MCID: ESP021
MIFTS: 80

Esophageal Cancer malady

Genetic diseases, Rare diseases, Cancer diseases, Gastrointestinal diseases, Skin diseases categories
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Summaries for Esophageal Cancer

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NIH Rare Diseases:42 Esophageal cancer is a cancer of the esophagus, the hollow tube that carries food and liquids from the throat to the stomach. as the cancer grows, symptoms may include painful or difficult swallowing, weight loss and coughing up blood. the exact cause is usually not known, but both environmental and genetic factors are throught to play a role in the development of this condition. in the united states, risk factors for developing esophageal cancer include smoking, heavy drinking, obesity, and damage from acid reflux. treatments include surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and laser therapy. some patients may also need nutritional support, since the cancer or treatment may make it hard to swallow. last updated: 1/12/2012

MalaCards based summary: Esophageal Cancer, also known as esophageal carcinoma, is related to gastric adenocarcinoma and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and has symptoms including feeding disorder/dysphagia/swallowing/sucking disorder/esophageal dyskinesia, esophageal neoplasm/tumor/carcinoma/cancer and weight loss/loss of appetite/break in weight curve/general health alteration. An important gene associated with Esophageal Cancer is TGFBR2 (transforming growth factor, beta receptor II (70/80kDa)), and among its related pathways are IL-2 Gene Expression in Activated and Quiescent T-Cells and TGF-beta Receptor Signaling Pathway. The drugs cisplatin and methotrexate and the compounds dl 111it and inostamycin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include the esophagus, lymph node and testes, and related mouse phenotypes are tumorigenesis and craniofacial.

Disease Ontology:8 A gastrointestinal system cancer that is located in the esophagus.

MedlinePlus:33 The esophagus is a hollow tube that carries food and liquids from your throat to your stomach. early esophageal cancer usually does not cause symptoms. later, you may have symptoms such as painful or difficult swallowing weight loss a hoarse voice or cough that doesn't go away you're at greater risk for getting esophageal cancer if you smoke, drink heavily, or have acid reflux. your risk also goes up as you age your doctor uses imaging tests and a biopsy to diagnose esophageal cancer. treatments include surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. you might also need nutritional support, since the cancer or treatment may make it hard to swallow. nih: national cancer institute

Wikipedia:65 Esophageal cancer (or oesophageal cancer) is cancer arising from the foodpipe known as the esophagus... more...

Description from OMIM:46 133239

Aliases & Classifications for Esophageal Cancer

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Sources:
30LifeMap Discovery®, 8Disease Ontology, 9diseasecard, 42NIH Rare Diseases, 46OMIM, 10DISEASES, 48Orphanet, 33MedlinePlus, 62UMLS, 44Novoseek, 57SNOMED-CT, 34MeSH, 39NCIt, 26ICD10 via Orphanet, 63UMLS via Orphanet, 25ICD10
See all sources

Esophageal Cancer, Aliases & Descriptions:

Name: Esophageal Cancer 30 8 9 42 46 10 48 33
Esophageal Carcinoma 8 44 48 62
Malignant Tumor of the Middle Third of the Esophagus 8 62
Malignant Neoplasm of Proximal Third of Esophagus 8 62
Malignant Neoplasm of Distal Third of Esophagus 8 62
Malignant Tumor of Proximal Third of Esophagus 8 62
Malignant Tumor of Distal Third of Esophagus 8 62
Malignant Neoplasm of Upper Third Esophagus 8 62
Malignant Tumor of Abdominal Esophagus 8 62
Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma 48 62
Esophageal Epidermoid Carcinoma 48 62
Carcinoma of Esophagus 8 62
 
Esophagus Cancer 8 42
Malignant Neoplasm of Middle Third of Oesophagus 8
Malignant Neoplasm of Lower Third of Oesophagus 8
Malignant Neoplasm of Middle Third of Esophagus 62
Malignant Neoplasm of Esophagus 62
Ca Middle Third Oesophagus 8
Ca Lower Third Oesophagus 8
Carcinoma of Oesophagus 8
Cancer of Oesophagus 8
Esophageal Neoplasms 62
Cancer of Esophagus 8
Malignant Neoplasms 62


