplantation.  last updated: 1/2/2017

MalaCards based summary : Dilated Cardiomyopathy, also known as familial dilated cardiomyopathy, is related to cardiomyopathy, dilated, 1hh and familial partial lipodystrophy. An important gene associated with Dilated Cardiomyopathy is LMNA (Lamin A/C), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Dilated cardiomyopathy and Vascular smooth muscle contraction. The drugs Carvedilol and Verapamil have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include Heart and Heart, and related phenotypes are cardiovascular system and growth/size/body region

Disease Ontology : 12 An intrinsic cardiomyopathy that is characterized by an an enlarged heart and damage to the myocardium causing the heart to pump blood inefficiently.

Genetics Home Reference : 25 Familial dilated cardiomyopathy is a genetic form of heart disease. It occurs when heart (cardiac) muscle becomes thin and weakened in at least one chamber of the heart, causing the open area of the chamber to become enlarged (dilated). As a result, the heart is unable to pump blood as efficiently as usual. To compensate, the heart attempts to increase the amount of blood being pumped through the heart, leading to further thinning and weakening of the cardiac muscle. Over time, this condition results in heart failure.

Wikipedia : 71 Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a condition in which the heart becomes enlarged and cannot pump blood... more...

GeneReviews: NBK1309

Related Diseases for Dilated Cardiomyopathy

Diseases in the Cardiomyopathy family:

Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1cc Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1a
Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1v Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1d
Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1h Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1g
Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1i Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1nn
Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1z Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1e
Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1gg Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1l
Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1k Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1jj
Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1p Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1j
Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 2b Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1q
Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1x Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1kk
Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1w Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1dd
Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1hh Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1m
Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1ii Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1o
Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1t Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1ee
Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1u Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1r
Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1bb Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 2a
Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 1ff Cardiomyopathy, Dilated, 3b
Dilated Cardiomyopathy Dmd-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Dilated Cardiomyopathy 1c Dilated Cardiomyopathy 1aa
Dilated Cardiomyopathy 1b Lmna-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Cardiomyopathy Due to Anthracyclines Mypn-Related Cardiomyopathy
Abcc9-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy Actc1-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Actn2-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy Ankrd1-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Bag3-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy Cryab-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Csrp3-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy Des-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Dsg2-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy Eya4-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Fktn-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy Gatad1-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Lama4-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy Ldb3-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Mybpc3-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy Myh6-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Myh7-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy Nexn-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Pln-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy Prdm16-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Psen1-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy Psen2-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Rbm20-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy Scn5a-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Sdha-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy Sgcd-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Taz-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy Tcap-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Tmpo-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy Tnnc1-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Tnni3-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy Tnnt2-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Tpm1-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy Ttn-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Vcl-Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy

Diseases related to Dilated Cardiomyopathy via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 364)
id Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cardiomyopathy, dilated, 1hh 33.2 RBM20 TNNT2
2 familial partial lipodystrophy 30.2 DES DMD DSP LDB3 LMNA SCN5A
3 dilated cardiomyopathy 1b 12.2
4 dilated cardiomyopathy 1c 12.2
5 dilated cardiomyopathy 1aa 12.2
6 cardiac conduction disease with or without dilated cardiomyopathy 12.2
7 dmd-related dilated cardiomyopathy 12.1
8 dilated cardiomyopathy with woolly hair, keratoderma, and tooth agenesis 12.0
9 lmna-related dilated cardiomyopathy 12.0
10 familial isolated dilated cardiomyopathy 12.0
11 dmd-associated dilated cardiomyopathy 11.9
12 cardiomyopathy, dilated, 3b 11.9
13 cardiomyopathy, dilated, 1e 11.9
14 malouf syndrome 11.9
15 eya4-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.9
16 tcap-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.9
17 abcc9-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.9
18 ankrd1-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.8
19 nexn-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.8
20 bag3-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.8
21 pln-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.8
22 vcl-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.8
23 csrp3-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.8
24 psen1-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.8
25 des-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.8
26 psen2-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.8
27 rbm20-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.8
28 dsg2-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.8
29 scn5a-associated dilated cardiomyopathy 11.8
30 scn5a-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.8
31 fktn-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.8
32 sgcd-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.8
33 taz-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.8
34 ldb3-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.8
35 left ventricular noncompaction 3, with or without dilated cardiomyopathy 11.8
36 tmpo-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.8
37 actc1-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.8
38 myh6-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.8
39 actn2-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.8
40 myh7-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.8
41 tnnt2-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.8
42 tpm1-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.8
43 ttn-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.8
44 cryab-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.8
45 prdm16-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.8
46 sdha-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.8
47 gatad1-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.8
48 dilated cardiomyopathy with quadriceps myopathy 11.8
49 lama4-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.8
50 mybpc3-related dilated cardiomyopathy 11.8

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Dilated Cardiomyopathy:



Diseases related to Dilated Cardiomyopathy

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Dilated Cardiomyopathy

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Dilated Cardiomyopathy:

44
id Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.25 TNNT2 TTN VCL ACTC1 BAG3 CSRP3
2 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10 ACTC1 BAG3 CSRP3 DMD DSP LDB3
3 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 9.93 MYBPC3 RBM20 SGCD TNNT2 TTN ACTC1
4 mortality/aging MP:0010768 9.83 ACTC1 BAG3 CSRP3 DES DMD DSP
5 muscle MP:0005369 9.55 CSRP3 DES DMD DSP LDB3 LMNA

Drugs & Therapeutics for Dilated Cardiomyopathy

Drugs for Dilated Cardiomyopathy (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 167)
id Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Carvedilol Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 2 72956-09-3 2585
2
Verapamil Approved Phase 4 52-53-9 2520
3
Amlodipine Approved Phase 4 88150-42-9 2162
4
Hydrochlorothiazide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 58-93-5 3639
5
Valsartan Approved, Investigational Phase 4 137862-53-4 60846
6
Benazepril Approved, Investigational Phase 4 86541-75-5 5362124
7
Metoprolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 2 37350-58-6, 51384-51-1 4171
8
Doxazosin Approved Phase 4 74191-85-8 3157
9
Amiodarone Approved, Investigational Phase 4 1951-25-3 2157
10
Enalapril Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2 75847-73-3 5362032 40466924
11
Enalaprilat Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2 76420-72-9 6917719
12
Allopurinol Approved Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2 315-30-0 2094
13
Spironolactone Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2 1952-01-7, 52-01-7 5833
14
Nitric Oxide Approved Phase 4 10102-43-9 145068
15
Uric Acid Experimental, Investigational Phase 4 69-93-2 1175
16 Adrenergic beta-Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
17 Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
18 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
19 Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists Phase 4
20 Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists Phase 4
21 Adrenergic Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
22 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 4,Phase 3
23 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
24 calcium channel blockers Phase 4,Phase 2
25 Calcium, Dietary Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
26 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
27 Vasodilator Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
28
Angiotensin II Phase 4,Phase 3 68521-88-0, 11128-99-7 65143 172198
29 Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers Phase 4,Phase 3
30 Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 3
31 Angiotensinogen Phase 4,Phase 3
32 diuretics Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
33 insulin Phase 4
34 Insulin, Globin Zinc Phase 4
35 Natriuretic Agents Phase 4,Phase 3
36 Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors Phase 4
37 Diuretics, Potassium Sparing Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
38 Sodium Channel Blockers Phase 4,Phase 2
39 Micronutrients Phase 4
40 Trace Elements Phase 4
41 Ubiquinone Phase 4
42 Vitamins Phase 4
43 Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 3
44 Autonomic Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2
45 HIV Protease Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
46 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2
47
protease inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
48 Sympatholytics Phase 4,Phase 3
49 Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 Inhibitors Phase 4
50 Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 Inhibitors Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 198)
id Name Status NCT ID Phase
1 Study of Qiliqiangxin Capsule to Treat Dilated Cardiomyopathy Unknown status NCT01293903 Phase 4
2 Danish ICD Study in Patients With Dilated Cardiomyopathy Unknown status NCT00542945 Phase 4
3 Therapy With Verapamil or Carvedilol in Chronic Heart Failure Unknown status NCT00374465 Phase 4
4 Regression of Fatty Heart by Valsartan Therapy Unknown status NCT00745953 Phase 4
5 Identification of Carnitine-Responsive Cardiomyopathy Unknown status NCT01904396 Phase 4
6 Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation in Children With Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy Completed NCT02115581 Phase 4
7 Supramaximal Titrated Inhibition of RAAS in Dilated Cardiomyopathy Completed NCT01917149 Phase 4
8 Effect of Beta-blockers on Structural Remodeling and Gene Expression in the Failing Human Heart Completed NCT01798992 Phase 4
9 ACC - Atrial Contribution to CRT Completed NCT00180323 Phase 4
10 Spanish Atrial Fibrillation And Resynchronization Study Completed NCT01181414 Phase 4
11 A Randomized Trial of Carvedilol in Chronic Chagas Cardiomyopathy Completed NCT01557140 Phase 4
12 Effects of Allopurinol on Diastolic Function in Chronic Heart Failure Patients Completed NCT00477789 Phase 4
13 Effects of Early Statin Treatment After Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) in Japanese Patients Completed NCT00128024 Phase 4
14 Sleep Apnea-hypopnea Syndrome (SAHS) and Ventricular Arrhythmias Completed NCT00765713 Phase 4
