MCID: DRG003
MIFTS: 50

Drug Dependence malady

Summaries for Drug Dependence

Sources:
8Disease Ontology, 64Wikipedia, 33MalaCards
See all sources

Fully expand this MalaCard

Export this MalaCard
Disease Ontology:8 A substance dependence that involves the continued use of drugs despite despite problems related to use of the substance.

MalaCards: Drug Dependence is related to alcohol dependence and drug addiction. An important gene associated with Drug Dependence is OPRL1 (opiate receptor-like 1), and among its related pathways are Dopamine receptors and Enzymatic degradation of dopamine by COMT. The compounds bremazocine and dermorphin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Related mouse phenotypes are adipose tissue and taste/olfaction.

Wikipedia:64 Substance dependence, commonly called drug addiction, is a compulsive need to use drugs in order to... more...

Aliases & Classifications for Drug Dependence

Sources:
8Disease Ontology, 45Novoseek, 61UMLS, 57SNOMED-CT, 27ICD9CM
See all sources

Aliases & Descriptions:

drug dependence 8 45 61


External Ids:

Disease Ontology8 DOID:9974
ICD9CM27 304.60, 304.6

Related Diseases for Drug Dependence

Sources:
17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
See all sources

Diseases related to Drug Dependence via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards/GeneDecks gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 99)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1alcohol dependence31.4CHRM2, OPRM1, OPRD1, OPRK1, DRD2, MAOA
2drug addiction30.8SLC6A3, DARC, OPRM1, OPRD1, OPRK1, DRD3
3cocaine dependence30.6OPRM1, OPRK1, DRD3, DRD2, PDYN, SLC6A3
4substance dependence30.6DRD3, DRD2, PDYN, SLC6A4, SLC6A3, CNR1
5heroin dependence30.4DRD2
6morphine dependence30.3OPRK1, OPRD1
7nicotine dependence30.3DRD2, CHRNA2, SLC6A4
8conduct disorder30.3DRD2, MAOA, SLC6A3, SLC6A4
9anxiety disorder30.1SLC6A4, MAOA
10borderline personality disorder30.1MAOA, SLC6A4
11social phobia30.1SLC6A4, MAOA, DRD2
12alcohol abuse30.1SLC6A4, SLC6A3, OPRM1, DRD3, DRD2
13cluster headache29.8PNOC
14anorexia nervosa29.8SLC6A4, CNR1, MAOA
15cocaine abuse29.8SLC6A4, SLC6A3, OPRK1, DRD2
16antisocial personality disorder29.8DRD2, MAOA, SLC6A3, SLC6A4
17obsessive-compulsive disorder29.8PDYN, DRD2, DRD3, MAOA, SLC6A3, SLC6A4
18substance abuse29.8ADH4, SLC6A4, SLC6A3, CNR1, OPRM1, DRD3
19chronic pain10.3
20n syndrome10.2
21barbiturate dependence10.2
22hepatitis d10.2
23headache10.2
24hepatitis c10.1
25neonatal abstinence syndrome10.1
26post-traumatic stress disorder10.1
27hepatitis a10.1
28thrombocytopenia10.1
29major depressive disorder10.0CHRM2
30neuroblastoma10.0OPRM1
31restless legs syndrome10.0DRD2
32opiate dependence10.0OPRM1
33hypertension10.0SLC6A4
34bulimia nervosa10.0MAOA, SLC6A4
35fibromyalgia10.0SLC6A4, PNOC
36panic disorder10.0MAOA, SLC6A4
37hepatic encephalopathy10.0MAOA
38pathological gambling10.0SLC6A3, DRD3, DRD2
39delusional disorder10.0DRD2
40obsessive-compulsive personality disorder10.0SLC6A4
41multiple system atrophy10.0SLC6A3, DRD2
42constipation10.0OPRM1, SLC6A4
43withdrawal disorder10.0PDYN, OPRM1, CNR1
44alcoholic psychosis10.0SLC6A4
45chronic fatigue syndrome10.0SLC6A4, MAOA
46schizoaffective disorder10.0DRD2, DRD3, SLC6A4
47liver cirrhosis10.0CNR1, PNOC
48amnestic disorder10.0PDYN, OPRK1, OPRD1, OPRM1
49progressive supranuclear palsy10.0SLC6A3
50cholera10.0SLC6A4, CNR1, OPRD1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Drug Dependence:



Diseases related to drug dependence

Clinical Features for Drug Dependence

Drugs & Therapeutics for Drug Dependence

Sources:
5CenterWatch, 42NIH Clinical Center, 6ClinicalTrials, 61UMLS, 41NDF-RT
See all sources

Approved drugs:

Search CenterWatch for Drug Dependence

Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Drug Dependence

Search NIH Clinical Center for Drug Dependence

Search CenterWatch for Drug Dependence

Genetic Tests for Drug Dependence

Anatomical Context for Drug Dependence

Animal Models for Drug Dependence or affiliated genes

Sources:
37MGI, 28inGenious Targeting Laboratory
See all sources

Publications for Drug Dependence

Sources:
51PubMed
See all sources

Articles related to Drug Dependence:

(show top 50)    (show all 595)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Problematic alcohol use in clients recovering from drug dependence--time to adjust our focus. (23668295)
2013
2
How can we develop a more precise examination of the role of alcohol in recovery from drug dependence? (23668421)
2013
3
Alcohol and drug dependence symptom items as brief screeners for substance use disorders: results from the Clinical Trials Network. (22204775)
2012
4
Computerized continuing care support for alcohol and drug dependence: a preliminary analysis of usage and outcomes. (21862275)
2012
5
Aripiprazole: a drug with a novel mechanism of action and possible efficacy for alcohol dependence. (20201815)
2010
6
The behavioral economics of drug dependence: towards the consilience of economics and behavioral neuroscience. (21161759)
2010
7
Early-onset drug use and risk for drug dependence problems. (19022584)
2009
8
Implication of activated astrocytes in the development of drug dependence: differences between methamphetamine and morphine. (18991953)
2008
9
The role of GABRA2 in alcohol dependence, smoking, and illicit drug use in an Australian population sample. (18727688)
2008
10
Alcohol dependence with comorbid drug dependence: genetic and phenotypic associations suggest a more severe form of the disorder with stronger genetic contribution to risk. (17567401)
2007
11
Association of GABRA2 with drug dependence in the collaborative study of the genetics of alcoholism sample. (16622805)
2006
12
ADH4 gene variation is associated with alcohol dependence and drug dependence in European Americans: results from HWD tests and case-control association studies. (16237392)
2006
13
Drug dependence enviromics: job strain in the work environment and risk of becoming drug-dependent. (16421241)
2006
14
Should criteria for drug dependence differ across drugs? (16930170)
2006
15
A highly epothilone B-resistant A549 cell line with mutations in tubulin that confer drug dependence. (15956256)
2005
16
Possible pharmacotherapy of the opioid kappa receptor agonist for drug dependence. (15542743)
2004
17
Measuring alcohol and drug dependence with New York City ADAM data. (12867208)
2003
18
WHO Expert Committee on Drug Dependence. (12772439)
2003
19
Dopamine transporter as target for drug development of cocaine dependence medications. (14612141)
2003
20
Cumulative adversity and drug dependence in young adults: racial/ethnic contrasts. (12603230)
2003
21
Association study of cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) alleles and drug dependence. (11526463)
2001
22
