MCID: DYS005
MIFTS: 37

Dyslexia malady

Categories: Mental diseases, Genetic diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Dyslexia

Summaries for Dyslexia

NINDS : 51 Dyslexia is a brain-based type of learning disability that specifically impairs a person's ability to read. These individuals typically read at levels significantly lower than expected despite having normal intelligence. Although the disorder varies from person to person, common characteristics among people with dyslexia are difficulty with phonological processing (the manipulation of sounds), spelling, and/or rapid visual-verbal responding. In individuals with adult onset of dyslexia, it usually occurs as a result of brain injury or in the context of dementia; this contrasts with individuals with dyslexia who simply were never identified as children or adolescents.  Dyslexia can be inherited in some families, and recent studies have identified a number of genes that may predispose an individual to developing dyslexia.

MalaCards based summary : Dyslexia is related to autism spectrum disorder and dyslexia 1, and has symptoms including aprosodia An important gene associated with Dyslexia is KIAA0319 (KIAA0319). The drugs Dopamine and Levodopa have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, eye and testes.

Disease Ontology : 12 A reading disorder resulting from a developmental reading disability involving the inability to process graphic symbols resulting in impairment of reading ability.

Wikipedia : 71 Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal... more...

Related Diseases for Dyslexia

Diseases in the Dyslexia family:

Dyslexia 8 Dyslexia 3
Dyslexia 5 Dyslexia 2
Dyslexia 1 Dyslexia 6
Dyslexia 9

Diseases related to Dyslexia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 46)
id Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 autism spectrum disorder 29.4 DCDC2 FOXP2 KIAA0319
2 dyslexia 1 12.3
3 dyslexia 2 12.1
4 dyslexia 8 11.8
5 dyslexia 3 11.8
6 dyslexia 5 11.8
7 dyslexia 6 11.8
8 dyslexia 9 11.8
9 alexia 11.4
10 learning disability 11.2
11 reading disorder 11.1
12 stormorken syndrome 10.8
13 dysgraphia 10.8
14 agnosia 10.5
15 griscelli syndrome, type 1 10.2 DNAAF4 DYX1
16 cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome 3 10.2 DNAAF4 DYX1
17 nephronophthisis 19 10.2 DCDC2 KIAA0319
18 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 10.1
19 dyscalculia 10.1
20 dementia 10.1
21 neuronitis 10.1
22 semantic dementia 10.1
23 specific language impairment 10.1
24 sideroblastic anemia 10.1 DCDC2 DNAAF4 KIAA0319
25 amino acid metabolic disorder 10.0 FOXP2 KIAA0319
26 aphasia 9.9
27 cerebritis 9.9
28 apraxia 9.8
29 agraphia 9.8
30 stuttering 9.8
31 developmental coordination disorder 9.8
32 breast cancer 9.6
33 phenylketonuria 9.6
34 anosognosia 9.6
35 sensorineural hearing loss 9.6
36 hemiplegia 9.6
37 epilepsy 9.6
38 prosopagnosia 9.6
39 delusional disorder 9.6
40 neuropathy 9.6
41 auditory neuropathy 9.6
42 glioma 9.6
43 headache 9.6
44 neuronal migration disorders 9.6
45 scrub typhus 9.3 DCDC2 DIP2A DNAAF4 FOXP2 KIAA0319 KIAA0319L
46 anterior cranial fossa meningioma 8.0 DCDC2 DIP2A DNAAF4 DYX1 DYX2 DYX3

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Dyslexia:



Diseases related to Dyslexia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Dyslexia

UMLS symptoms related to Dyslexia:


aprosodia

Drugs & Therapeutics for Dyslexia

Drugs for Dyslexia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 36)
id Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
2
Levodopa Approved Phase 4 59-92-7 6047
3
Amphetamine Approved, Illicit Phase 4 300-62-9 5826 3007
4
Guanfacine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 29110-47-2 3519
5
Methylphenidate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 113-45-1 4158
6 Antiparkinson Agents Phase 4
7 Autonomic Agents Phase 4
8 Dopamine Agents Phase 4
9 Dopamine agonists Phase 4
10 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
11 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4
12 Protective Agents Phase 4
13 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4
14 Atomoxetine Hydrochloride Phase 4
15 Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
16 adderall Phase 4
17 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 4
18 Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists Phase 4
19 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 4
20 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 4
21 Central Nervous System Stimulants Phase 4
22 Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
23
Lovastatin Approved, Investigational Phase 2 75330-75-5 53232
24 Anticholesteremic Agents Phase 2
25 Antimetabolites Phase 2
26 Dihydromevinolin Phase 2
27 Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors Phase 2
28 Hypolipidemic Agents Phase 2
29 L 647318 Phase 2
30 Lipid Regulating Agents Phase 2
31
Menthol Approved 2216-51-5 16666
32
Benzocaine Approved 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
33
Epinephrine Approved, Vet_approved 51-43-4 5816
34 tannic acid Approved, Nutraceutical
35 Epinephryl borate
36 Racepinephrine

