Aliases & Classifications for Dyslexia

Summaries for Dyslexia

NINDS : 50 Dyslexia is a brain-based type of learning disability that specifically impairs a person's ability to read. These individuals typically read at levels significantly lower than expected despite having normal intelligence. Although the disorder varies from person to person, common characteristics among people with dyslexia are difficulty with phonological processing (the manipulation of sounds), spelling, and/or rapid visual-verbal responding. In individuals with adult onset of dyslexia, it usually occurs as a result of brain injury or in the context of dementia; this contrasts with individuals with dyslexia who simply were never identified as children or adolescents.  Dyslexia can be inherited in some families, and recent studies have identified a number of genes that may predispose an individual to developing dyslexia.

MalaCards based summary : Dyslexia is related to dyslexia 2 and reading disorder, and has symptoms including aprosodia An important gene associated with Dyslexia is KIAA0319 (KIAA0319). The drugs Dopamine and Levodopa have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, eye and cortex.

Disease Ontology : 12 A reading disorder resulting from a developmental reading disability involving the inability to process graphic symbols resulting in impairment of reading ability.

Related Diseases for Dyslexia

Diseases in the Dyslexia family:

Dyslexia 1 Dyslexia 9
Dyslexia 2 Dyslexia 3
Dyslexia 6 Dyslexia 5
Dyslexia 8

Diseases related to Dyslexia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 55)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 dyslexia 2 34.0 DCDC2 DYX2 KIAA0319
2 reading disorder 31.4 DCDC2 DIP2A DNAAF4 FOXP2 GCFC2 KIAA0319
3 dyslexia 1 12.4
4 dyslexia 3 12.1
5 dyslexia 9 11.9
6 dyslexia 6 11.9
7 dyslexia 5 11.9
8 dyslexia 8 11.9
9 alexia 11.9
10 learning disability 11.3
11 stormorken syndrome 11.1
12 dysgraphia 10.9
13 agnosia 10.5
14 apraxia 10.4
15 aging 10.2
16 dysphasia, familial developmental 10.2
17 specific language impairment 10.2
18 dyscalculia 10.2
19 attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder 10.2
20 dementia 10.2
21 neuronitis 10.2
22 semantic dementia 10.2
23 speech disorder 10.2 FOXP2 KIAA0319
24 specific developmental disorder 10.2 DCDC2 DNAAF4 FOXP2 KIAA0319
25 autism 10.1
26 autism spectrum disorder 10.0
27 aphasia 10.0
28 agraphia 9.9
29 cerebritis 9.9
30 developmental coordination disorder 9.9
31 stuttering 9.9
32 beta-adrenergic stimulation, response to 9.7
33 breast cancer 9.7
34 schizophrenia 9.7
35 tune deafness 9.7
36 hyperlexia 9.7
37 phenylketonuria 9.7
38 frontotemporal dementia 9.7
39 branchiootic syndrome 1 9.7
40 body mass index quantitative trait locus 1 9.7
41 frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tdp43 inclusions, grn-related 9.7
42 anxiety 9.7
43 ataxia, combined cerebellar and peripheral, with hearing loss and diabetes mellitus 9.7
44 anosognosia 9.7
45 sensorineural hearing loss 9.7
46 hemiplegia 9.7
47 disease of mental health 9.7
48 epilepsy 9.7
49 prosopagnosia 9.7
50 delusional disorder 9.7

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Dyslexia:



Diseases related to Dyslexia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Dyslexia

UMLS symptoms related to Dyslexia:


aprosodia

Drugs & Therapeutics for Dyslexia

Drugs for Dyslexia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 36)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Dopamine Approved Phase 4 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
2
Levodopa Approved Phase 4 59-92-7 6047
3
Guanfacine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 29110-47-2 3519
4
Methylphenidate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 20748-11-2, 113-45-1 4158
5
Amphetamine Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 300-62-9 3007 5826
6 Dopamine agonists Phase 4
7 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4
8 Dopamine Agents Phase 4
9 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4
10 Protective Agents Phase 4
11 Autonomic Agents Phase 4
12 Antiparkinson Agents Phase 4
13 adderall Phase 4
14 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4
15 Central Nervous System Stimulants Phase 4
16 Adrenergic Agonists Phase 4
17 Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists Phase 4
18 Adrenergic alpha-Agonists Phase 4
19 Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
20 Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
21 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 4
22 Atomoxetine Hydrochloride Phase 4
23
Lovastatin Approved, Investigational Phase 2 75330-75-5 53232
24 Dihydromevinolin Phase 2
25 Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors Phase 2
26 Anticholesteremic Agents Phase 2
27 Hypolipidemic Agents Phase 2
28 Antimetabolites Phase 2
29 L 647318 Phase 2
30 Lipid Regulating Agents Phase 2
31
Benzocaine Approved, Investigational 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
32
Menthol Approved 2216-51-5 16666
33
Epinephrine Approved, Vet_approved 51-43-4 5816
34 Racepinephrine Approved 329-65-7
35 tannic acid Approved, Nutraceutical
36 Epinephryl borate