Alterations in cerebral diazepam binding inhibitor expression in drug dependence: a possible biochemical alteration common to drug dependence. (11233989)
2001
23
Drug dependence as a disorder of neural plasticity: focus on dopamine and glutamate. (11392455)
2001
24
Drug dependence in a journal club. (10833978)
2000
25
Substance dependence and the use of pro re nata anxiolytic/hypnotic drugs in a hospital setting. (10890298)
2000
26
Drug dependence in a journal club. (10833976)
2000
27
The role of therapist characteristics in training effects in cognitive, supportive-expressive, and drug counseling therapies for cocaine dependence. (10896736)
2000
28
Psychosocial treatments for cocaine dependence: National Institute on Drug Abuse Collaborative Cocaine Treatment Study. (10359461)
1999
29
Elementary particles for models of drug dependence, 10th Okey Memorial Lecture presented at the Institute of Psychiatry, London on 19th March 1997. (9449017)
1997
30
Subjects with a history of drug dependence are more aggressive than subjects with no drug use history. (9246557)
1997
31
Prevalence and correlates of drug use and DSM-IV drug dependence in the United States: results of the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. (8880660)
1996
32
A brief survey of the current sexual practices of a population admitted for inpatient treatment of drug dependence. (8880653)
1996
33
Can EAA transmission play a ubiquitous role in drug-induced neural plasticity? Commentary on Stephens, 'A glutamatergic hypothesis of drug dependence: extrapolations from benzodiazepine receptor ligands' (11224353)
1995
34
Problems of drug Dependence, 1994: Proceedings of the 56th annual scientific meeting, The College on Problems of Drug Dependence, Inc. Vol. I. (8776297)
1995
35
Treatment for drug dependence. (7984015)
1994
36
Problems of drug dependence, 1993: Proceedings of the 55th annual scientific meeting. The College on Problems of Drug Dependence, Inc. Vol II. (8774786)
1994
37
Common errors in the pharmacologic treatment of drug dependence and withdrawal. (8205770)
1994
38
A summary of recommendations for the management of alcohol problems: the quality assurance in the treatment of drug dependence project. (16818402)
1994
39
Overview: the treatment of drug dependence. (7841872)
1994
40
Clinical freedom and drug dependence. Treatment of American was legitimate. (8274943)
1993
41
Pharmacological analysis of drug dependence. (1498998)
1992
42
Alcohol and drug dependence: syndrome, strong attachment or everyday behaviour? (16840129)
1990
43
New mandatory course in alcohol and drug dependence for medical students at the Karolinska Institute. (2711914)
1989
44
Drug dependence: a methodology for evaluating treatment and rehabilitation. (3321749)
1987
45
Alcoholism and other drug dependence services. JCAH. (10317856)
1987
46
Unrecognized drug dependence in psychiatrically hospitalized elderly patients. (3559017)
1987
47
Biological evaluation of compounds for their physical dependence potential and abuse liability. IX. Drug Testing Program of the Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence, Inc. (1985). (3092095)
1986
48
What is drug dependence? (4089012)
1985
49
White Dragon Pearl syndrome: a female pattern of drug dependence. (4091159)
1985
50
Unrecognized drug dependence and withdrawal in the elderly. (2862005)
1985

