FPP
MCID: ENL009
MIFTS: 27

Enlarged Parietal Foramina (FPP) malady

Summaries for Enlarged Parietal Foramina

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21Genetics Home Reference, 19GeneReviews, 32MalaCards
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Genetics Home Reference:21 Enlarged parietal foramina is an inherited condition of impaired skull development. It is characterized by enlarged openings (foramina) in the two bones (parietal bones) that form the top and sides of the skull. This condition is due to problems with bone formation (ossification) within the parietal bones. The openings are symmetrical and circular in shape, with variable size ranging from a few millimeters to several centimeters wide. Parietal foramina are a normal feature of fetal development, but they usually close by the fifth month of pregnancy.

MalaCards: Enlarged Parietal Foramina, also known as parietal foramina, is related to parietal foramina 1 and synostosis. An important gene associated with Enlarged Parietal Foramina is MSX2 (msh homeobox 2). Affiliated tissues include bone, and related mouse phenotypes are digestive/alimentary and limbs/digits/tail.

GeneReviews summary for msx2

Aliases & Classifications for Enlarged Parietal Foramina

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19GeneReviews, 20GeneTests, 21Genetics Home Reference, 44Novoseek, 60UMLS
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Aliases & Descriptions:

enlarged parietal foramina 19 20 21
parietal foramina 21 44 60
foramina parietalia permagna 21
symmetric parietal foramina 19
cranium bifidum 21
catlin marks 21
pfm 21
fpp 21


Related Diseases for Enlarged Parietal Foramina

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17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
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Diseases in the Parietal Foramina 1 family:

enlarged parietal foramina Parietal Foramina 2

Diseases related to Enlarged Parietal Foramina via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards/GeneDecks gene sharing:

(show all 23)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1parietal foramina 130.4MSX2
2synostosis30.4ALX4, MSX2
3parietal foramina 210.5
4fg syndrome10.5
5parietal foramina with cleidocranial dysplasia10.5
6dysostosis10.4
7potocki-shaffer syndrome10.4
8spina bifida10.4
9encephalocele10.4
10saethre-chotzen syndrome10.3
11cleidocranial dysplasia10.3
12cerebritis10.3
13osteoporosis10.3
14craniosynostosis10.3
15hydrocephalus10.2
16meningoencephalocele10.2
17frontofacionasal dysplasia10.2
18frontonasal dysplasia 110.2
19meningocele10.1
20imperforate anus10.1
21hemophilia10.0
22polydactyly10.0ALX4
23syndactyly10.0MSX2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Enlarged Parietal Foramina:



Diseases related to enlarged parietal foramina

Clinical Features for Enlarged Parietal Foramina

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Drugs & Therapeutics for Enlarged Parietal Foramina

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5CenterWatch, 41NIH Clinical Center, 6ClinicalTrials, 60UMLS, 40NDF-RT
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Approved drugs:

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Drug clinical trials:

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Search CenterWatch for Enlarged Parietal Foramina

Genetic Tests for Enlarged Parietal Foramina

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20GeneTests
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Genetic tests related to Enlarged Parietal Foramina:

id Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Enlarged Parietal Foramina20 MSX2

Anatomical Context for Enlarged Parietal Foramina

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32MalaCards
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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Enlarged Parietal Foramina:

32
Bone

Animal Models for Enlarged Parietal Foramina or affiliated genes

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36MGI
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MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Enlarged Parietal Foramina:

36
idDescriptionMGI Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MP:00053819.1ALX4, MSX2
2MP:00053719.0ALX4, MSX2
3MP:00053828.8ALX4, MSX2

Publications for Enlarged Parietal Foramina

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50PubMed
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Articles related to Enlarged Parietal Foramina:

(show all 21)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Enlarged parietal foramina: a review of genetics, prognosis, radiology, and treatment. (23207976)
2013
2
Enlarged parietal foramina: a rare finding in a female Greek skull with unusual multiple Wormian bones and a rich parietal vascular network. (23543411)
2013
3
Enlarged parietal foramina: two rediscovered cases. (22383172)
2012
4
Enlarged parietal foramina: findings on prenatal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. (20586040)
2010
5
Enlarged parietal foramina: MR imaging features in the fetus and neonate. (16775301)
2006
6
Enlarged parietal foramina caused by mutations in the homeobox genes ALX4 and MSX2: from genotype to phenotype. (16319823)
2006
7
Hereditary cranium bifidum persisting as enlarged parietal foramina (Catlin marks) on cephalometric radiographs. (16769502)
2006
8
Enlarged parietal foramina: association with cerebral venous and cortical anomalies. (10720293)
2000
9
Delineation of a contiguous gene syndrome with multiple exostoses, enlarged parietal foramina, craniofacial dysostosis, and mental retardation, caused by deletions in the short arm of chromosome 11. (8644736)
1996
10
Aplasia cutis congenita and enlarged parietal foramina (Catlin marks) in a family. (7670261)
1995
11
Enlarged Parietal Foramina (20301307)
1993
12
Enlarged parietal foramina and craniosynostosis in an American Indian child. (2106245)
1990
13
Hereditary enlarged parietal foramina (foramina parietalia permagna). Prenatal diagnosis, evolution and family study. (3834376)
1985
14
Evolution of persistently enlarged parietal foramina. (5481147)
1970
15
A concordant craniofacial dysostosis with enlarged parietal foramina in twins. (5762068)
1969
16
Enlarged parietal foramina. (5227396)
1967
17
Diagnostic x-ray brief; enlarged parietal foramina. (13447267)
1957
18
Enlarged parietal foramina; a collection of examples from radiologic practices in Pennsylvania. (13368837)
1956
19
Enlarged parietal foramina and similar shadows seen in osteoporosis circumscripta; two cases. (20987900)
1946
20
A Case of Enlarged Parietal Foramina associated with Metropism and Irregular Synostosis of the Coronal Suture. (17104407)
1932
21
Skull showing Perforations of Parietal Bone, or Enlarged Parietal Foramina. (17104226)
1929

Genetic Variations for Enlarged Parietal Foramina

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Expression for genes affiliated with Enlarged Parietal Foramina

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1BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
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Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Enlarged Parietal Foramina

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Pathways for genes affiliated with Enlarged Parietal Foramina

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Compounds for genes affiliated with Enlarged Parietal Foramina

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GO Terms for genes affiliated with Enlarged Parietal Foramina

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16Gene Ontology
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Cellular components related to Enlarged Parietal Foramina according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1transcription factor complexGO:0056679.1ALX4, MSX2

Biological processes related to Enlarged Parietal Foramina according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1anterior/posterior pattern specificationGO:0099529.1ALX4, MSX2
2embryonic hindlimb morphogenesisGO:0351169.0ALX4, MSX2
3embryonic forelimb morphogenesisGO:0351158.8ALX4, MSX2

Molecular functions related to Enlarged Parietal Foramina according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1sequence-specific DNA bindingGO:0435659.1ALX4, MSX2

Products for genes affiliated with Enlarged Parietal Foramina

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Sources for Enlarged Parietal Foramina

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3CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
28IUPHAR
29KEGG
34MeSH
35MESH via Orphanet
36MGI
39NCIt
40NDF-RT
43NINDS
44Novoseek
46OMIM
47OMIM via Orphanet
50PubMed
51QIAGEN
57SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
60UMLS
61UMLS via Orphanet