Classifications:



Characteristics (Orphanet epidemiological data):

48
esophageal cancer:
Prevalence: 1-9/100000; Age of onset: Adulthood
esophageal squamous cell carcinoma:
Prevalence: 1-9/100000; Age of onset: Adulthood; Age of death: Adult


Related Diseases for Esophageal Cancer

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Diseases related to Esophageal Cancer via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards/GeneDecks gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 182)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1gastric adenocarcinoma31.5GSTM1, BAX, KLF4
2esophageal squamous cell carcinoma31.3DEC1, LZTS1
3oral leukoplakia30.9RARB, GSTM1
4adenocarcinoma30.8TGFBR2, TOP1, CCND1, ALDH2, GSTM1, RARB
5retinoblastoma30.8TGFBR2, CCND1, RARB, BAX, CDK4
6lung cancer30.7TGFBR2, TOP1, GSTM1, RARB, BAX, CDK4
7non-small cell lung carcinoma30.7TGFBR2, TOP1, CCND1, GSTM1, RARB, BAX
8leukoplakia30.5RARB, GSTM1
9colorectal cancer30.5TGFBR2, TOP1, CCND1, BAX, CDK4
10squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck30.4TOP1, CCND1, ALDH2, GSTM1, RARB
11cervical cancer30.4TGFBR2, GSTM1, RARB, BAX, CDK4
12stomach cancer30.3TGFBR2, CCND1, ALDH2, RARB, BAX
13lung adenocarcinoma30.3TGFBR2, TOP1, CCND1, GSTM1, RARB, BAX
14melanoma30.1TOP1, CCND1, RARB, BAX, CDK4
15leukemia30.1TOP1, CCND1, ALDH2, GSTM1, RARB, BAX
16esophagitis11.5
17gastric cardia adenocarcinoma10.6
18tylosis with esophageal cancer10.6
19barrett's esophagus10.5
20endotheliitis10.5
21small cell carcinoma10.5
22right aortic arch10.4
23plasma cell leukemia10.4CDK4, CCND1
24atrophic gastritis10.4
25gastritis10.4
26esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, somatic10.4
27basal cell carcinoma10.4TGFBR2, GSTM1, BAX
28laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma10.4TGFBR2, CCND1, GSTM1, BAX
29papillary thyroid carcinoma10.4BAX, RARB, CCND1
30dysphagia10.4
31esophageal cancer, somatic10.4
32familial adenomatous polyposis10.4TGFBR2, CCND1, RARB, KLF4
33nasopharynx carcinoma10.4CDK4, BAX, GSTM1, TGFBR2
34acute lymphoblastic leukemia, childhood10.4GSTM1, RARB, BAX, CDK4
35thyroid hurthle cell carcinoma10.4RARB, GSTM1, CCND1
36alcoholic liver cirrhosis10.3GSTM1, ALDH2
37cervicitis10.3
38b-cell lymphomas10.3TOP1, CCND1, BAX, CDK4
39malignant glioma10.3CDK4, BAX, CCND1, TOP1
40oral cancer10.3CCND1, GSTM1, RARB, BAX, CDK4
41gastric cancer10.3
42colon adenocarcinoma10.3BAX, RARB, TOP1
43myeloid leukemia10.3TOP1, RARB, BAX, CDK4
44endometrial carcinoma10.3TGFBR2, CCND1, RARB, BAX, CDK4
45rhabdomyosarcoma10.3TOP1, RARB, CDK4
46lung small cell carcinoma10.3TGFBR2, TOP1, GSTM1, RARB, BAX
47chronic lymphocytic leukemia10.3CCND1, BAX, CDK4
48tracheoesophageal fistula10.3
49pancreatic cancer10.3BAX, RARB, TGFBR2
50bladder carcinoma10.3CCND1, GSTM1, RARB, BAX, LZTS1, CDK4

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Esophageal Cancer:



Diseases related to esophageal cancer

Symptoms for Esophageal Cancer

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Clinical features from OMIM:

133239

Symptoms:

48 (show all 14)
  • feeding disorder/dysphagia/swallowing/sucking disorder/esophageal dyskinesia
  • esophageal neoplasm/tumor/carcinoma/cancer
  • weight loss/loss of appetite/break in weight curve/general health alteration
  • anomalies of the neck
  • gastroesophageal reflux/pyrosis/esophagitis/hiatal hernia/gastroparesia
  • thoracic/chest pain
  • cough
  • chronic hiccup
  • abnormal cry/voice/phonation disorder/nasal speech
  • lymphadenopathy/polyadenopathies
  • endobrachyesophagus/barrett esophagus
  • intestinal/colonic anomaly
  • generalized obesity
  • nausea/vomiting/regurgitation/merycism/hyperemesis

HPO human phenotypes related to Esophageal Cancer:

(show all 17)
id Description Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 weight loss hallmark (90%) HP:0001824
2 feeding difficulties in infancy hallmark (90%) HP:0008872
3 weight loss hallmark (90%) HP:0001824
4 feeding difficulties in infancy hallmark (90%) HP:0008872
5 esophageal neoplasm hallmark (90%) HP:0100751
6 abnormality of the neck typical (50%) HP:0000464
7 abnormality of the voice typical (50%) HP:0001608
8 lymphadenopathy typical (50%) HP:0002716
9 recurrent singultus typical (50%) HP:0100247
10 chest pain typical (50%) HP:0100749
11 abnormality of the voice typical (50%) HP:0001608
12 nausea and vomiting typical (50%) HP:0002017
13 chest pain typical (50%) HP:0100749
14 obesity occasional (7.5%) HP:0001513
15 abnormality of the intestine occasional (7.5%) HP:0002242
16 barrett esophagus occasional (7.5%) HP:0100580
17 lymphadenopathy occasional (7.5%) HP:0002716

Drugs & Therapeutics for Esophageal Cancer

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Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Esophageal Cancer

Search NIH Clinical Center for Esophageal Cancer

Inferred drug relations via UMLS62/NDF-RT40:

Genetic Tests for Esophageal Cancer

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Anatomical Context for Esophageal Cancer

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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Esophageal Cancer:

32
Lymph node, Testes, Lung, Endothelial, Colon, T cells, Brain, Breast, Bone marrow, Bone, Testis, Whole blood, Skeletal muscle, Liver, Thyroid, Prostate, Pituitary

FMA organs/tissues related to Esophageal Cancer:

14
The esophagus

Animal Models for Esophageal Cancer or affiliated genes

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Publications for Esophageal Cancer

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Articles related to Esophageal Cancer:

(show top 50)    (show all 1231)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Randomized study of antiinflammatory and immune-modulatory effects of enteral immunonutrition during concurrent chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer. (24274379)
2014
2
Effect of galectin-3 on the behavior of Ecaa89109 human esophageal cancer cells. (25373317)
2014
3
Patterns and trends in esophageal cancer mortality and incidence in Europe (1980-2011) and predictions to 2015. (24356640)
2014
4
Epigenetic silencing of checkpoint with fork-head associated and ring finger gene expression in esophageal cancer. (24348823)
2014
5
Nomogram for predicting the benefit of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for patients with esophageal cancer: A SEER-Medicare analysis. (24194477)
2013
6
Metallic expandable stents in the management of malignant tracheal stenosis due to esophageal cancer with lymph node metastasis. (24179541)
2013
7
Treatment and outcome of young patients with esophageal cancer in the Netherlands. (24338660)
2013
8
Esophageal cancer awareness in Bomet district, Kenya. (23658578)
2013
9
Present status and progress of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer. (23681891)
2013
10
Clinical and oncological effects of triplet chemotherapy followed by radical esophagectomy for resectable esophageal cancer associated with unfavorable prognostic factors. (23963503)
2013
11
Detection of interfraction displacement and volume variance during radiotherapy of primary thoracic esophageal cancer based on repeated four-dimensional CT scans. (24074144)
2013
12
Fish consumption and risk of esophageal cancer and its subtypes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. (23321574)
2013
13
Frequency of Lymph Node Metastasis in Submucosal Esophageal Cancer. (24169170)
2013
14
Trihalomethanes in drinking water and the risk of death from esophageal cancer: does hardness in drinking water matter? (23294300)
2013
15
Robotic-assisted totally transhiatal lymphadenectomy in the middle mediastinum for esophageal cancer. (24273609)
2013
16
Relationship between HLA-G gene polymorphism and the susceptibility of esophageal cancer in Kazakh and Han nationality in Xinjiang. (22080860)
2012
17
Positron emission tomography/computed tomography and esophageal cancer in the clinical practice: How does it affect the prognosis? (23361284)
2012
18
XAF1 is frequently methylated in human esophageal cancer. (22719195)
2012
19
Mechanism of loss of human esophageal cancer-related gene 4 (ECRG4) gene expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line EC9706]. (22325214)
2011
20
Inhibition of PDK1 gene expression in esophageal cancer EC9706 cells by RNA interference and its effect on their malignant biological behavior]. (21875479)
2011
21
Epigenetic silencing of microRNA-375 regulates PDK1 expression in esophageal cancer. (21533613)
2011
22
Deleted in Esophageal Cancer 1(DEC1) is down-regulated and contributes to migration in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. (20975315)
2011
23
RAD001 offers a therapeutic intervention through inhibition of mTOR as a potential strategy for esophageal cancer. (20204306)
2010
24
Study on the association of cytochrome P450 polymorphisms and the risk of esophageal cancer: a meta-analysis]. (20193595)
2009
25
Role of mitochondrial DNA 4977-bp deletions in esophageal cancer susceptibility and prognosis in a northern Indian population. (19963120)
2009
26
Selection of a novel drug-response predictor in esophageal cancer: a novel screening method using microarray and identification of IFITM1 as a potent marker gene of CDDP response. (18202764)
2008
27
Epigenetic inactivation of the deleted in lung and esophageal cancer 1 gene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. (17099870)
2007
28
Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated expression is associated with tobacco smoke exposure in esophageal cancer tissues and benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide in cell lines. (17019709)
2007
29
Identification of alpha-actinin 4 and 67 kDa laminin receptor as stage-specific markers in esophageal cancer via proteomic approaches. (17960614)
2007
30
Involvement of IFN regulatory factor (IRF)-1 and IRF-2 in the formation and progression of human esophageal cancers. (17363571)
2007
31
Duodenal reflux leads to down regulation of DNA mismatch repair pathway in an animal model of esophageal cancer. (17257966)
2007
32
Reactive oxygen species mediated apoptosis of esophageal cancer cells induced by marine triprenyl toluquinones and toluhydroquinones. (17876050)
2007
33
Esophageal cancer in a young woman with bulimia nervosa: a case report. (18047676)
2007
34
Enhancement of Apo2L/TRAIL-mediated cytotoxicity in esophageal cancer cells by cisplatin. (17172403)
2006
35
Promoter methylation and response to chemotherapy and radiation in esophageal cancer. (16678495)
2006
36
Role for the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR in Ad-TNF-alpha gene therapy in esophageal cancer. (16153435)
2005
37
Inhibitory effects of esophageal cancer related gene 2 on proliferation of human esophageal cancer cell EC9706]. (16324322)
2005
38
Relationship between glucose transporter, hexokinase and FDG-PET in esophageal cancer. (15816463)
2005
39
A case-control study on the polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 1298A-->C and susceptibility of esophageal cancer]. (15231206)
2004
40
Relationship between polymorphism of IRF-3 gene codon 427 and esophageal cancer in Anyang population of China]. (15303122)
2004
41
Vascular endothelial growth factor in esophageal cancer. (15282704)
2004
42
Treatment of a patient with advanced esophageal cancer with a combination of mitomycin C and capecitabine: activation of the thymidine phosphorylase as active principle? (12771525)
2003
43
Polymorphisms and mutations found in the regions flanking exons 5 to 8 of the TP53 gene in a population at high risk for esophageal cancer in South Africa. (12550754)
2003
44
Serine proteinase activation in esophageal cancer. (11724279)
2001
45
Preclinical study of adenoviral p53 gene therapy for esophageal cancer. (11495154)
2001
46
Down-regulation of nerve growth factor in poorly differentiated and advanced human esophageal cancer. (10769644)
2000
47
Role of nutrition support during induction chemoradiation therapy in esophageal cancer. (9437649)
1998
48
ras mutation and expression of the ras-regulated genes osteopontin and cathepsin L in human esophageal cancer. (9311587)
1997
49
13-Cis-retinoic acid and interferon alpha-2a in patients with advanced esophageal cancer: a phase II trial. (9157075)
1996
50
Relation of epidermal growth factor receptor concentration to growth of human esophageal cancer cell lines. (8274053)
1993

