MCID: ESS002
MIFTS: 72

Essential Hypertension malady

Genetic diseases, Cardiovascular diseases, Blood diseases, Rare diseases categories
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Summaries for Essential Hypertension

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65Wikipedia, 47OMIM, 33MalaCards
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Wikipedia:65 Essential hypertension (also called primary hypertension or idiopathic hypertension) is the form of... more...

MalaCards: Essential Hypertension, also known as hypertension, essential, is related to hypertension and insulin resistance. An important gene associated with Essential Hypertension is AGT (angiotensinogen (serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A, member 8)), and among its related pathways are Sympathetic Nerve Pathway (Neuroeffector Junction) and G protein signaling G Protein alpha i signaling cascades. The compounds aliskiren and saralasin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include endothelial, brain and heart, and related mouse phenotypes are growth/size/body and muscle.

Description from OMIM:47 145500

Aliases & Classifications for Essential Hypertension

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8Disease Ontology, 9diseasecard, 22GTR, 47OMIM, 45Novoseek, 62UMLS, 58SNOMED-CT, 27ICD9CM, 40NCIt, 25ICD10
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Classifications:



Aliases & Descriptions:

essential hypertension 8 45 62
hypertension, essential 9 22 47
unspecified essential hypertension 8
essential hypertension nos 8
idiopathic hypertension 8
primary hypertension 8


External Ids:

Disease Ontology8 DOID:10825
ICD9CM27 401.9, 401
OMIM47 145500
NCIt40 C3478
ICD1025 I10

Related Diseases for Essential Hypertension

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17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
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Diseases in the Hypertension family:

Benign Essential Hypertension Malignant Essential Hypertension
essential hypertension Malignant Hypertension
Familial Hypertension Hypertension, Essential 3
Hypertension, Essential 7 Hypertension, Essential 6
Hypertension, Essential 4 Hypertension, Essential 2
Hypertension, Essential 1 Hypertension, Essential 8
Hypertension, Essential 5

Diseases related to Essential Hypertension via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards/GeneDecks gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 137)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1hypertension32.4GNB3, PTGIS, NEDD4L, ADRB1, ADD1, ADM
2insulin resistance31.5GNB3, ADD1, UTS2, ACE, AGT, AGTR1
3diabetes mellitus31.0GNB3, UTS2, REN, ACE, NPPA, AGT
4hyperaldosteronism31.0CYP11B2, REN, ACE, NPPA, AGTR1
5atherosclerosis30.9ECE1, GNB3, PTGIS, ADD1, UTS2, ACE
6coronary artery disease30.7GNB3, ADRB1, ADD1, ACE, AGT, AGTR1
7pre-eclampsia30.6ECE1, CYP11B2, ADM, UTS2, REN, NPPA
8renovascular hypertension30.6ADM, REN, ACE, NPPA, AGTR1
9type 2 diabetes mellitus30.6GNB3, ADM, UTS2, ACE, AGT, AGTR1
10diabetic nephropathy30.6ADM, UTS2, REN, ACE, NPPA, AGT
11low renin hypertension30.5REN, CYP11B2
12conn's syndrome30.5NPPA, REN, CYP11B2
13malignant hypertension30.4ADM, REN, ACE
14hypertensive heart disease30.4ACE, NPPA, AGTR1
15nephrosclerosis30.4AGTR1, ACE, ADM
16hypokalemia30.4CYP11B2, REN, ACE
17adenoma30.4ECE1, CYP11B2, GNB3, PTGIS, REN
18hypercholesterolemia30.4GNB3, ACE, AGT, AGTR1
19vascular disease30.3PTGIS, ACE, AGT, AGTR1
20proteinuria30.3GNB3, ADD1, ADM, UTS2, REN, ACE
21ischemia30.2AGT, ADM, PTGIS, ECE1
22mitral valve disease30.2NPPA
23congestive heart failure30.2UTS2, REN
24myocardial infarction30.2ADM, UTS2, REN, ACE, NPPA, AGT
25renal hypertension30.2ADM, REN, ACE, KLKB1
26adrenal adenoma30.1AGTR1, REN, ADM
27acute myocardial infarction30.0ADRB1, ADM, UTS2, ACE, NPPA, AGT
28endotheliitis10.9
29benign essential hypertension10.8
30obesity10.6
31blindness10.6
32malignant essential hypertension10.6
33artery disease10.4
34eclampsia10.4
35hyperuricemia10.3
36fatty liver disease10.3
37cerebritis10.3
38liver disease10.3
39retinitis10.3
40arteriosclerosis10.2
41glomerulonephritis10.2
42kidney disease10.2
43cytomegalovirus infection10.2
44fibromuscular dysplasia10.1REN
45hypoaldosteronism10.1CYP11B2, REN
46oligohydramnios10.1ACE
47liddle syndrome10.1WNK4, NEDD4L
48hepatorenal syndrome10.1NPPA, REN
49renal tubular dysgenesis10.1REN, AGT, AGTR1
50mitral valve prolapse10.1AGTR1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Essential Hypertension:



Diseases related to essential hypertension

Symptoms for Essential Hypertension

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47OMIM
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Symptoms by clinical synopsis from OMIM:

145500

Clinical features from OMIM:

145500

Drugs & Therapeutics for Essential Hypertension

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42NIH Clinical Center, 6ClinicalTrials, 62UMLS, 41NDF-RT
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Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Essential Hypertension

Search NIH Clinical Center for Essential Hypertension

Genetic Tests for Essential Hypertension

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22GTR
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Genetic tests related to Essential Hypertension:

id Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Essential Hypertension22

Anatomical Context for Essential Hypertension

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33MalaCards
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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Essential Hypertension:

33
Endothelial, Brain, Heart, Kidney, Skeletal muscle, Monocytes, Testes, Liver, Skin, Smooth muscle, Thyroid, Placenta

Animal Models for Essential Hypertension or affiliated genes

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37MGI
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MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Essential Hypertension:

37
idDescriptionMGI Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MP:00053789.8ADRB1, ADD1, PRCP, REN, ACE, AGT
2MP:00053699.7ECE1, CYP11B2, NEDD4L, ADRB1, ADM, REN
3MP:00053679.7CYP11B2, PTGIS, NEDD4L, ADM, REN, WNK4
4MP:00053859.5AGTR1, ECE1, CYP11B2, PNMT, PTGIS, NEDD4L
5MP:00107689.3ECE1, CYP11B2, GNB3, NEDD4L, ADRB1, ADD1
6MP:00053769.2ADD1, ADRB1, NEDD4L, PTGIS, PNMT, CYP11B2

Publications for Essential Hypertension

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52PubMed
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Articles related to Essential Hypertension:

(show top 50)    (show all 1891)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Myocardial performance index and aortic distensibility in patients with different left ventricle geometry in newly diagnosed essential hypertension. (23550550)
2013
2
Physical activity opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension. (23227981)
2013
3
Interaction between Occupational Stress and GR Gene Polymorphisms on Essential Hypertension among Railway Workers. (23892638)
2013
4
Presence of mutation m.14484T>C in a Chinese family with maternally inherited essential hypertension but no expression of LHON. (22749828)
2012
5
Association between human cartilage glycoprotein 39 (YKL-40) and arterial stiffness in essential hypertension. (22642467)
2012
6
Effects of calcium channel blockers on glucose tolerance, inflammatory state, and circulating progenitor cells in non-diabetic patients with essential hypertension: a comparative study between azelnidipine and amlodipine on glucose tolerance and endothelial function--a crossover trial (AGENT). (21906391)
2011
7
Evolution, essential hypertension and the high arterial pressures in certain athletic breeds of dogs. (21482395)
2011
8
Recapitulation of two genomewide association studies on blood pressure and essential hypertension in the Korean population. (20414254)
2010
9
Association of the TGF-beta1 gene polymorphisms and blood TGF-beta 1 level with essential hypertension in Kazakh Chinese]. (20677160)
2010
10
A potential regulatory single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter of the Klotho gene may be associated with essential hypertension in the Chinese Han population. (20005218)
2010
11
Genetic variants of beta(1)-adrenoceptor gene polymorphisms (Ser49Gly and Arg389Gly) and essential hypertension in a south Indian Tamil population. (19673943)
2009
12
Retinol-binding protein-4 in women with untreated essential hypertension. (19556974)
2009
13
Association of genetic variations of prostasin gene with the essential hypertension in Xinjiang Kazakhs]. (20078940)
2009
14
Association of tryptophan hydroxylase gene A218C and serotonin transporter gene polymorphism with essential hypertension in Chinese northern Han population]. (19961731)
2009
15
Independent association of circulating resistin with glomerular filtration rate in the early stages of essential hypertension. (19262583)
2009
16
Comparative transcriptome analysis of human aorta atherosclerotic lesions and peripheral blood leukocytes from essential hypertension patients]. (19772500)
2009
17
The 677 C/T MTHFR polymorphism is associated with essential hypertension, coronary artery disease, and higher homocysteine levels. (18068006)
2008
18
Association between prostaglandin E2 receptor gene and essential hypertension. (17644362)
2007
19
Association between the +491C/T polymorphism of beta2-adrenergic receptor gene and risk of essential hypertension in Kazakns of Xinjiang]. (17963627)
2007
20
Effects of valsartan and indapamide on plasma cytokines in essential hypertension. (17062919)
2006
21
beta1-Adrenergic receptor polymorphisms influence the response to metoprolol monotherapy in patients with essential hypertension. (16815314)
2006
22
Effect of interleukin 8 and ICAM-1 on calcium-dependent outflow of K+ in erythrocytes from subjects with essential hypertension. (14741067)
2004
23
Alpha-adducin Gly460Trp polymorphism and essential hypertension in Korea. (15608390)
2004
24
Tibetan patients with essential hypertension caused by underlying oxidative metabolism dysfunction and depressed nitric oxide synthesis. (12775254)
2003
25
An association of BMI with A (-6) G, M235T and T174M polymorphisms in angiotensinogen gene in essential hypertension. (12037699)
2002
26
Essential hypertension and beta2-adrenergic receptor gene: linkage and association analysis. (12215468)
2002
27
A study of the hereditary susceptibility of HLA-DQA1 to essential hypertension, athrothrombotic brain infarction and lacunar stroke]. (11798899)
2001
28
Dopamine D1 receptor gene polymorphism is associated with essential hypertension. (10948075)
2000
29
Adrenomedullin and membrane fluidity of erythrocytes in mild essential hypertension. (10067789)
1999
30
Improvement of insulin resistance in essential hypertension by long-acting Ca antagonist benidipine. (10574416)
1999
31
Increased plasma proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide in patients with essential hypertension. (10505213)
1999
32
Candesartan cilexetil. A review of its use in essential hypertension. (9829158)
1998
33
Effect of the vasodilatory beta-blocker, nipradilol, and Ca-antagonist, barnidipine, on insulin sensitivity in patients with essential hypertension. (9764719)
1998
34
Is insulin action a determinant of left ventricular relaxation in uncomplicated essential hypertension? (9222942)
1997
35
Bisoprolol and captopril effects on insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity in essential hypertension. (9443770)
1997
36
Corticosteroids in essential hypertension: multiple candidate loci and phenotypic variation. (8713673)
1996
37
Urinary excretion rate of endothelin-1 in patients with essential hypertension and salt sensitivity. (8164445)
1994
38
Effects of an oral prostaglandin E1 agonist on blood pressure and its determinants in essential hypertension. (7932515)
1994
39
Insulin-like growth factor I and collagen type III synthesis in patients with essential hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. (7807509)
1994
40
Renal effects of atrial natriuretic peptide during dopa-decarboxylase inhibition in patients with essential hypertension. (8359177)
1993
41
Hormones regulating volume and electrolytes of sweat in patients with essential hypertension. Effect of thermal dehydration and treatment with captopril]. (8230993)
1993
42
Effects of an orally active renin inhibitor, Ro 42-5892, in patients with essential hypertension. (8512659)
1993
43
The effect of angiotensin II on platelet intracellular free magnesium and calcium ionic concentrations in essential hypertension. (8390527)
1993
44
Insulin resistance and essential hypertension: pathophysiologic and therapeutic implications. (1593308)
1992
45
Serum insulin, insulin sensitivity, and erythrocyte sodium metabolism in normotensive and essential hypertensive subjects with and without overweight. (2065466)
1991
46
Abnormal tubular handling of sodium and water induced by atrial natriuretic peptide in essential hypertension. (1829753)
1991
47
Increase of circulating levels of insulin and C-peptide: common factors in essential hypertension and overweight]. (2093360)
1990
48
Treatment of benign essential hypertension with frusemide in different doses. (7001489)
1980
49
Successful twin pregnancy after treatment of malignant essential hypertension. (13572832)
1958
50
Cortisone and ACTH in essential hypertension; establishment of renal glycosuria. (14818448)
1951