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 46)
id Name Status NCT ID Phase
1 Dopaminergic Enhancement of Learning and Memory in Healthy Adults and Patients With Dyslexia Unknown status NCT00111371 Phase 4
2 Effects of Atomoxetine on Brain Activation During Attention and Reading Tasks in Patients With ADHD & Comorbid Dyslexia Completed NCT00716274 Phase 4
3 Treatment of ADHD With Atomoxetine in Children & Adolescents With ADHD & Comorbid Dyslexia Completed NCT00607919 Phase 4
4 Treatment With Atomoxetine Hydrochloride in Children and Adolescents With ADHD Completed NCT00191048 Phase 4
5 Comparison of Atomoxetine and Placebo in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and/or Reading Disorder (RD) Completed NCT00191906 Phase 4
6 Interventions for Children With Attention and Reading Disorders Completed NCT01133847 Phase 4
7 Randomized Clinical Trial of Phonological Interventions Unknown status NCT00818428 Phase 2, Phase 3
8 Reading Problems in Children Living in Urban Areas Completed NCT00065832 Phase 3
9 Implementation of Climb Up Program for Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Dyslexia in a School in India Completed NCT01012778 Phase 1, Phase 2
10 Multimodal Treatment of Phonological Alexia: Behavioral & fMRI Outcomes Completed NCT00827268 Phase 1, Phase 2
11 My Scrivener® - Measuring Effectiveness and Dose Response in Children Completed NCT00919906 Phase 1, Phase 2
12 Working Memory Training in Adults With Substance Abuse and Executive Function Deficits. Recruiting NCT02068261 Phase 2
13 NF1 Health Sciences Protocol Not yet recruiting NCT02964884 Phase 2
14 Using fMRI to Evaluate Instructional Programs for Children With Developmental Dyslexia Unknown status NCT00068835
15 Group-based Training for Parents of Children With Dyslexia Unknown status NCT02107534
16 Effects of Music Education for Children With Reading Difficulties Unknown status NCT01388881
17 Scholar Performance and Praxis Assessment in Children With Rolandic Epilepsy Unknown status NCT01046760
18 Sensory and Connectivity Abnormalities in Autism and Language Disorders Unknown status NCT00956579
19 Predictive Executive Functioning Models Using Interactive Tangible-Graphical Interface Devices Unknown status NCT01711372
20 Study of Hierarchy of Afferents in Postural Control of Children With Dyslexia Completed NCT02879786
21 Morphofunctional Imaging and Developmental Dyslexia Completed NCT00254644
22 Working Memory Training for Children With Dyslexia Completed NCT02429739
23 Developmental Dyslexia and Functional Maturation of Auditory Cortex Completed NCT00245804
24 Functional MRI Study in Children With a Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and/or Developmental Dyslexia (DD) Completed NCT02393729
25 Rhythm and Music to Rehabilitate Reading Disorders Completed NCT02316873
26 Comprehensive Program to Improve Reading and Writing Skills in At-Risk and Dyslexic Children Completed NCT00061412
27 Neurobiology and Treatment of Reading Disability in NF-1 Completed NCT00624234
28 Reading Disability in Children With NF1 Completed NCT02397967
29 Therapy for Reading Problems in Adults After Brain Injury Completed NCT00064805
30 Developmental Language Difficulties: Behavioural and Electrophysiological Studies Completed NCT02872870
31 Functional Imaging and Reading Deficit in Children With NF1 Completed NCT02422732
32 Brain Mechanisms Underlying Reading Improvement in Central Alexia Completed NCT02062619
33 Maturation of Auditory Processing in Children With Dyslexia Compared to Average-reading Children Recruiting NCT02345876
34 Comparison of Interventions for Developmental Dyslexia Recruiting NCT02791841
35 Effects of the Combination of RRT With tDCS on Dyslexic Adults Recruiting NCT03119402
36 Prediction and Intervention in Developmental Dyslexia Recruiting NCT02217696
37 Efficacy of Coloured Overlays and Lenses for Reading Difficulty Recruiting NCT02680223
38 Brain Imaging of Childhood Onset Psychiatric Disorders, Endocrine Disorders and Healthy Volunteers Recruiting NCT00001246
39 Characterization of Auditory Processing Involved in the Encoding of Speech Sounds Recruiting NCT02574299
40 The Effectiveness of Neuropsychological Rehabilitation in Young Dyslexic Adults Active, not recruiting NCT01930500
41 The Baltimore Reading and Eye Disease Study Active, not recruiting NCT02607384
42 Predictive Executive Functioning Models Using Interactive Tangible-Graphical Interface Devices in Adults Active, not recruiting NCT02127931
43 Reading in Preterm and Full-term Children: Neural Basis and Prediction Active, not recruiting NCT01599546
44 Speech and Short-term Memory Functions in Dyslexia: a Combined MEG and EEG Study Enrolling by invitation NCT02622360
45 App-delivered Therapy for Arabic Readers With Hemianopic Alexia Not yet recruiting NCT02482350
46 Eye Movements and Reading Disabilities Terminated NCT01860027