15 (MitraClip in Non-Responders to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy) Recruiting NCT02592889 Phase 4
16 Pulse Reduction On Beta-blocker and Ivabradine Therapy Recruiting NCT02973594 Phase 4
17 Effect of Aldosterone on Energy Starvation in Heart Failure Active, not recruiting NCT00574119 Phase 4
18 Efficacy of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator in Patients With Non-ischemic Systolic Heart Failure on Mortality Active, not recruiting NCT00541268 Phase 4
19 NORDIC: Nitric Oxide-Derived Oxidants and Regional Endothelial and Diastolic Dysfunction in Dilated Cardiomyopathy Terminated NCT00293137 Phase 4
20 Cardiac Sarcoidosis Response To Steroids Trial Withdrawn NCT01210677 Phase 4
21 Cell Therapy In Dilated Cardiomyopathy Completed NCT00333827 Phase 3
22 Autologous Transplantation of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Stem-Cells for Dilated Cardiomyopathy Completed NCT00743639 Phase 2, Phase 3
23 Honey in Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy Completed NCT02987322 Phase 2, Phase 3
24 PUFAs and Left Ventricular Function in Heart Failure Completed NCT01223703 Phase 3
25 A Randomized, Controlled Study to Evaluate Algisyl-LVR™ as a Method of Left Ventricular Augmentation for Heart Failure Completed NCT01311791 Phase 2, Phase 3
26 Effect of Rosuvastatin on Left Ventricular Remodeling Completed NCT00505154 Phase 3
27 The Acute Effects of the Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitor Enalaprilat on Flow Distribution Completed NCT00741156 Phase 3
28 Effects of Losartan Versus Atenolol on Aortic and Cardiac Muscle Stiffness in Adults With Marfan Syndrome Completed NCT00723801 Phase 3
29 Infusion Intracoronary of Mononuclear Autologous Adult no Expanded Stem Cells of Bone Marrow on Functional Recovery in Patients With Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Heart Failure. Recruiting NCT02033278 Phase 2, Phase 3
30 Repetitive Intramyocardial CD34+ Cell Therapy in Dilated Cardiomyopathy (REMEDIUM) Recruiting NCT02248532 Phase 2, Phase 3
31 Continues Positive Airway Pressure Treatment for Patients With Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Recruiting NCT02989181 Phase 3
32 PHOspholamban RElated CArdiomyopathy STudy - Intervention Recruiting NCT01857856 Phase 3
33 CHICAMOCHA 3 - Equivalence of Usual Interventions for Trypanosomiasis (EQUITY) Recruiting NCT02369978 Phase 2, Phase 3
34 Orodispersible Minitablets of Enalapril in Children With Heart Failure Due to Dilated Cardiomyopathy Not yet recruiting NCT02652728 Phase 2, Phase 3
35 Follow-up Safety Trial in Children With Chronic Heart Failure Therapy Receiving Orodispersible Minitablets of Enalapril Not yet recruiting NCT02654678 Phase 2, Phase 3
36 PREclinical Mutation CARriers From Families With DIlated Cardiomyopathy and ACE Inhibitors Terminated NCT01583114 Phase 3
37 Cell Therapy in Chagas Cardiomyopathy Terminated NCT00349271 Phase 3
38 Mental Stress Reduction in Defibrillator Patients Terminated NCT00624520 Phase 3
39 Effectiveness of Surgical Mitral Valve Repair Versus Medical Treatment for People With Significant Mitral Regurgitation and Non-ischemic Congestive Heart Failure Terminated NCT00608140 Phase 3
40 Intramuscular Injection of Mesenchymal Stem Cell for Treatment of Children With Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy Unknown status NCT01219452 Phase 1, Phase 2
41 A Pilot Trial of Ranolazine to Treat Patients With Dilated Cardiomyopathy Unknown status NCT02133911 Phase 2
42 Intracoronary Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells Implantation in Patients With Ischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy Unknown status NCT01720888 Phase 2
43 Study of the Acute Effects of Triheptanoin in Heart Failure Unknown status NCT01787851 Phase 1, Phase 2
44 Safety and Efficacy Study of Stem Cell Transplantation to Treat Dilated Cardiomyopathy Completed NCT00629018 Phase 2
45 Use of Ixmyelocel-T (Formerly Cardiac Repair Cell [CRC] Treatment) in Patients With Heart Failure Due to Dilated Cardiomyopathy (IMPACT-DCM) Completed NCT00765518 Phase 2
46 Use of Ixmyelocel-T (Formerly Catheter-based Cardiac Repair Cell [CRC]) Treatment in Patients With Heart Failure Due to Dilated Cardiomyopathy Completed NCT01020968 Phase 2
47 Intracoronary Infusion of Autologous Bone Marrow Cells for Treatment of Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy Completed NCT00629096 Phase 2
48 Safety and Efficacy Study of Intramyocardial Stem Cell Therapy in Patients With Dilated Cardiomyopathy Completed NCT01350310 Phase 2
49 Bone Marrow Derived Adult Stem Cells for Dilated Cardiomyopathy Completed NCT01302171 Phase 2
50 Autologous Transplantation of Bone Marrow Mononuclear Stem-Cells by Mini-Thoracotomy Completed NCT00615394 Phase 1, Phase 2

Search NIH Clinical Center for Dilated Cardiomyopathy

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 69 / NDF-RT 48 :


Cell-based therapeutics:


LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
Read about Dilated Cardiomyopathy cell therapies at LifeMap Discovery.