Genetic Variations for Drug Dependence

Expression for genes affiliated with Drug Dependence

Sources:
1BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
See all sources
Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Drug Dependence

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Drug Dependence.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Drug Dependence

Sources:
54Reactome, 38NCBI BioSystems Database, 30KEGG, 12EMD Millipore, 50PharmGKB
See all sources

Pathways related to Drug Dependence according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 18)
idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
110.4DRD2, DRD3
2
Hide members
10.3SLC6A3, MAOA
3
Hide members
10.3ADH6, ADH4
410.3DARC, CHRM2, DRD3
5
Hide members
10.2SLC6A3, MAOA, DRD2, PDYN
610.2PDYN, DRD2, MAOA, SLC6A3
7
Hide members
10.2OPRK1, OPRD1, OPRL1, OPRM1, DARC
8
Hide members
10.2DRD2, DRD3, CHRM2, MAOA, SLC6A4
9
Hide members
10.1ADH1A, ADH4, ADH6, ADH7
10
Hide members
10.1ADH1A, ADH4, ADH6, ADH7
11
Hide members
10.1ADH1A, ADH4, ADH6, ADH7
12
Hide members
10.1ADH1A, ADH4, ADH6, ADH7
13
Hide members
10.1ADH7, ADH6, ADH4, ADH1A
14
Hide members
10.1MAOA, ADH1A, ADH4, ADH6, ADH7
1510.1MAOA, ADH1A, ADH4, ADH6, ADH7
16
Hide members
10.0DRD2, DRD3, OPRM1, CHRM2, MAOA, CNR1
17
Hide members
9.8PDYN, DRD2, DRD3, OPRK1, OPRD1, OPRL1
18
Hide members
9.7PNOC, PDYN, DRD2, DRD3, OPRK1, OPRD1