Search NIH Clinical Center for Dyslexia

Genetic Tests for Dyslexia

Anatomical Context for Dyslexia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Dyslexia:

39
Brain, Eye, Testes, Cortex, Cerebellum, Heart, Thalamus

Publications for Dyslexia

Articles related to Dyslexia:

(show top 50) (show all 727)
id Title Authors Year
1
Neurogenetics of developmental dyslexia: from genes to behavior through brain neuroimaging and cognitive and sensorial mechanisms. ( 28045463 )
2017
2
A General Audiovisual Temporal Processing Deficit in Adult Readers With Dyslexia. ( 28056152 )
2017
3
Exploring Text and Icon Graph Interpretation in Students with Dyslexia: An Eye-tracking Study. ( 28090728 )
2017
4
Association analysis of dyslexia candidate genes in a Dutch longitudinal sample. ( 28074887 )
2017
5
Adults with developmental dyslexia show selective impairments in time-based and self-initiated prospective memory: Self-report and clinical evidence. ( 28089431 )
2017
6
A sequence learning impairment in dyslexia? It depends on the task. ( 27856107 )
2017
7
Ophthalmic abnormalities in children with dyslexia: A look at current research. ( 28079041 )
2017
8
The Dyslexia-susceptibility Protein KIAA0319 Inhibits Axon Growth Through Smad2 Signaling. ( 28334068 )
2017
9
Neural changes associated to procedural learning and automatization process in Developmental Coordination Disorder and/or Developmental Dyslexia. ( 27546352 )
2016
10
Editorial: Understanding Developmental Dyslexia: Linking Perceptual and Cognitive Deficits to Reading Processes. ( 27064316 )
2016
11
Improvement of the Error-detection Mechanism in Adults with Dyslexia Following Reading Acceleration Training. ( 27072047 )
2016
12
Reading Comprehension Assessment through Retelling: Performance Profiles of Children with Dyslexia and Language-Based Learning Disability. ( 27313551 )
2016
13
Out-of-synchrony speech entrainment in developmental dyslexia. ( 27061643 )
2016
14
A Principled Relation between Reading and Naming in Acquired and Developmental Anomia: Surface Dyslexia Following Impairment in the Phonological Output Lexicon. ( 27065897 )
2016
15
Assessing Neglect Dyslexia With Compound Words. ( 27560301 )
2016
16
The effects of letter spacing and coloured overlays on reading speed and accuracy in adult dyslexia. ( 27629067 )
2016
17
Atypical right hemisphere response to slow temporal modulations in children with developmental dyslexia. ( 27520749 )
2016
18
When left-hemisphere reading is compromised: Comparing reading ability in participants after left cerebral hemispherectomy and participants with developmental dyslexia. ( 27573872 )
2016
19
Children with developmental dyslexia showed greater sleep disturbances than controls including problems initiating and maintaining sleep. ( 27173764 )
2016
20
Are the literacy difficulties that characterize developmental dyslexia associated with a failure to integrate letters and speech sounds? ( 27496263 )
2016
21
Complex effects of dyslexia risk factors account for ADHD traits: evidence from two independent samples. ( 27501527 )
2016
22
Sleep problems in children with dyslexia: understanding the role of sleep in neurocognitive development through the lens of developmental disorders. ( 27514003 )
2016
23
University Students with Dyslexia: A Qualitative Exploratory Study of Learning Practices, Challenges and Strategies. ( 27892659 )
2016
24
Dyslexia and language impairment associated genetic markers influence cortical thickness and white matter in typically developing children. ( 25953057 )
2016
25
Traffic-related air pollution and hyperactivity/inattention, dyslexia and dyscalculia in adolescents of the German GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts. ( 27835751 )
2016
26
Deep Dyslexia in Chinese Primary Progressive Aphasia of Semantic Variant. ( 27093385 )
2016
27
Defective chromatic and achromatic visual pathways in developmental dyslexia: Cues for an integrated intervention programme. ( 27858722 )
2016
28
Examining the relationship between home literacy environment and neural correlates of phonological processing in beginning readers with and without a familial risk for dyslexia: an fMRI study. ( 27550556 )
2016
29
Network dynamics in dyslexia: Review and implications for remediation. ( 27497371 )
2016
30
Comprehension and Generation of Metaphoric Language in Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Dyslexia. ( 28004879 )
2016
31
Machine learning and dyslexia: Classification of individual structural neuro-imaging scans of students with and without dyslexia. ( 27114899 )
2016
32
Knockdown of Dyslexia-Gene Dcdc2 Interferes with Speech Sound Discrimination in Continuous Streams. ( 27122044 )
2016
33
Acquired dyslexia in Serbian speakers with Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia. ( 27135368 )
2016
34
The Role of Visual-Spatial Abilities in Dyslexia: Age Differences in Children's Reading? ( 28066311 )
2016
35
KIAA0319 gene polymorphisms are associated with developmental dyslexia in Chinese Uyghur children. ( 27098879 )
2016
36
Neural signatures of phonological deficits in Chinese developmental dyslexia. ( 27890803 )
2016
37
Setting the Balance between the Lexical and Sublexical Pathways of Dual-Route Models of Reading: Insight from Atypical Dyslexia in Surgical Glioma Patients. ( 27877149 )
2016
38
Dysfunction of Rapid Neural Adaptation in Dyslexia. ( 28009278 )
2016
39
Search, Read and Write: An Inquiry into Web Accessibility for People with Dyslexia. ( 27534340 )
2016
40
Spelling Errors in French-speaking Children with Dyslexia: Phonology May Not Provide the Best Evidence. ( 27146375 )
2016
41
Responsivity to dyslexia training indexed by the N170 amplitude of the brain potential elicited by word reading. ( 27200495 )
2016
42
Audio-visual speech in noise perception in dyslexia. ( 27990724 )
2016
43
Temporal Processing Development in Chinese Primary School-Aged Children With Dyslexia. ( 27940605 )
2016
44
Morphology and spelling in French students with dyslexia: the case of silent final letters. ( 27553683 )
2016
45
The roles of cognitive and language abilities in predicting decoding and reading comprehension: comparisons of dyslexia and specific language impairment. ( 27848086 )
2016
46
Advances in Dyslexia Genetics-New Insights Into the Role of Brain Asymmetries. ( 27968731 )
2016
47
The Role of Categorical Speech Perception and Phonological Processing in Familial Risk Children With and Without Dyslexia. ( 27942706 )
2016
48
Dichotic listening as an index of lateralization of speech perception in familial risk children with and without dyslexia. ( 27648974 )
2016
49
Precursors of Reading Difficulties in Czech and Slovak Children At-Risk of Dyslexia. ( 27061124 )
2016
50
Socioemotional Features and Resilience in Italian University Students with and without Dyslexia. ( 27065220 )
2016