Variations for Essential Hypertension

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1 National Center for Biotechnology Information (Clinvar)
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Clinvar genetic disease variations for Essential Hypertension:

1
id Gene Name Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1PTGISPTGIS, IVS9, T-C, +2single nucleotide variantPathogenic/card/essential_hypertension

Expression for genes affiliated with Essential Hypertension

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2BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
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Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Essential Hypertension

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Essential Hypertension.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Essential Hypertension

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50PathCards, 51PharmGKB, 60Thomson Reuters, 55Reactome, 38NCBI BioSystems Database, 30KEGG, 53QIAGEN
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Pathways related to Essential Hypertension according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 11)
idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
110.3ADM, ADRB1
2
Show member pathways
Development Beta adrenergic receptors regulation of ERK60
G protein signaling G Protein alpha s signaling cascades60
G protein signaling G Protein beta gamma signaling cascades60
10.2GNB3, ADRB1, ADD1
310.2WNK4, ADD1, NEDD4L
410.2ADM, ADRB1, GNB3
5
Show member pathways
10.2GNB3, UTS2, AGT, AGTR1
6
Show member pathways
10.2GNB3, REN, ACE, AGT
7
Show member pathways
10.1AGTR1, AGT, ACE, REN, CYP11B2
8
Show member pathways
10.0GNB3, UTS2, REN, ACE, AGT, AGTR1
9
Show member pathways
10.0GOSR2, GNB3, ADD1, REN, ACE, AGT
10
Show member pathways
10.0GNB3, ADRB1, ADM, UTS2, AGT, AGTR1
11
Show member pathways
9.9GNB3, NEDD4L, ADRB1, ADM, UTS2, AGT