Cochrane evidence based reviews: cardiomyopathy, dilated

Genetic Tests for Dilated Cardiomyopathy

Genetic tests related to Dilated Cardiomyopathy:

id Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Primary Dilated Cardiomyopathy 29
2 Dilated Cardiomyopathy 29 24 VCL
3 Familial Dilated Cardiomyopathy 29
4 Cardiomyopathy, Dilated 29

Anatomical Context for Dilated Cardiomyopathy

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Dilated Cardiomyopathy:

39
Heart, Bone, Lung, Liver, Monocytes, Testes, Brain
LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database

Cells/anatomical compartments in embryo or adult related to Dilated Cardiomyopathy:
id Tissue Anatomical CompartmentCell Relevance
1 Heart Myocardium Cardiomyocytes Affected by disease
2 Heart Left Ventricle Cardiomyocytes Potential therapeutic candidate, affected by disease
3 Blood Cord Blood Mesenchymal Stem Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
4 Umbilical Cord Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells Potential therapeutic candidate

Publications for Dilated Cardiomyopathy

Articles related to Dilated Cardiomyopathy:

(show top 50) (show all 1582)
id Title Authors Year
1
Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Hydroxychloroquine-induced Phospholipidosis: From Curvilinear Bodies to Clinical Suspicion. ( 28528883 )
2017
2
Renin-angiotensin system gene polymorphisms as potential modifiers of hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathy phenotypes. ( 28120210 )
2017
3
Genotype-specific pathogenic effects in human dilated cardiomyopathy. ( 28436080 )
2017
4
Inhibition of miR-208b improves cardiac function in titin-based dilated cardiomyopathy. ( 28065693 )
2017
5
The long non-coding RNA H19 promotes cardiomyocyte apoptosis in dilated cardiomyopathy. ( 28430627 )
2017
6
Dilated Cardiomyopathy in a 2-Year-Old Infant. ( 28062634 )
2017
7
In-depth proteomic profiling of left ventricular tissues in human end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy. ( 28427148 )
2017
8
Primary Prevention of Sudden Arrhythmic Death in Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Current Guidelines and Risk Stratification. ( 28034375 )
2017
9
Truncating mutations on myofibrillar myopathies causing genes as prevalent molecular explanations on patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. ( 28436997 )
2017
10
12-month patterns of serum markers of collagen synthesis, transforming growth factor and connective tissue growth factor are similar in new-onset and chronic dilated cardiomyopathy in patients both with and without cardiac fibrosis. ( 28460256 )
2017
11
Variable clinical course of identical twin neonates with AlstrAPm syndrome presenting coincidentally with dilated cardiomyopathy. ( 28407410 )
2017
12
Sokolow-Lyon voltage is suitable for monitoring improvement in cardiac function and prognosis of patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. ( 28471539 )
2017
13
The Hemodynamic Effects and Safety of Repetitive Levosimendan Infusions on Children With Dilated Cardiomyopathy. ( 28033083 )
2017
14
Expression of Bcl-2 and microRNAs in cardiac tissues of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. ( 27922664 )
2017
15
Titin Truncating Variants in Dilated Cardiomyopathy - Prevalence and Genotype-Phenotype Correlations. ( 28045975 )
2017
16
Reply: Risk Stratification in Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Is the Arrhythmogenic Substrate Stable Over Time? ( 28449802 )
2017
17
Clinical significance of cathepsin L and cathepsin B in dilated cardiomyopathy. ( 28074340 )
2017
18
Distribution of strain patterns in children with dilated cardiomyopathy. ( 28480564 )
2017
19
Contrast-enhanced T1 mapping-based extracellular volume fraction independently predicts clinical outcome in patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy: a prospective cohort study. ( 28439651 )
2017
20
Truncating Variants in Titin Independently Predict Early Arrhythmias in Patients With Dilated Cardiomyopathy. ( 28494986 )
2017
21
Exome-wide association study reveals novel susceptibility genes to sporadic dilated cardiomyopathy. ( 28296976 )
2017
22
Dilated cardiomyopathy associated with elephant trunk in Loeys-Dietz syndrome. ( 28082467 )
2017
23
Genetic epidemiology of titin-truncating variants in the etiology of dilated cardiomyopathy. ( 28510119 )
2017
24
Tacrolimus-Associated Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Adult Patient After Orthotopic Liver Transplant. ( 28508004 )
2017
25
Decreased WNT/I^-catenin signalling contributes to the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy caused by mutations in the lamin a/C gene. ( 28069793 )
2017
26
Risk Stratification in Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Is the Arrhythmogenic Substrate Stable Over Time? ( 28449801 )
2017
27
E2F6 Impairs Glycolysis and Activates BDH1 Expression Prior to Dilated Cardiomyopathy. ( 28085920 )
2017
28
Comparison of clinical outcomes in peripartum cardiomyopathy and age-matched dilated cardiomyopathy: A 15-year nationwide population-based study in Asia. ( 28489799 )
2017
29
Altered myocyte contractility and calcium homeostasis in alpha-myosin heavy chain point mutations linked to familial dilated cardiomyopathy. ( 28088328 )
2017
30
Recessive TAF1A mutations reveal ribosomopathy in siblings with end-stage pediatric dilated cardiomyopathy. ( 28472305 )
2017
31
Early and frequent defibrillator discharge in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis compared with patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. ( 28438355 )
2017
32
"Graded" epidural anesthesia for renal transplant in a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy and severe left ventricle systolic dysfunction. ( 28442964 )
2017
33
The Notch Ligands DLL1 and Periostin Are Associated with Symptom Severity and Diastolic Function in Dilated Cardiomyopathy. ( 28474304 )
2017
34
Role of cardiac TBX20 in dilated cardiomyopathy. ( 26895318 )
2016
35
Genetic causes of dilated cardiomyopathy. ( 27634407 )
2016
36
Addison's Disease and Dilated Cardiomyopathy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. ( 28003914 )
2016
37
A novel overlapping phenotype characterized by lipodystrophy, mandibular dysplasia, and dilated cardiomyopathy associated with a new mutation in the LMNA gene. ( 26922292 )
2016
38
Imaging and 1-day kinetics of intracoronary stem cell transplantation in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. ( 27179747 )
2016
39
Predictors of Sudden Cardiac Death in Doberman Pinschers with Dilated Cardiomyopathy. ( 27177626 )
2016
40
A novel GJA1 mutation causing familial oculodentodigital dysplasia with dilated cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia. ( 28491627 )
2016
41
Genetic bases of dilated cardiomyopathy. ( 27661610 )
2016
42
A Heterozygous ZMPSTE24 Mutation Associated with Severe Metabolic Syndrome, Ectopic Fat Accumulation, and Dilated Cardiomyopathy. ( 27120622 )
2016
43
The immunohistochemical evaluation of selected markers in the left atrium of dogs with end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy and myxomatous mitral valve disease - a preliminary study. ( 27980728 )
2016
44
Late Gadolinium Enhancement and theA Risk for Ventricular Arrhythmias or SuddenA Death in Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. ( 28017348 )
2016
45
Association between 1019C/T polymorphism in the connexin 37 gene and dilated cardiomyopathy. ( 25501978 )
2016
46
Metabolism of arachidonic acid by the cytochrome P450 enzyme in patients with chronic Keshan disease and dilated cardiomyopathy. ( 26893848 )
2016
47
A Dilated Cardiomyopathy Revealing a Neuroblastoma: Which Link? ( 27571126 )
2016
48
Non-invasive Model-Based Assessment of Passive Left-Ventricular Myocardial Stiffness in Healthy Subjects and in Patients with Non-ischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy. ( 27605213 )
2016
49
Functional Class in Children with Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy. A pilot Study. ( 27168472 )
2016
50
Variants of resistin gene and the risk of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy in Pakistan. ( 27114921 )
2016