Compounds for genes affiliated with Drug Dependence

Sources:
45Novoseek, 29IUPHAR, 60Tocris Bioscience, 11DrugBank, 50PharmGKB, 24HMDB
See all sources

Compounds related to Drug Dependence according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show top 50)    (show all 286)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1bremazocine4510.6OPRK1, OPRM1, OPRL1, OPRD1
2dermorphin4510.6PDYN, OPRM1, OPRD1, OPRK1
3nalbzoh4510.6OPRD1, OPRM1, OPRK1, OPRL1, PNOC
4nalmefene45 2911.6OPRM1, OPRD1, OPRK1, PDYN
5norbinaltorphimine4510.6OPRD1, PNOC, OPRK1, OPRM1, PDYN
6[3h]diprenorphine4510.6OPRD1, OPRM1, PDYN, PNOC, OPRK1
7dpdpe29 45 6012.6OPRM1, OPRK1, OPRD1, PNOC, PDYN
8naltrindole45 2911.6PNOC, OPRM1, OPRD1, OPRK1
9damgo45 60 2912.5OPRL1, PDYN, PNOC, OPRK1, OPRD1, OPRM1
10etorphine45 29 1112.5PNOC, OPRK1, OPRL1, OPRD1, PDYN, OPRM1
11pentazocine45 1111.5OPRM1, OPRK1, PDYN, OPRD1
12buprenorphine45 29 1112.5OPRL1, OPRM1, PNOC, PDYN, OPRK1, OPRD1
13baclofen45 1111.5PNOC, CNR1, SLC6A3, OPRD1, OPRM1
14quinpirole45 2911.5DRD3, DRD2, PDYN, SLC6A3, CNR1
15sufentanil45 1111.5OPRM1, OPRD1, OPRK1, PNOC
16naltrexone45 50 29 1113.5OPRM1, OPRL1, PNOC, OPRD1, OPRK1
17naloxone45 50 29 1113.5OPRM1, CNR1, OPRD1, OPRK1, PNOC, PDYN
18amitriptyline45 50 29 1113.5SLC6A4, SLC6A3, CHRM2, OPRD1, MAOA, OPRK1
196-hydroxydopamine4510.5DRD2, DRD3, OPRM1, MAOA, SLC6A3, PDYN
20tyramine45 29 2412.4OPRD1, SLC6A4, OPRM1, MAOA, SLC6A3
21capsaicin45 2911.4PDYN, OPRK1, OPRM1, OPRD1, PNOC, MAOA
22methadone45 50 1112.4PDYN, DRD2, OPRK1, OPRD1, OPRM1
23clozapine45 29 50 1113.4DRD2, DRD3, OPRK1, OPRD1, CHRM2, SLC6A3
24methamphetamine45 50 1112.4DRD2, PDYN, DRD3, OPRD1, OPRM1, MAOA
25nmda45 2911.4OPRD1, OPRK1, PDYN, OPRM1, MAOA, SLC6A3
26amphetamine45 1111.4SLC6A4, CNR1, MAOA, OPRK1, DRD2, PDYN
27indole4510.4OPRD1, SLC6A4, PNOC, MAOA, OPRK1
28levodopa45 1111.4OPRM1, DRD3, MAOA, CNR1, SLC6A3, PDYN
29d amphetamine4510.4SLC6A3, MAOA, DRD2, SLC6A4
30Tapentadol1110.4OPRM1, SLC6A4, OPRD1, OPRK1
31bupropion45 50 11 2413.4SLC6A4, DRD2, CNR1, SLC6A3, DRD3
32heroin45 50 1112.4PDYN, DRD2, DRD3, OPRK1, OPRD1, OPRM1
33morphine45 50 29 1113.4PDYN, DRD2, OPRL1, OPRM1, CNR1, PNOC
34paroxetine45 50 29 1113.3DRD3, SLC6A4, SLC6A3, MAOA, CHRM2
35acetylcholine45 50 29 11 2414.3PDYN, PNOC, SLC6A3, CNR1, OPRM1, OPRD1
36tramadol45 50 1112.3OPRD1, OPRK1, OPRM1, SLC6A4
375-hydroxytryptamine4510.3SLC6A3, PNOC, CNR1, MAOA, CHRM2, OPRL1
38choline45 11 2412.2CHRM2, ADH6, SLC6A3, SLC6A4, ADH1A, MAOA
39opiate4510.2OPRD1, OPRL1, OPRM1, CHRM2, PNOC, DRD3
40cocaine45 1111.2PDYN, DRD2, DRD3, OPRK1, OPRD1, OPRM1
41gaba4510.2SLC6A4, SLC6A3, PNOC, CNR1, MAOA, CHRM2
42dopamine45 29 11 2413.2SLC6A4, PNOC, CNR1, MAOA, OPRD1, OPRK1
43glutamate4510.1DRD3, SLC6A4, SLC6A3, PNOC, CNR1, PDYN
44desipramine45 50 1112.1CHRM2, SLC6A4, MAOA, CNR1, SLC6A3
45mptp4510.1DRD2, DRD3, MAOA, SLC6A3, SLC6A4
46nicotine45 50 29 1113.1SLC6A4, SLC6A3, CNR1, MAOA, CHRM2, CHRNA2
47gtp45 2911.1DRD3, OPRK1, PNOC, CHRM2, OPRM1, OPRL1
48norepinephrine45 11 2412.1PDYN, SLC6A4, SLC6A3, PNOC, CNR1, MAOA
49fluoxetine50 45 29 1113.0SLC6A4, SLC6A3, CNR1, DRD2, MAOA
50piperazine45 1110.9DRD3, DRD2, OPRM1, SLC6A3