Compounds for genes affiliated with Essential Hypertension

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45Novoseek, 11DrugBank, 29IUPHAR, 51PharmGKB, 24HMDB, 61Tocris Bioscience
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Compounds related to Essential Hypertension according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show top 50)    (show all 163)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1aliskiren45 1111.6AGT, ACE, REN, AGTR1
2saralasin4510.5AGT, ACE, REN, AGTR1
3eprosartan45 29 1112.5REN, ACE, AGT, AGTR1
4lisinopril45 51 24 1113.5REN, AGTR1, AGT, NPPA, ACE
5cilazapril45 1111.5AGTR1, NPPA, REN, ACE
6perindopril45 51 1112.5REN, ACE, NPPA, AGT, AGTR1
7trandolapril45 1111.5REN, ACE, NPPA, AGTR1
8irbesartan45 29 51 1113.5ACE, CYP11B2, REN, AGT, AGTR1
9olmesartan45 29 1112.5AGTR1, AGT, ACE, REN
10candesartan45 51 29 1113.5AGTR1, AGT, CYP11B2, REN, ACE
11amlodipine45 51 24 1113.5ACE, AGTR1, AGT, NPPA, REN
12eplerenone45 61 29 1113.5AGTR1, CYP11B2, REN, ACE
13enalapril45 51 1112.5REN, ACE, NPPA, AGT, AGTR1
14fosinopril45 1111.4REN, ACE, NPPA, AGTR1
15bisoprolol45 51 1112.4ACE, REN, NPPA, ADRB1
16omapatrilat4510.4NPPA, ADM, REN, ACE
17thiazide4510.4ACE, WNK4, GNB3, AGTR1, ADD1, REN
18enalaprilat4510.4REN, AGT, ACE, NPPA
19furosemide45 61 29 51 24 1115.4AGTR1, NPPA, ACE, REN, GNB3, ADD1
20quinapril45 51 1112.4AGTR1, ACE, REN, NPPA
21spironolactone45 61 29 51 1114.4CYP11B2, ADD1, REN, ACE, NPPA, AGTR1
22benazepril45 51 1112.4NPPA, AGT, AGTR1, ACE, PRCP, REN
23atenolol45 51 29 24 1114.4ADRB1, GNB3, CYP11B2, AGTR1, AGT, REN
24nitroglycerin45 1111.4GNB3, ACE, REN, ADM, PTGIS, AGTR1
25captopril45 61 51 29 1114.4ADM, NPPA, AGT, ACE, ECE1, AGTR1
26carvedilol45 51 29 1113.3ADRB1, ADM, REN, NPPA, AGTR1, ACE
27phenylephrine45 29 24 1113.3NPPA, AGT, AGTR1, UTS2, ADM, ADRB1
28ang ii4510.3ACE, NPPA, REN, ADM, CYP11B2, AGTR1
29losartan45 51 29 1113.3REN, ACE, ADM, NPPA, AGT, CYP11B2
30hydrochlorothiazide45 29 51 24 1114.3AGTR1, CYP11B2, NEDD4L, AGT, ACE, REN
31catecholamine4510.3NPPA, AGTR1, PNMT, REN, ADM, ADRB1
32clonidine45 51 29 1113.3REN, AGTR1, PNMT, ADRB1, GNB3
33metoprolol45 51 29 24 1114.3REN, ADRB1, ACE, NPPA
34nifedipine45 29 51 1113.3REN, AGT, AGTR1, CYP11B2, ACE, NPPA
35prostacyclin4510.3ACE, ECE1, PTGIS, ADM, REN, NPPA
36epinephrine45 24 1112.2ADM, PNMT, GNB3, AGTR1, ADRB1, NPPA
37kininogen4510.2NPPA, PRCP, REN, KLKB1, ACE
38ramipril45 1111.2AGTR1, NPPA, REN, ACE
39isoproterenol45 1111.1ADM, AGT, AGTR1, NPPA, REN, ADRB1
40chymostatin4510.1ACE, AGTR1, REN, AGT
41prostaglandin4510.1REN, PTGIS, NPPA, AGT, AGTR1, ADM
42cholesterol45 29 24 1113.0ADD1, PTGIS, GNB3, CYP11B2, ADM, REN
43norepinephrine45 24 1111.9AGTR1, AGT, NPPA, KLKB1, ACE, REN
44glucose459.9GNB3, AGTR1, ADD1, ADRB1, CYP11B2, ADM
45potassium45 24 1111.9GNB3, CYP11B2, ADRB1, ADD1, AGTR1, AGT
46forskolin45 51 1111.9ADRB1, ADM, REN, NPPA, AGT, AGTR1
47lipid459.9GNB3, ACE, UTS2, ADM, ADD1, ADRB1
48thiorphan45 29 1111.8ACE, ECE1, ADM, NPPA
49nitric oxide45 24 1111.8ADRB1, GNB3, AGTR1, AGT, NPPA, ECE1
50sodium45 2410.7WNK4, REN, UTS2, ADM, ADD1, ADRB1