Variations for Dilated Cardiomyopathy

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Dilated Cardiomyopathy:

6 (show top 50) (show all 85)
id Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1 RBM20 NM_001134363.2(RBM20): c.1913C> T (p.Pro638Leu) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs267607003 GRCh37 Chromosome 10, 112572068: 112572068
2 RBM20 NM_001134363.2(RBM20): c.1906C> A (p.Arg636Ser) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic rs267607002 GRCh37 Chromosome 10, 112572061: 112572061
3 RBM20 NM_001134363.2(RBM20): c.1907G> A (p.Arg636His) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic rs267607004 GRCh37 Chromosome 10, 112572062: 112572062
4 LDB3 NM_001080114.1(LDB3): c.494C> T (p.Ala165Val) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs121908334 GRCh37 Chromosome 10, 88446975: 88446975
5 TCAP NM_003673.3(TCAP): c.157C> T (p.Gln53Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic rs104894655 GRCh37 Chromosome 17, 37822015: 37822015
6 CSRP3 NM_003476.4(CSRP3): c.136A> C (p.Ser46Arg) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic rs137852765 GRCh37 Chromosome 11, 19209828: 19209828
7 SCN5A NM_000335.4(SCN5A): c.4780G> C (p.Asp1594His) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs137854607 GRCh37 Chromosome 3, 38595800: 38595800
8 TNNT2 NM_001001430.2(TNNT2): c.421C> T (p.Arg141Trp) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic rs74315379 GRCh37 Chromosome 1, 201333464: 201333464
9 TTN NM_001256850.1(TTN): c.2926T> C (p.Trp976Arg) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs267607155 GRCh37 Chromosome 2, 179647707: 179647707
10 PLN NM_002667.4(PLN): c.25C> T (p.Arg9Cys) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs111033559 GRCh37 Chromosome 6, 118880109: 118880109
11 PLN NM_002667.4(PLN): c.116T> G (p.Leu39Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic rs111033560 GRCh37 Chromosome 6, 118880200: 118880200
12 MYH7 NM_000257.3(MYH7): c.1594T> C (p.Ser532Pro) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs121913642 GRCh37 Chromosome 14, 23897088: 23897088
13 LMNA NM_170707.3(LMNA): c.16C> T (p.Gln6Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs61046466 GRCh37 Chromosome 1, 156084725: 156084725
14 LMNA NM_170707.3(LMNA): c.585C> G (p.Asn195Lys) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs28933091 GRCh37 Chromosome 1, 156104265: 156104265
15 LMNA NM_170707.3(LMNA): c.608A> G (p.Glu203Gly) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs28933092 GRCh37 Chromosome 1, 156104288: 156104288
16 LMNA NM_170707.3(LMNA): c.1445G> A (p.Arg482Gln) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs11575937 GRCh37 Chromosome 1, 156106776: 156106776
17 LMNA NM_170707.3(LMNA): c.481G> A (p.Glu161Lys) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic rs28933093 GRCh37 Chromosome 1, 156100532: 156100532
18 DSP NM_004415.3(DSP): c.3799C> T (p.Arg1267Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic rs121912997 GRCh37 Chromosome 6, 7580222: 7580222
19 PSEN1 NM_000021.3(PSEN1): c.998A> G (p.Asp333Gly) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic rs121917809 GRCh37 Chromosome 14, 73678519: 73678519
20 BAG3 NM_004281.3(BAG3): c.367C> T (p.Arg123Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic rs387906875 GRCh37 Chromosome 10, 121429549: 121429549
21 TPM1 NM_001018005.1(TPM1): c.688G> A (p.Asp230Asn) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs199476317 GRCh37 Chromosome 15, 63354462: 63354462
22 SCN5A NM_198056.2(SCN5A): c.665G> A (p.Arg222Gln) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs45546039 GRCh37 Chromosome 3, 38655272: 38655272
23 MYH7 NM_000257.3(MYH7): c.1106G> A (p.Arg369Gln) single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs397516089 GRCh37 Chromosome 14, 23899016: 23899016
24 MYH7 NM_000257.3(MYH7): c.5401G> A (p.Glu1801Lys) single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs397516248 GRCh37 Chromosome 14, 23884362: 23884362