Variations for Dyslexia

Copy number variations for Dyslexia from CNVD:

7
id CNVD ID Chromosom Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 18124 1 144106777 144451305 Deletion Dyslexia
2 169290 3 139732796 140171095 Duplication Dyslexia
3 181529 4 123017758 123458923 Duplication Dyslexia
4 214702 6 65179840 66364033 Deletion Dyslexia
5 218276 7 110381300 110851860 Deletion Dyslexia
6 224996 7 40606348 40819984 Deletion Dyslexia
7 227462 7 68820751 68904999 Deletion Dyslexia
8 227539 7 69876932 70546042 Duplication Dyslexia
9 232264 8 11373083 11434911 Deletion Dyslexia
10 254314 9 6348644 6740836 Deletion Dyslexia

Expression for Dyslexia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Dyslexia.

Pathways for Dyslexia

GO Terms for Dyslexia

Biological processes related to Dyslexia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 nervous system development GO:0007399 9.26 DCDC2 DNAAF4 KIAA0319 ROBO1
2 neuron migration GO:0001764 8.8 DCDC2 DNAAF4 KIAA0319

Sources for Dyslexia

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 MedGen
42 MeSH
43 MESH via Orphanet
44 MGI
46 NCI
47 NCIt
48 NDF-RT
51 NINDS
52 Novoseek
54 OMIM
55 OMIM via Orphanet
59 PubMed
60 QIAGEN
65 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67 TGDB
68 Tocris
69 UMLS
70 UMLS via Orphanet
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