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Drug Dependence

Sources:
16Gene Ontology
See all sources

Cellular components related to Drug Dependence according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1plasma membraneGO:0058869.7OPRL1, OPRD1, OPRK1, DRD3, DRD2, OPRM1
2integral to plasma membraneGO:0058879.6SLC6A4, DRD2, DRD3, OPRK1, OPRD1, OPRL1

Biological processes related to Drug Dependence according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 45)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1negative regulation of dopamine receptor signaling pathwayGO:06016010.7DRD2, DRD3
2response to histamineGO:03477610.7DRD2, DRD3
3regulation of dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmissionGO:05158410.7DRD2, DRD3
4opioid receptor signaling pathwayGO:03800310.7OPRK1, OPRD1
5adenylate cyclase-inhibiting dopamine receptor signaling pathwayGO:00719510.7DRD3, DRD2
6dopamine catabolic processGO:04242010.7MAOA, SLC6A3
7regulation of cAMP metabolic processGO:03081410.7DRD3, DRD2
8response to morphineGO:04327810.7CNR1, DRD3, DRD2
9prepulse inhibitionGO:06013410.7SLC6A3, DRD3, DRD2
10negative regulation of blood pressureGO:04577610.7CNR1, DRD3, DRD2
11negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activityGO:00719410.7OPRM1, DRD3, DRD2
12response to nicotineGO:03509410.7DRD2, CNR1, SLC6A3
13phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathwayGO:00720010.7OPRM1, OPRD1, OPRK1
14monoamine transportGO:01584410.7SLC6A3, SLC6A4
15adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathwayGO:00719310.7OPRM1, OPRL1, OPRD1, OPRK1
16adenohypophysis developmentGO:02198410.7SLC6A3, DRD2
17reduction of cytosolic calcium ion concentrationGO:05148110.7OPRM1, DRD2
18sensory perceptionGO:00760010.7PNOC, OPRM1, OPRL1, OPRK1
19sensory perception of painGO:01923310.7OPRK1, OPRM1, CNR1
20behavioral response to ethanolGO:04814910.7DRD2, OPRM1
21response to cocaineGO:04222010.7DRD2, DRD3, CNR1, SLC6A3
22behaviorGO:00761010.7OPRK1, OPRM1, MAOA, CNR1
23regulation of synaptic transmission, GABAergicGO:03222810.7DRD2, CNR1
24G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messengerGO:00718710.7OPRD1, OPRM1, CHRM2, CNR1
25alcohol metabolic processGO:00606610.6ADH1A, ADH4
26dopamine metabolic processGO:04241710.6DRD2, DRD3
27regulation of dopamine secretionGO:01405910.6DRD2, DRD3
28adenylate cyclase-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathwayGO:00719110.6DRD3, OPRM1
29negative regulation of protein secretionGO:05070910.6DRD2, DRD3
30locomotory behaviorGO:00762610.6SLC6A3, OPRM1, OPRK1, DRD3, DRD2
31behavioral response to cocaineGO:04814810.6DRD2, DRD3
32ethanol oxidationGO:00606910.6ADH1A, ADH4, ADH6, ADH7
33response to iron ionGO:01003910.6DRD2, SLC6A3
34G-protein coupled receptor internalizationGO:00203110.6DRD2, DRD3
35response to ethanolGO:04547110.6ADH7, ADH6, SLC6A3, CNR1, DRD3
36synaptic transmission, dopaminergicGO:00196310.5DRD2, DRD3
37xenobiotic metabolic processGO:00680510.5MAOA, ADH1A, ADH4, ADH6, ADH7
38synaptic transmissionGO:00726810.5PDYN, OPRK1, CHRNA2, MAOA, PNOC, SLC6A3
39arachidonic acid secretionGO:05048210.4DRD2, DRD3
40neuropeptide signaling pathwayGO:00721810.4PNOC, OPRD1, PDYN
41response to drugGO:04249310.4DRD2, DRD3, SLC6A3, SLC6A4
42positive regulation of renal sodium excretionGO:03581510.4DRD2, DRD3
43retinol metabolic processGO:04257210.3ADH7, ADH4
44circadian regulation of gene expressionGO:03292210.3DRD2, DRD3
45neurotransmitter biosynthetic processGO:04213610.0SLC6A3, MAOA

Molecular functions related to Drug Dependence according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 9)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1dopamine bindingGO:03524010.4SLC6A3, DRD3, DRD2
2dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity, coupled via Gi/GoGO:00159110.4DRD3, DRD2
3alcohol dehydrogenase activity, zinc-dependentGO:00402410.4ADH1A, ADH4, ADH7
4alcohol dehydrogenase (NAD) activityGO:00402210.3ADH7, ADH6, ADH4, ADH1A
5drug bindingGO:00814410.3DRD2, DRD3, CNR1, SLC6A3
6monoamine transmembrane transporter activityGO:00850410.3SLC6A3, SLC6A4
7retinol dehydrogenase activityGO:00474510.3ADH7, ADH4
8opioid peptide activityGO:00151510.2PDYN, PNOC
9retinol bindingGO:01984110.0ADH7, ADH4

Products for genes affiliated with Drug Dependence

  • Antibodies
  • Proteins
  • Lysates
  • Antibodies

Sources for Drug Dependence

3CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
29IUPHAR
30KEGG
35MeSH
36MESH via Orphanet
37MGI
40NCIt
41NDF-RT
44NINDS
45Novoseek
47OMIM
48OMIM via Orphanet
51PubMed
52QIAGEN
58SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
61UMLS
62UMLS via Orphanet