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 52)

# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Dopaminergic Enhancement of Learning and Memory in Healthy Adults and Patients With Dyslexia Unknown status NCT00111371 Phase 4 Levodopa
2 Effects of Atomoxetine on Brain Activation During Attention & Reading Tasks in Participants With ADHD & Comorbid Dyslexia Completed NCT00716274 Phase 4 Atomoxetine;Placebo
3 Treatment of ADHD With Atomoxetine in Children & Adolescents With ADHD & Comorbid Dyslexia Completed NCT00607919 Phase 4 Atomoxetine;Placebo
4 Treatment With Atomoxetine Hydrochloride in Children and Adolescents With ADHD Completed NCT00191048 Phase 4 Atomoxetine
5 Comparison of Atomoxetine and Placebo in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and/or Reading Disorder (RD) Completed NCT00191906 Phase 4 Atomoxetine Hydrochloride;placebo
6 Interventions for Children With Attention and Reading Disorders Completed NCT01133847 Phase 4 Methylphenidate;Mixed Salt Amphetamine;Atomoxetine;Guanfacine
7 Randomized Clinical Trial of Phonological Interventions Unknown status NCT00818428 Phase 2, Phase 3
8 Reading Problems in Children Living in Urban Areas Completed NCT00065832 Phase 3
9 Working Memory Training in Adults With Substance Abuse and Executive Function Deficits. Unknown status NCT02068261 Phase 2
10 Implementation of Climb Up Program for Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Dyslexia in a School in India Completed NCT01012778 Phase 1, Phase 2
11 My Scrivener® - Measuring Effectiveness and Dose Response in Children Completed NCT00919906 Phase 1, Phase 2
12 Interventions for Reading Disabilities in NF1 Recruiting NCT02964884 Phase 2 Lovastatin;Placebo Oral Tablet
13 Group-based Training for Parents of Children With Dyslexia Unknown status NCT02107534
14 Using fMRI to Evaluate Instructional Programs for Children With Developmental Dyslexia Unknown status NCT00068835
15 Effects of Music Education for Children With Reading Difficulties Unknown status NCT01388881
16 Scholar Performance and Praxis Assessment in Children With Rolandic Epilepsy Unknown status NCT01046760
17 Sensory and Connectivity Abnormalities in Autism and Language Disorders Unknown status NCT00956579
18 Predictive Executive Functioning Models Using Interactive Tangible-Graphical Interface Devices Unknown status NCT01711372
19 Study of Hierarchy of Afferents in Postural Control of Children With Dyslexia Completed NCT02879786
20 Working Memory Training for Children With Dyslexia Completed NCT02429739
21 Morphofunctional Imaging and Developmental Dyslexia Completed NCT00254644
22 Functional MRI Study in Children With a Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and/or Developmental Dyslexia (DD) Completed NCT02393729
23 Developmental Dyslexia and Functional Maturation of Auditory Cortex Completed NCT00245804
24 Rhythm and Music to Rehabilitate Reading Disorders Completed NCT02316873
25 Neurobiology and Treatment of Reading Disability in NF-1 Completed NCT00624234
26 Comprehensive Program to Improve Reading and Writing Skills in At-Risk and Dyslexic Children Completed NCT00061412
27 Reading Disability in Children With NF1 Completed NCT02397967
28 Developmental Language Difficulties: Behavioural and Electrophysiological Studies Completed NCT02872870
29 Therapy for Reading Problems in Adults After Brain Injury Completed NCT00064805
30 Functional Imaging and Reading Deficit in Children With NF1 Completed NCT02422732
31 Multimodal Treatment of Phonological Alexia: Behavioral & fMRI Outcomes Completed NCT00827268
32 Brain Mechanisms Underlying Reading Improvement in Central Alexia Completed NCT02062619
33 Dyslexia, Motor Control and Proprioception Recruiting NCT03364010
34 Maturation of Auditory Processing in Children With Dyslexia Compared to Average-reading Children Recruiting NCT02345876
35 Effects of the Combination of RRT With tDCS on Dyslexic Adults Recruiting NCT03119402
36 Comparison of Interventions for Developmental Dyslexia Recruiting NCT02791841
37 Prediction and Intervention in Developmental Dyslexia Recruiting NCT02217696
38 Improving Response to Intervention in Students With or at Risk of Reading Disabilities Recruiting NCT03261661
39 Efficacy of Coloured Overlays and Lenses for Reading Difficulty Recruiting NCT02680223
40 Brain Imaging of Childhood Onset Psychiatric Disorders, Endocrine Disorders and Healthy Volunteers Recruiting NCT00001246
41 App-delivered Therapy for Arabic Readers With Hemianopic Alexia Recruiting NCT02482350
42 Characterization of Auditory Processing Involved in the Encoding of Speech Sounds Recruiting NCT02574299
43 The Effectiveness of Neuropsychological Rehabilitation in Young Dyslexic Adults Active, not recruiting NCT01930500
44 Rhythmic Reading Training Compared to 'Abilmente' Method Active, not recruiting NCT03199092
45 The Baltimore Reading and Eye Disease Study Active, not recruiting NCT02607384
46 Predictive Executive Functioning Models Using Interactive Tangible-Graphical Interface Devices in Adults Active, not recruiting NCT02127931
47 Reading in Preterm and Full-term Children: Neural Basis and Prediction Active, not recruiting NCT01599546
48 Speech and Short-term Memory Functions in Dyslexia: a Combined MEG and EEG Study Enrolling by invitation NCT02622360
49 Orthophonic and / or Proprioceptive Treatment of Developmental Dyslexia. Enrolling by invitation NCT03448237
50 Dyslexics' Visual Attention Field Not yet recruiting NCT03285789