25 MYH7 NM_000257.3(MYH7): c.5740G> A (p.Glu1914Lys) single nucleotide variant Likely pathogenic rs397516254 GRCh37 Chromosome 14, 23883018: 23883018
26 TNNI3 NM_000363.4(TNNI3): c.544G> A (p.Glu182Lys) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs397516355 GRCh37 Chromosome 19, 55665403: 55665403
27 TNNT2 NM_000364.3(TNNT2): c.422G> A (p.Arg141Gln) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs397516464 GRCh37 Chromosome 1, 201333493: 201333493
28 TNNT2 NM_001001430.2(TNNT2): c.629_631delAGA (p.Lys210del) deletion Pathogenic rs45578238 GRCh37 Chromosome 1, 201331099: 201331101
29 DES NM_001927.3(DES): c.38C> T (p.Ser13Phe) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs62636495 GRCh37 Chromosome 2, 220283222: 220283222
30 PLN NM_002667.4(PLN): c.40_42delAGA (p.Arg14del) deletion Pathogenic rs397516784 GRCh37 Chromosome 6, 118880124: 118880126
31 DSP NM_004415.3(DSP): c.1146delT (p.Phe382Leufs) deletion Pathogenic rs397516913 GRCh37 Chromosome 6, 7568019: 7568019
32 TTN NM_001256850.1(TTN): c.54282delG (p.Glu18094Aspfs) deletion Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic rs397517643 GRCh37 Chromosome 2, 179457641: 179457641
33 TTN NM_001256850.1(TTN): c.56953C> T (p.Arg18985Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic rs72646846 GRCh37 Chromosome 2, 179454576: 179454576
34 TTN NM_001267550.2(TTN): c.71602C> T (p.Arg23868Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic rs397517689 GRCh37 Chromosome 2, 179439257: 179439257
35 TTN NM_001267550.2(TTN): c.86821+2T> A single nucleotide variant Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic rs397517735 GRCh37 Chromosome 2, 179424036: 179424036
36 TTN NM_001256850.1(TTN): c.88974delT (p.Phe29658Leufs) deletion Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic rs397517758 GRCh37 Chromosome 2, 179412456: 179412456
37 LMNA NM_170707.3(LMNA): c.1129C> T (p.Arg377Cys) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic rs397517889 GRCh37 Chromosome 1, 156105884: 156105884
38 LMNA NM_005572.3(LMNA): c.1526dupC (p.Thr510Tyrfs) duplication Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic rs58013325 GRCh37 Chromosome 1, 156106941: 156106941
39 LMNA NM_170707.3(LMNA): c.1621C> T (p.Arg541Cys) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs56984562 GRCh37 Chromosome 1, 156107457: 156107457
40 LMNA NM_170707.3(LMNA): c.348dupG (p.Lys117Glufs) duplication Pathogenic rs267607646 GRCh37 Chromosome 1, 156085057: 156085057
41 LMNA NM_170707.3(LMNA): c.607G> A (p.Glu203Lys) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs61195471 GRCh37 Chromosome 1, 156104287: 156104287
42 LMNA NM_005572.3(LMNA): c.673C> T (p.Arg225Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs60682848 GRCh37 Chromosome 1, 156104629: 156104629
43 LMNA NM_170707.3(LMNA): c.799T> C (p.Tyr267His) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs267607593 GRCh37 Chromosome 1, 156104755: 156104755
44 LMNA NM_170707.3(LMNA): c.958delC (p.Leu320Phefs) deletion Pathogenic rs397517915 GRCh37 Chromosome 1, 156105713: 156105713
45 LMNA NM_170707.3(LMNA): c.961C> T (p.Arg321Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs267607554 GRCh37 Chromosome 1, 156105716: 156105716
46 LMNA NM_170707.3(LMNA): c.1294C> T (p.Gln432Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic rs267607618 GRCh37 Chromosome 1, 156106141: 156106141
47 LMNA NM_170707.3(LMNA): c.244G> A (p.Glu82Lys) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs59270054 GRCh37 Chromosome 1, 156084953: 156084953
48 SCN5A NM_198056.2(SCN5A): c.2440C> T (p.Arg814Trp) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic rs199473161 GRCh37 Chromosome 3, 38627529: 38627529
49 DSP NM_004415.3(DSP): c.2131_2132delAG (p.Ser711Cysfs) deletion Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic rs587782927 GRCh37 Chromosome 6, 7574319: 7574320
50 TSFM NM_005726.5(TSFM): c.856C> T (p.Gln286Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs201754030 GRCh37 Chromosome 12, 58190244: 58190244