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Essential Hypertension

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16Gene Ontology
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Cellular components related to Essential Hypertension according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1extracellular regionGO:0055769.9UTS2, REN, ACE, KLKB1, NPPA, AGT
2extracellular spaceGO:0056159.7AGT, PTGIS, ADM, UTS2, REN, ACE
3plasma membraneGO:0058869.4ECE1, GNB3, NEDD4L, ADRB1, ADD1, PRCP

Biological processes related to Essential Hypertension according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 31)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1positive regulation of NAD(P)H oxidase activityGO:03386410.7AGT, AGTR1
2regulation of blood vessel size by renin-angiotensinGO:00203410.7AGT, AGTR1
3regulation of renal sodium excretionGO:03581310.7AGTR1, AGT
4regulation of renal output by angiotensinGO:00201910.7ACE, AGT
5hormone catabolic processGO:04244710.7ECE1, ACE
6renin-angiotensin regulation of aldosterone productionGO:00201810.7REN, AGT, AGTR1
7cellular sodium ion homeostasisGO:00688310.7NEDD4L, AGT
8positive regulation of cation channel activityGO:200125910.6NEDD4L, ADRB1
9regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by renin-angiotensinGO:00308110.6ACE, AGTR1
10angiotensin maturationGO:00200310.6AGT, ACE, REN
11positive regulation of cholesterol esterificationGO:01087310.6AGTR1, AGT
12negative regulation of systemic arterial blood pressureGO:00308510.6NEDD4L, NPPA
13negative regulation of urine volumeGO:03581110.6ADRB1, UTS2
14low-density lipoprotein particle remodelingGO:03437410.6AGTR1, AGT
15regulation of vasoconstrictionGO:01922910.6AGTR1, AGT, ACE, ECE1
16regulation of vasodilationGO:04231210.6AGTR1, ACE
17positive regulation of cellular protein metabolic processGO:03227010.6AGT, AGTR1
18response to coldGO:00940910.6AGT, ADM, ADRB1
19kidney developmentGO:00182210.6REN, ACE, AGT, AGTR1
20positive regulation of endocytosisGO:04580710.5ADD1, NEDD4L
21positive regulation of angiogenesisGO:04576610.5PTGIS, ADD1, ADM, UTS2
22positive regulation of heart rateGO:01046010.5ADM, UTS2
23response to salt stressGO:00965110.4NEDD4L, AGT
24regulation of blood pressureGO:00821710.4NPPA, GNB3, UTS2, REN, ACE, ACSM3
25cellular protein metabolic processGO:04426710.4GOSR2, ADD1, REN, ACE, AGT
26positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentrationGO:00720410.4ADM, UTS2, AGTR1
27positive regulation of macrophage derived foam cell differentiationGO:01074410.4AGTR1, AGT
28agingGO:00756810.3AGT, ADM, ADRB1
29regulation of calcium ion transportGO:05192410.3AGT, ADRB1
30blood coagulation, intrinsic pathwayGO:00759710.2KLKB1, PRCP
31response to hypoxiaGO:0016669.9ADM, UTS2, NPPA

Molecular functions related to Essential Hypertension according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1bradykinin receptor bindingGO:03171110.2AGTR1, ACE
2hormone activityGO:00517910.1AGT, NPPA, UTS2, ADM
3receptor bindingGO:0051029.8ADM, UTS2, REN, NPPA
4protein bindingGO:0055159.6PTGIS, NEDD4L, ADRB1, ADM, PRCP, WNK4

Products for genes affiliated with Essential Hypertension

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Sources for Essential Hypertension

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4CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
29IUPHAR
30KEGG
35MeSH
36MESH via Orphanet
37MGI
40NCIt
41NDF-RT
44NINDS
45Novoseek
47OMIM
48OMIM via Orphanet
52PubMed
53QIAGEN
59SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
62UMLS
63UMLS via Orphanet