Variations for Esophageal Cancer

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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot genetic disease variations for Esophageal Cancer:

64
id Symbol AA change Variation ID SNP ID
1TGFBR2p.Glu526GlnVAR_015816

Clinvar genetic disease variations for Esophageal Cancer:

6
id Gene Name Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1TGFBR2NM_003242.5(TGFBR2): c.1576G> C (p.Glu526Gln)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs121918714GRCh37Chr 3, 30732963: 30732963

Expression for genes affiliated with Esophageal Cancer

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Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Esophageal Cancer

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Esophageal Cancer.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Esophageal Cancer

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Pathways related to Esophageal Cancer according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 16)
idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
10.3TGFBR2, CCND1
210.1CDK4, CCND1, TGFBR2
3
Show member pathways
10.1TGFBR2, CDK4, CCND1
4
Show member pathways
Cell cycle Role of SCF complex in cell cycle regulation60
10.1TGFBR2, CCND1, CDK4
5
Show member pathways
Signal transduction PTEN pathway60
10.1TGFBR2, CCND1, BAX
610.1TGFBR2, CCND1, BAX
7
Show member pathways
IL-9 Signaling Pathway37
Development Thrombopoietin regulated cell processes60
IL-7 Signaling Pathway37
Immune response IL 9 signaling pathway60
10.1CDK4, CCND1, BAX
8
Show member pathways
10.1BAX, CCND1, CDK4
9
Show member pathways
Prostate Cancer37
Integrated Cancer pathway37
Steroid Biosynthesis37
10.1CCND1, CDK4, BAX
10
Show member pathways
DNA damage response37
10.1BAX, CCND1, CDK4
1110.1CDK4, RARB, CCND1
1210.0BAX, CCND1, TGFBR2, CDK4
13
Show member pathways
Toll-like receptor signaling pathway37
Regulation of toll-like receptor signaling pathway37
10.0TGFBR2, BAX, CCND1, CDK4
1410.0TGFBR2, BAX, CCND1, CDK4
159.9CCND1, RARB, BAX, CDK4, TGFBR2
169.8CDK4, BAX, RARB, CCND1, TOP1

