MCID: FCL022
MIFTS: 44

Focal Dystonia malady

Categories: Rare diseases, Neuronal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Focal Dystonia

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Aliases & Descriptions for Focal Dystonia:

Name: Focal Dystonia 10 45 47 12 65
Ftsd 45 23
Dystonia, Focal, Task-Specific 65
Focal Task-Specific Dystonia 23
Focal Task Specific Dystonia 45
 
Task-Specific Focal Dystonia 23
Task-Specific Dystonia 23
Occupational Dystonia 23
Focal Hand Dystonia 23
Occupational Cramp 23

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology10 DOID:0050836
UMLS65 C0743332, C1969807

Summaries for Focal Dystonia

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NIH Rare Diseases:45 Focal dystonia is a movement disorder that is localized to a specific part of the body. the dystonias are a group of movement problems characterized by involuntary, sustained muscle contractions, tremors, and other uncontrolled movements. focal task-specific dystonia, or ftsd, interferes with the performance of particular tasks, such as writing, playing a musical instrument, or participating in a sport. additionally, ftsd has been reported in tailors, shoemakers, hair stylists, and people who frequently type or use a computer mouse. while the abnormal movements associated with focal dystonia are usually painless, they can cause high levels of anxiety. the causes of focal dystonia are unknown, although the disorder likely results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. it is possible that the different forms of ftsd have different underlying causes. researchers have found that at least some cases are related to malfunction of the basal ganglia, which are structures deep within the brain that help start and control movement. most cases of focal dystonia are sporadic, which means they occur in people with no history of the condition in their family. however, at least 10 percent of affected individuals have a family history which seems to follow an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. last updated: 9/11/2013

MalaCards based summary: Focal Dystonia, also known as ftsd, is related to spasmodic dystonia and oculogyric crisis, and has symptoms including dystonia, limb, dystonia, paroxysmal and dystonia. An important gene associated with Focal Dystonia is TOR1A (Torsin Family 1 Member A), and among its related pathways is Dopamine-DARPP32 Feedback onto cAMP Pathway. Affiliated tissues include brain, t cells and cortex.

Disease Ontology:10 A dystonia that is localized to a specific part of the body.

Genetics Home Reference:23 Task-specific focal dystonia is a movement disorder that interferes with the performance of particular tasks, such as writing, playing a musical instrument, or participating in a sport. Dystonias are a group of movement problems characterized by involuntary, sustained muscle contractions, tremors, and other uncontrolled movements. The term "focal" refers to a type of dystonia that affects a single part of the body, such as the hand or jaw.

Wikipedia:68 Focal dystonia is a neurological condition that affects a muscle or group of muscles in a specific part... more...

Related Diseases for Focal Dystonia

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Diseases related to Focal Dystonia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 72)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1spasmodic dystonia30.3THAP1, TOR1A
2oculogyric crisis30.0DRD5, THAP1, TOR1A
3focal hand dystonia29.8CIZ1, DRD5, GNAL, TOR1A
4cranio-facial dystonia29.5ANO3, GNAL, THAP1, TOR1A
5autosomal dominant focal dystonia, dyt2512.0
6dystonia10.9
7cervical dystonia10.6
8blepharospasm10.5
9limb reduction defect10.4TIMM8A, TOR1A
10spastic angina with healthy coronary artery10.3THAP1, TOR1A
11phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase superactivity10.3ANO3, TIMM8A
12focal dystonia10.3THAP1, TOR1A
13hemifacial spasm10.1
14blepharospasm, primary benign10.1
15dystonia 2410.1
16dystonia 2510.1
17partington syndrome10.1
18oromandibular dystonia10.1
19hypochondriasis10.1SGCE, TBP
20chorioangioma10.1DRD2, DRD5
21ataxia10.0
22acute dacryocystitis9.9DRD2, DRD5
23prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma9.9DRD2, DRD5
24cerebritis9.9
25tremor9.9
26dystonia-1, torsion9.9
27sleep apnea9.9SGCE, THAP1, TOR1A
28myopathy - thyrotoxic9.9DRD2, SGCE
29cervicitis9.9
30long qt syndrome-119.8DRD2, SGCE, TOR1A
31central nervous system hereditary degenerative disease9.8DRD2, SGCE, TOR1A
32bladder disease9.8DRD2, DRD5, GNAL
33osteogenesis imperfecta, type ix9.8DRD2, DRD5, SGCE
34cerebellar ataxia9.7
35spinocerebellar ataxia 179.7
36obsessive-compulsive disorder9.7
37wilson disease9.7
38creutzfeldt-jakob disease9.7
39mohr-tranebjaerg syndrome9.7
40brain injury9.7
41spinal stenosis9.7
42traumatic brain injury9.7
43restless legs syndrome9.7
44vitamin b12 deficiency9.7
45scoliosis9.7
46idiopathic scoliosis9.7
47siderosis9.7
48focal epilepsy9.7
49kallmann syndrome9.7
50ulnar neuropathy9.7

