FPP
MCID: ENL009
MIFTS: 25

Enlarged Parietal Foramina (FPP) malady

Summaries for Enlarged Parietal Foramina

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21Genetics Home Reference, 19GeneReviews, 33MalaCards
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Genetics Home Reference:21 Enlarged parietal foramina is an inherited condition of impaired skull development. It is characterized by enlarged openings (foramina) in the two bones (parietal bones) that form the top and sides of the skull. This condition is due to problems with bone formation (ossification) within the parietal bones. The openings are symmetrical and circular in shape, with variable size ranging from a few millimeters to several centimeters wide. Parietal foramina are a normal feature of fetal development, but they usually close by the fifth month of pregnancy.

MalaCards: Enlarged Parietal Foramina, also known as parietal foramina, is related to parietal foramina 1 and synostosis. An important gene associated with Enlarged Parietal Foramina is MSX2 (msh homeobox 2). Related mouse phenotypes are digestive/alimentary and limbs/digits/tail.

GeneReviews summary for msx2

Aliases & Classifications for Enlarged Parietal Foramina

Sources:
19GeneReviews, 20GeneTests, 21Genetics Home Reference, 45Novoseek, 61UMLS
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Aliases & Descriptions:

enlarged parietal foramina 19 20 21
parietal foramina 21 45 61
foramina parietalia permagna 21
symmetric parietal foramina 19
cranium bifidum 21
catlin marks 21
pfm 21
fpp 21


Related Diseases for Enlarged Parietal Foramina

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17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
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Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Enlarged Parietal Foramina:



Diseases related to enlarged parietal foramina

Clinical Features for Enlarged Parietal Foramina

Drugs & Therapeutics for Enlarged Parietal Foramina

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5CenterWatch, 42NIH Clinical Center, 6ClinicalTrials, 61UMLS, 41NDF-RT
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Approved drugs:

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Drug clinical trials:

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Genetic Tests for Enlarged Parietal Foramina

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20GeneTests
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Genetic tests related to Enlarged Parietal Foramina:

id Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Enlarged Parietal Foramina20 MSX2

Anatomical Context for Enlarged Parietal Foramina

Animal Models for Enlarged Parietal Foramina or affiliated genes

Sources:
37MGI, 28inGenious Targeting Laboratory
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MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Enlarged Parietal Foramina:

37
idDescriptionMGI Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MP:00053819.1ALX4, MSX2
2MP:00053719.0ALX4, MSX2
3MP:00053828.8ALX4, MSX2

Publications for Enlarged Parietal Foramina

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51PubMed
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Articles related to Enlarged Parietal Foramina:

(show all 21)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Enlarged parietal foramina: a review of genetics, prognosis, radiology, and treatment. (23207976)
2013
2
Enlarged parietal foramina: a rare finding in a female Greek skull with unusual multiple Wormian bones and a rich parietal vascular network. (23543411)
2013
3
Enlarged parietal foramina: two rediscovered cases. (22383172)
2012
4
Enlarged parietal foramina: findings on prenatal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. (20586040)
2010
5
Enlarged parietal foramina: MR imaging features in the fetus and neonate. (16775301)
2006
6
Enlarged parietal foramina caused by mutations in the homeobox genes ALX4 and MSX2: from genotype to phenotype. (16319823)
2006
7
Hereditary cranium bifidum persisting as enlarged parietal foramina (Catlin marks) on cephalometric radiographs. (16769502)
2006
8
Enlarged parietal foramina: association with cerebral venous and cortical anomalies. (10720293)
2000
9
Delineation of a contiguous gene syndrome with multiple exostoses, enlarged parietal foramina, craniofacial dysostosis, and mental retardation, caused by deletions in the short arm of chromosome 11. (8644736)
1996
10
Aplasia cutis congenita and enlarged parietal foramina (Catlin marks) in a family. (7670261)
1995
11
Enlarged Parietal Foramina (20301307)
1993
12
Enlarged parietal foramina and craniosynostosis in an American Indian child. (2106245)
1990
13
Hereditary enlarged parietal foramina (foramina parietalia permagna). Prenatal diagnosis, evolution and family study. (3834376)
1985
14
Evolution of persistently enlarged parietal foramina. (5481147)
1970
15
A concordant craniofacial dysostosis with enlarged parietal foramina in twins. (5762068)
1969
16
Enlarged parietal foramina. (5227396)
1967
17
Diagnostic x-ray brief; enlarged parietal foramina. (13447267)
1957
18
Enlarged parietal foramina; a collection of examples from radiologic practices in Pennsylvania. (13368837)
1956
19
Enlarged parietal foramina and similar shadows seen in osteoporosis circumscripta; two cases. (20987900)
1946
20
A Case of Enlarged Parietal Foramina associated with Metropism and Irregular Synostosis of the Coronal Suture. (17104407)
1932
21
Skull showing Perforations of Parietal Bone, or Enlarged Parietal Foramina. (17104226)
1929

Genetic Variations for Enlarged Parietal Foramina

Expression for genes affiliated with Enlarged Parietal Foramina

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1BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
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Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Enlarged Parietal Foramina

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Enlarged Parietal Foramina.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Enlarged Parietal Foramina

Compounds for genes affiliated with Enlarged Parietal Foramina

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Enlarged Parietal Foramina

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16Gene Ontology
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Cellular components related to Enlarged Parietal Foramina according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1transcription factor complexGO:0056679.1ALX4, MSX2

Biological processes related to Enlarged Parietal Foramina according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1anterior/posterior pattern specificationGO:0099529.1ALX4, MSX2
2embryonic hindlimb morphogenesisGO:0351169.0ALX4, MSX2
3embryonic forelimb morphogenesisGO:0351158.8ALX4, MSX2

Molecular functions related to Enlarged Parietal Foramina according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1sequence-specific DNA bindingGO:0435659.1ALX4, MSX2

Products for genes affiliated with Enlarged Parietal Foramina

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Sources for Enlarged Parietal Foramina

3CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
29IUPHAR
30KEGG
35MeSH
36MESH via Orphanet
37MGI
40NCIt
41NDF-RT
44NINDS
45Novoseek
47OMIM
48OMIM via Orphanet
51PubMed
52QIAGEN
58SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
61UMLS
62UMLS via Orphanet