Compounds for genes affiliated with Esophageal Cancer

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Compounds related to Esophageal Cancer according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show top 50)    (show all 87)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1dl 111it4410.6CCND1, CDK4
2inostamycin4410.6CCND1, BAX
3perillic acid44 2411.6CCND1, ALDH2
4pga24410.5CDK4, CCND1
5pyrene4410.5CDK4, GSTM1
6gossypol4410.5CCND1, BAX, CDK4
7vinylchloride4410.5GSTM1, ALDH2
8ursolic acid4410.5TOP1, BAX, CCND1
9apigenin44 2811.5BAX, CCND1, CDK4
10olomoucine44 1111.5CDK4, CCND1, BAX
11acyclic retinoid4410.5RARB, CCND1
12indole-3-carbinol4410.5CCND1, CDK4, BAX
13sulforaphane4410.5BAX, GSTM1, CCND1
14ciglitazone44 2811.5CCND1, RARB, BAX
15benzo(a)pyrene4410.5GSTM1, RARB, CDK4
16depsipeptide4410.5TOP1, CCND1, BAX
17eb 108944 6111.5TGFBR2, BAX, CDK4, CCND1
18betacarotene4410.4GSTM1, RARB, ALDH2
19agarose4410.4BAX, GSTM1, ALDH2, TGFBR2
20bortezomib44 50 1112.4BAX, TOP1, CCND1
215-aza-2deoxycytidine4410.4RARB, TOP1, TGFBR2, DLEC1
22flavopiridol44 1111.4BAX, CDK4, TOP1, CCND1
23adpribose4410.4CDK4, BAX, CCND1, TOP1
24vincristine44 50 1112.4CCND1, TOP1, BAX, GSTM1
25bleomycin44 1111.4TOP1, TGFBR2, GSTM1
26gefitinib44 50 1112.4CDK4, CCND1, TOP1
2710-hydroxycamptothecin4410.4TOP1, BAX
28berberine4410.3CCND1, CDK4
294-hydroxynonenal44 2411.3BAX, GSTM1, ALDH2
305fluorouracil4410.3TOP1, CDK4, BAX, GSTM1
31n-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide4410.3BAX, TGFBR2, CCND1, RARB, CDK4
32agar4410.3TOP1, RARB, CCND1, CDK4
33thymidylate4410.3BAX, TOP1, CCND1, GSTM1, CDK4
34retinoid4410.3CCND1, ALDH2, RARB, BAX, CDK4
354,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole4410.3BAX, TOP1
36carboplatin44 50 1112.3TOP1, CDK4, GSTM1
37egcg4410.3CCND1, RARB, BAX, CDK4, TOP1
38butyrate4410.3CCND1, CDK4, BAX, KLF4
39vitamin d4410.3TGFBR2, CDK4, RARB, GSTM1
40doxorubicin44 50 1112.2BAX, TOP1, CCND1, CDK4, GSTM1
41ag-1264410.2CDK4, CCND1
42paclitaxel44 50 1112.2TOP1, CDK4, CCND1, BAX
43cycloheximide4410.2TOP1, CCND1, RARB, BAX, CDK4, TGFBR2
44cisplatin44 50 61 1113.1CDK4, TOP1, CCND1, GSTM1, BAX, RARB
45oligonucleotide4410.1KLF4, RARB, ALDH2, CCND1, CDK4, TGFBR2
46estrogen4410.1BAX, GSTM1, TGFBR2, CCND1, RARB, CDK4
47retinoic acid44 2411.1TGFBR2, CDK4, BAX, RARB, ALDH2, CCND1
48ly2940024410.0BAX, CDK4, CCND1, TGFBR2
49pd 98,059449.8CDK4, KLF4, BAX, CCND1
50gemcitabine44 50 1111.8CCND1, TOP1, BAX

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Esophageal Cancer

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Cellular components related to Esophageal Cancer according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1cyclin-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme complexGO:00030710.2CDK4, CCND1

Biological processes related to Esophageal Cancer according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1negative regulation of cell cycle arrestGO:07115710.2CDK4, CCND1
2organ regenerationGO:03110010.1TGFBR2, CCND1, CDK4
3negative regulation of cell proliferationGO:0082859.9KLF4, RARB, DLEC1, DLC1, DEC1
4positive regulation of G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycleGO:0109719.9CDK4, CCND1
5response to drugGO:0424939.9TGFBR2, TOP1, CCND1, CDK4

Molecular functions related to Esophageal Cancer according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1protein complex bindingGO:03240310.1CDK4, RARB, CCND1

Products for genes affiliated with Esophageal Cancer

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  • Antibodies
  • Proteins
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Sources for Esophageal Cancer

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3CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
28IUPHAR
29KEGG
34MeSH
35MESH via Orphanet
36MGI
39NCIt
40NDF-RT
43NINDS
44Novoseek
46OMIM
47OMIM via Orphanet
51PubMed
52QIAGEN
58SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
62UMLS
63UMLS via Orphanet