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Focal Dystonia:



Diseases related to focal dystonia

Symptoms for Focal Dystonia

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UMLS symptoms related to Focal Dystonia:


dystonia, limb, dystonia, paroxysmal, dystonia

Drugs & Therapeutics for Focal Dystonia

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Drugs for Focal Dystonia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 39)
idNameStatusPhaseClinical TrialsCas NumberPubChem Id
1
RopivacaineapprovedPhase 465084057-95-471273, 175805
Synonyms:
(2S)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-1-propylpiperidine-2-carboxamide
(2S)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-1-propylpiperidine-2-carboxamide hydrochloride
(S)-(−)-1-propyl-2',6'-pipecoloxylidide
(S)-ropivacaine
84057-95-4
98717-15-8
AC1L41QM
AC1L41QN
BIDD:GT0203
C07532
C17H26N2O.HCl
CHEBI:8890
CHEMBL1077896
CID175804
CID175805
CPD000469137
D08490
I14-176
L-N-n-propylpipecolic acid-2,6-xylidide
LS-113954
 
MLS001401363
MolPort-003-983-292
NCGC00164597-01
Naropin
Naropin (TN)
ROPIVACAINE HCl
Ropivacaina
Ropivacaina [INN-Spanish]
Ropivacaina [Spanish]
Ropivacaine
Ropivacaine Hydrochloride
Ropivacaine [INN]
Ropivacaine hydrochloride
Ropivacaine monohydrochloride
Ropivacainum
Ropivacainum [INN-Latin]
S-Ropivacaine
SAM001246524
SMR000469137
ST51051452
ropivacaine monohydrochloride,
ropivacaine monohydrochloride, (S)-isomer
2
IbuprofenapprovedPhase 445615687-27-13672
Synonyms:
(+-)-2-(P-Isobutylphenyl)propionic acid
(+-)-Ibuprofen
(+-)-P-Isobutylhydratropic acid
(+-)-alpha-Methyl-4-(2-methylpropyl)benzeneacetic acid
(4-Isobutylphenyl)-alpha-methylacetic acid
(RS)-ibuprofen
139466-08-3
15687-27-1
2-(4-Isobutylphenyl)propanoic acid
4-Isobutylhydratropic acid
58560-75-1
7 Select Childrens Ibuprofen
7 Select Ibuprofen
AC-11312
AC1L1GGE
AC1Q1P84
AC1Q1P85
ACHES-N-PAIN
ARONIS23835
Act-3
Actiprofen
Adex 200
Adran
Advil
Advil (TN)
Advil Liqui-Gels
Advil Liquigels
Advil Migraine
Ak+C2278tren
Alaxan
Algofen
Am-Fam 400
Amelior
Amersol
Amibufen
Anafen
Anco
Andran
Anflagen
Antagil
Antalfene
Antarene
Antiflam
Apo-Ibuprofen
Aprofen REGULAR STRENGTH
Apsifen
Apsifen-F
Artofen
Artril
Artril 300
BB_SC-1358
BIDD:GT0050
BRN 2049713
Babies R Us Ibuprofen
Babies R Us Infants Ibuprofen
Balkaprofen
Being Well Ibuprofen
Betaprofen
Bloom
Bluton
Brofen
Brufanic
Brufen
Brufen 400
Bruflam
Brufort
Buburone
Bufeno
Bufigen
Bukrefen
Bupron
Buracaps
Burana
Butylenin