Expression for Dilated Cardiomyopathy

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

Pathways for Dilated Cardiomyopathy

Pathways related to Dilated Cardiomyopathy according to KEGG:

37
id Name Kegg Source Accession
1 Dilated cardiomyopathy hsa05414

Pathways related to Dilated Cardiomyopathy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
12.77 ACTC1 MYH7 PLN SCN5A TNNI3 TNNT2
2
Show member pathways
12.58 DES DMD MYBPC3 PLN SCN5A TNNI3
3 12.28 ACTC1 DES LMNA TNNI3 TNNT2 TPM1
4
Show member pathways
12.25 DES DMD DSP LMNA SGCD VCL
5 11.64 DES TNNI3 TNNT2
6
Show member pathways
11.64 ACTC1 DES DMD LMNA MYBPC3 MYH7
7 11.61 ACTC1 MYH7 TNNI3 TNNT2 TPM1
8 11.48 DSP LMNA PLN SCN5A
9 11.43 ACTC1 SCN5A TNNI3 TNNT2
10 11.42 ACTC1 DES DMD MYBPC3 TNNI3 TNNT2

GO Terms for Dilated Cardiomyopathy

Cellular components related to Dilated Cardiomyopathy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 15)
id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 sarcolemma GO:0042383 9.71 DES DMD SCN5A SGCD
2 intercalated disc GO:0014704 9.65 DES DSP SCN5A
3 myofibril GO:0030016 9.65 DMD MYH7 TNNI3 TNNT2 TPM1
4 costamere GO:0043034 9.55 DMD VCL
5 myosin filament GO:0032982 9.54 MYBPC3 MYH7
6 dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex GO:0016010 9.52 DMD SGCD
7 contractile fiber GO:0043292 9.51 DES TNNI3
8 fascia adherens GO:0005916 9.5 DES DSP VCL
9 sarcomere GO:0030017 9.5 ACTC1 CSRP3 MYBPC3 MYH7 TNNI3 TNNT2
10 troponin complex GO:0005861 9.49 TNNI3 TNNT2
11 cell-substrate junction GO:0030055 9.46 DMD VCL
12 cardiac myofibril GO:0097512 9.46 DES MYBPC3 TNNI3 TNNT2
13 cardiac Troponin complex GO:1990584 9.43 TNNI3 TNNT2
14 Z disc GO:0030018 9.28 BAG3 CSRP3 DES DMD LDB3 MYBPC3
15 cytoskeleton GO:0005856 10.02 ACTC1 CSRP3 DES DMD DSP LDB3