Search NIH Clinical Center for Dyslexia

Genetic Tests for Dyslexia

Anatomical Context for Dyslexia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Dyslexia:

38
Brain, Eye, Cortex, Testes, Cerebellum, Cingulate Cortex, Thalamus

Publications for Dyslexia

Articles related to Dyslexia:

(show top 50) (show all 774)
# Title Authors Year
1
Learned helplessness in doctors with dyslexia: Time for a change in discourse? ( 29429848 )
2018
2
What is Developmental Dyslexia? ( 29401712 )
2018
3
Doctors from overseas are missing out on dyslexia screening, researchers find. ( 29335274 )
2018
4
Decoupling of the Occipitotemporal Cortex and the Brain's Default-Mode Network in Dyslexia and a Role for the Cingulate Cortex in Good Readers: A Brain Imaging Study of Brazilian Children. ( 29412010 )
2018
5
Auditory temporal perceptual learning and transfer in Chinese-speaking children with developmental dyslexia. ( 29413429 )
2018
6
Association study of FGF18 with developmental dyslexia in Chinese population. ( 29240020 )
2018
7
Performance of candidates disclosing dyslexia with other candidates in a UK medical licensing examination: cross-sectional study. ( 29330347 )
2018
8
Ancestral Variations of the PCDHG Gene Cluster Predispose to Dyslexia in a Multiplex Family. ( 29409727 )
2018
9
Pathways Into Literacy: The Role of Early Oral Language Abilities and Family Risk for Dyslexia. ( 29346032 )
2018
10
Dyslexia as a multi-deficit disorder: Working memory and auditory temporal processing. ( 29304447 )
2018
11
Children with dyslexia show a reduced processing benefit from bimodal speech information compared to their typically developing peers. ( 29352968 )
2018
12
Atypical Structural Asymmetry of the Planum Temporale is Related to Family History of Dyslexia. ( 29253247 )
2018
13
Hemispheric asymmetries in the orientation and location of the lateral geniculate nucleus in dyslexia. ( 29380470 )
2018
14
Tracking the effects of dyslexia in reading and spelling development: A longitudinal study of Greek readers. ( 29316015 )
2018
15
Hypermyelination of the left auditory cortex in developmental dyslexia. ( 29321232 )
2018
16
A General Audiovisual Temporal Processing Deficit in Adult Readers With Dyslexia. ( 28056152 )
2017
17
Neural Noise Hypothesis of Developmental Dyslexia: (Trends in Cognitive Sciences 21, 434-448, 2017). ( 28869186 )
2017
18
Towards identifying dyslexia in Standard Indonesian: the development of a reading assessment battery. ( 28932019 )
2017
19
Relationships between Eye Movements during Sentence Reading Comprehension, Word Spelling and Reading, and DTI and fmri Connectivity In Students with and without Dysgraphia or Dyslexia. ( 28936361 )
2017
20
What role for prism adaptation in the rehabilitation of pure neglect dyslexia? ( 28774229 )
2017
21
Visual artificial grammar learning in dyslexia: A meta-analysis. ( 28934698 )
2017
22
A sequence learning impairment in dyslexia? It depends on the task. ( 27856107 )
2017
23
Characteristics of Chinese-English bilingual dyslexia in right occipito-temporal lesion. ( 28797604 )
2017
24
Identifying Dyslexia Risk in Student-Athletes: A Preliminary Protocol for Concussion Management. ( 28937789 )
2017
25
A different vision of dyslexia: Local precedence on global perception. ( 29234050 )
2017
26
Visual motion and rapid auditory processing are solid endophenotypes of developmental dyslexia. ( 28834383 )
2017
27
Can you spell dyslexia without SLI? Comparing the cognitive profiles of dyslexia and specific language impairment and their roles in learning. ( 28486125 )
2017
28
Study of the effect of Memantine therapy on the treatment of dyslexia in children. ( 29387124 )
2017
29
Who Will Help My Son?: A Family's Journey with Dyslexia. ( 28771284 )
2017
30
Association analysis of dyslexia candidate genes in a Dutch longitudinal sample. ( 28074887 )