C01588
C13H18O2
CCRIS 3223
CHEBI:5855
CHEMBL521
CID3672
CPD000058184
Caldolor
Cap-Profen
Care One Ibuprofen
Care One Ibuprofen Ib
Care One Ibuprofen Junior Strength
Care One Ibuprofen childrens
Care One Ibuprofen infants
Careone Ibuprofen Junior Strength
Carol
Cedaprin
Cesra
Children's Advil
Children's Elixsure
Children's Ibuprofen
Children's Motrin
Childrens Advil
Childrens Ibuprofen
Childrens Ibuprofen 100 Dye Free
Childrens Ibuprofen Oral Suspension
Childrens Motrin
Circle K Ibuprofen
Citalgan
Clear Choice Ibuprofen
Cobo
Codral
Combiflam
Conney Ibuprofen
Counteract IB
Cunil
Cvs Pharmacy Ibuprofen
D00126
D007052
DB01050
DOLO PUREN
Daiprophen
Dalsy
Dansida
Deep Relief
Dentigoa
Dg Health Ibuprofen
Dibufen
Dignoflex
Direct Safety Ibuprofen
Dolex
Dolgin
Dolgirid
Dolgit
Dolibu
Dolmaral
Dolo-Dolgit
Dolo-dolgit
Dolocyl
Dolofen
Dolofen-F
Dolofin
Dolofort
Dologel
Dolomax
Doloren
Dolormin
Doltibil
Dolven
Donjust B
Dorival
Dover Addaprin
Drin
Duafen
Duobrus
Dura-Ibu
Duralbuprofen
Dye Free Ibuprofen
Dysdolen
EU-0100691
Easifon
Ebufac
Emflam
Emflam-200
Emodin
Epobron
Eputex
Equaline Childrens Ibuprofen
Equaline Ibuprofen
Equaline Ibuprofen childrens
Equate Ibuprofen
Equate Ibuprofen childrens
Ergix
Esprenit
Exneural
Family Wellness Childrens Ibuprofen
Faspic
Femadon
Femafen
Femapirin
Femidol
Fenbid
Fenbid Spansule
Fendol
Fenspan
Fibraflex
Film Coated Ibuprofen
Formu Care Ibuprofen
Formu Care Ibuprofen childrens
Fulton Street Market Ibuprofen
Gelufene
Gofen
Good Neighbor Pharmacy Childrens Ibuprofen
Good Neighbor Pharmacy Ibuprofen
Good Neighbor Pharmacy Ibuprofen childrens
Good Sense Childrens Ibuprofen Oral Suspension
Good Sense Ibuprofen
Good Sense Ibuprofen Childrens
Good Sense Ibuprofen childrens
Good Sense Ibuprofen infants
Green Guard Ibupro Relief
Green Guard Ibuprofen Relief
Grefen
Gynofug
HMS1920F15
HMS2089P05
HMS2091N03
HMS502M09
HSDB 3099
Haltran
Harmon Face Values Ibuprofen
Health Mart Childrens Ibuprofen
Health Mart Ibuprofen
Health Mart Ibuprofen Ib
Health Sense Infants Ibuprofen Oral Suspension
Health Sense Provil
Healthy Accents Ibuprofen
Healthy Accents Ibuprofen childrens
Healthy Accents Ibuprofen infants
Help I Have An Aching Body
Henry Schein Ibuprofen
I 4883
I01-7039
I0415
I4883_SIGMA
I7905_SIAL
IB-100
IDI1_000887
IP 82
IP-82
IP82
Ibol
Ibren
Ibu
Ibu-Attritin
Ibu-Slo
Ibu-Tab
Ibu-Tab 200
Ibu-attritin
Ibu-slo
Ibu-slow
Ibubest
Ibubeta
Ibucasen
Ibudol
Ibudolor
Ibufen
Ibuflamar
Ibufug
Ibugel
Ibugen
Ibugesic
Ibuhexal
 