Biological processes related to Dilated Cardiomyopathy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 27)
id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 muscle organ development GO:0007517 9.79 CSRP3 DMD SGCD
2 cellular calcium ion homeostasis GO:0006874 9.78 CSRP3 PLN TNNI3
3 muscle contraction GO:0006936 9.73 DES MYH7 TNNT2 TPM1 TTN VCL
4 positive regulation of ATPase activity GO:0032781 9.72 MYBPC3 TNNT2 TPM1
5 regulation of heart rate GO:0002027 9.71 DMD MYH7 SCN5A
6 sarcomere organization GO:0045214 9.71 LDB3 MYBPC3 TPM1 TTN
7 cardiac muscle tissue development GO:0048738 9.7 CSRP3 PLN SGCD
8 regulation of the force of heart contraction GO:0002026 9.69 CSRP3 MYH7 PLN
9 regulation of muscle contraction GO:0006937 9.67 TNNI3 TNNT2 TPM1
10 regulation of heart contraction GO:0008016 9.67 DES PLN TNNT2 TPM1
11 heart contraction GO:0060047 9.65 ACTC1 SGCD TNNI3
12 cardiac muscle contraction GO:0060048 9.65 ACTC1 CSRP3 DMD MYBPC3 MYH7 SCN5A
13 regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol by sarcoplasmic reticulum GO:0010880 9.63 DMD PLN
14 regulation of cardiac muscle contraction by regulation of the release of sequestered calcium ion GO:0010881 9.63 DMD PLN
15 cardiac myofibril assembly GO:0055003 9.63 ACTC1 CSRP3 TTN
16 intermediate filament organization GO:0045109 9.62 DES DSP
17 regulation of ryanodine-sensitive calcium-release channel activity GO:0060314 9.62 DMD PLN
18 striated muscle contraction GO:0006941 9.62 MYBPC3 MYH7 TNNI3 TTN
19 negative regulation of ATPase activity GO:0032780 9.61 PLN TNNI3 TNNT2
20 cardiac muscle tissue morphogenesis GO:0055008 9.6 ACTC1 TTN
21 regulation of cardiac muscle cell contraction GO:0086004 9.59 PLN SCN5A
22 response to denervation involved in regulation of muscle adaptation GO:0014894 9.58 DMD SCN5A
23 cardiac muscle hypertrophy GO:0003300 9.58 CSRP3 TTN
24 skeletal muscle thin filament assembly GO:0030240 9.57 ACTC1 TTN
25 detection of muscle stretch GO:0035995 9.56 CSRP3 TTN
26 ventricular cardiac muscle tissue morphogenesis GO:0055010 9.55 MYBPC3 MYH7 TNNI3 TNNT2 TPM1
27 muscle filament sliding GO:0030049 9.28 ACTC1 DES DMD MYBPC3 MYH7 TNNI3

Molecular functions related to Dilated Cardiomyopathy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 14)
id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 structural constituent of cytoskeleton GO:0005200 9.67 DES DMD DSP TPM1
2 cytoskeletal protein binding GO:0008092 9.63 DES LDB3 TPM1
3 actin filament binding GO:0051015 9.55 MYBPC3 TNNI3 TPM1 TTN VCL
4 nitric-oxide synthase binding GO:0050998 9.54 DMD SCN5A
5 structural molecule activity conferring elasticity GO:0097493 9.52 MYBPC3 TTN
6 actinin binding GO:0042805 9.51 CSRP3 TTN
7 myosin binding GO:0017022 9.5 ACTC1 DMD MYBPC3
8 dystroglycan binding GO:0002162 9.48 DMD VCL
9 telethonin binding GO:0031433 9.43 CSRP3 TTN
10 muscle alpha-actinin binding GO:0051371 9.43 LDB3 MYBPC3 TTN
11 troponin C binding GO:0030172 9.4 TNNI3 TNNT2
12 structural constituent of muscle GO:0008307 9.35 CSRP3 DMD MYBPC3 TPM1 TTN
13 actin binding GO:0003779 9.23 CSRP3 DMD MYBPC3 MYH7 TNNI3 TNNT2
14 protein binding GO:0005515 10.42 BAG3 CSRP3 DES DMD DSP LDB3

Sources for Dilated Cardiomyopathy

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 MedGen
42 MeSH
43 MESH via Orphanet
44 MGI
46 NCI
47 NCIt
48 NDF-RT
51 NINDS
52 Novoseek
54 OMIM
55 OMIM via Orphanet
59 PubMed
60 QIAGEN
65 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67 TGDB
68 Tocris
69 UMLS
70 UMLS via Orphanet
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