2017
31
Adults with developmental dyslexia show selective impairments in time-based and self-initiated prospective memory: Self-report and clinical evidence. ( 28089431 )
2017
32
Neuroanatomy of developmental dyslexia: Pitfalls and promise. ( 28797557 )
2017
33
Optimising Service Delivery of AAC AT Devices and Compensating AT for Dyslexia. ( 28873824 )
2017
34
Improvements in reading accuracy as a result of increased interletter spacing are not specific to children with dyslexia. ( 28810134 )
2017
35
Exploring Text and Icon Graph Interpretation in Students with Dyslexia: An Eye-tracking Study. ( 28090728 )
2017
36
A review of prospective memory impairments in developmental dyslexia: evidence, explanations, and future directions. ( 28826299 )
2017
37
The Dyslexia-susceptibility Protein KIAA0319 Inhibits Axon Growth Through Smad2 Signaling. ( 28334068 )
2017
38
Visual perception in dyslexia is limited by sub-optimal scale selection. ( 28747794 )
2017
39
Maternal Stress and Coping Strategies in Developmental Dyslexia: An Italian Multicenter Study. ( 29312021 )
2017
40
15q11.2 CNV affects cognitive, structural and functional correlates of dyslexia and dyscalculia. ( 28440815 )
2017
41
Sequential processing deficit as a shared persisting biomarker in dyslexia and childhood apraxia of speech. ( 28933620 )
2017
42
Quantity Matters: Children With Dyslexia Are Impaired in a Small, but Not Large, Number of Exposures During Implicit Repeated Sequence Learning. ( 28796861 )
2017
43
Ophthalmic abnormalities in children with dyslexia: A look at current research. ( 28079041 )
2017
44
Evaluating the impact of dyslexia laws on the identification of specific learning disability and dyslexia. ( 29134483 )
2017
45
Identification of NCAN as a candidate gene for developmental dyslexia. ( 28839234 )
2017
46
Unstable Binocular Fixation Affects Reaction Times But Not Implicit Motor Learning in Dyslexia. ( 29288270 )
2017
47
Local and global processing in block design tasks in children with dyslexia or nonverbal learning disability. ( 28380399 )
2017
48
Early dynamics of white matter deficits in children developing dyslexia. ( 28823983 )
2017
49
Neurogenetics of developmental dyslexia: from genes to behavior through brain neuroimaging and cognitive and sensorial mechanisms. ( 28045463 )
2017
50
The impact of developmental dyslexia and dysgraphia on movement production during word writing. ( 29157129 )
2017

Variations for Dyslexia

Copy number variations for Dyslexia from CNVD:

7
# CNVD ID Chromosom Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 18124 1 144106777 144451305 Deletion Dyslexia
2 169290 3 139732796 140171095 Duplication Dyslexia
3 181529 4 123017758 123458923 Duplication Dyslexia
4 214702 6 65179840 66364033 Deletion Dyslexia
5 218276 7 110381300 110851860 Deletion Dyslexia
6 224996 7 40606348 40819984 Deletion Dyslexia
7 227462 7 68820751 68904999 Deletion Dyslexia
8 227539 7 69876932 70546042 Duplication Dyslexia
9 232264 8 11373083 11434911 Deletion Dyslexia
10 254314 9 6348644 6740836 Deletion Dyslexia

Expression for Dyslexia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Dyslexia.

Pathways for Dyslexia

GO Terms for Dyslexia

Biological processes related to Dyslexia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 neuron migration GO:0001764 8.8 DCDC2 DNAAF4 KIAA0319

Sources for Dyslexia

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HGMD
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 MedGen
41 MeSH
42 MESH via Orphanet
43 MGI
45 NCI
46 NCIt
47 NDF-RT
50 NINDS
51 Novoseek
53 OMIM
54 OMIM via Orphanet
58 PubMed
60 QIAGEN
65 SNOMED-CT via HPO
66 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67 TGDB
68 Tocris
69 UMLS
70 UMLS via Orphanet
Content
Loading form....