Ibulagic
Ibular
Ibulav
Ibuleve
Ibulgan
Ibumed
Ibumerck
Ibumetin
Ibupirac
Ibuprin
Ibuprocin
Ibuprofen
Ibuprofen (NSAID) Pain Releiver/ Fever Reducer
Ibuprofen (nsaid) Pain Reliever/fever Reducer
Ibuprofen 200
Ibuprofen Caplet
Ibuprofen Childrens
Ibuprofen Dye-Free
Ibuprofen IMMEDIATE RELEASE
Ibuprofen Ib
Ibuprofen Immediate release
Ibuprofen Infants
Ibuprofen Junior
Ibuprofen Junior Strength
Ibuprofen Pain Releiver/ Fever Reducer
Ibuprofen Pain Reliever/ Fever Reducer
Ibuprofen Pain Reliever/Fever Reducer
Ibuprofen Pain Reliever/fever Reducer
Ibuprofen Softgels
Ibuprofen childrens
Ibuprofen infants
Ibuprofen junior strength
Ibuprofene
Ibuprofeno
Ibuprofenum
Ibuprohm
Ibuprophen
Ibusal
Ibutab
Ibutid
Ifen
Inabrin
Infants Advil
Infants Dye-free Ibuprofen
Infants Ibuprofen
Infants Motrin
Inflam
Inoven
Ipren
Irfen
Isodol
Jenaprofen
Junifen
Junior Strength Advil
Junior Strength Ibuprofen
Junior Strength Motrin
KBio1_000887
KBio2_001329
KBio2_003897
KBio2_006465
KBio3_001390
Kesan
Kirkland Signature Ibuprofen
Kirkland Signature Ibuprofen Ib
Kratalgin
LS-7454
Lamidon
Leader Childrens Ibuprofen
Leader Ibuprofen
Leader Ibuprofen 200
Leader Ibuprofen Childrens
Leader Ibuprofen Infants
Lebrufen
Librofem
Lidifen
Lil Drug Store Ibuprofen
Liptan
Lopane
MLS000069733
MLS001146965
Major Childrens Ibuprofen
Malafene
Manypren
Medi-first Ibuprofen
Medi-first Plus Ibuprofen
Medipren
Medique Iprin
Melfen
Mensoton
Midol
Midol 200
Moment
Moore Medical Llc Ibuprofen
Motrin
Motrin (TN)
Motrin IB
Motrin Ib
Motrin Infants
Mynosedin
NCI60_002065
NINDS_000887
NSC 256857
NSC256857
Nagifen-D
Napacetin
Narfen
Neo-Helvagit
Neo-Mindol
NeoProfen
Neobrufen
Neoprofen
Nerofen
Noalgil
Nobafon
Nobfelon
Nobfen
Nobgen
Noritis
Norton
Novadol
Novo-Profen
Novogent
Novogent N
Novoprofen
Nuprilan
Nuprin
Nurofen
Optifen
Opturem
Oralfene
Ostarin
Ostofen
Otis Clapp Ultraprin
Ozonol
P-Isobutylhydratropic Acid
Paduden
Pain Relief
Pain Relief Anti Inflammatory
Pain Relief Ibuprofen
Panafen
Pantrop
Para-Isobutylhydratropic Acid
Paxofen
Pedia-Profen
PediaProfen
Pediacare Childrens
Pediacare Infants
Pediaprofen
Pediatric Advil
Perofen
Perrigo Ibuprofen
Physicianscare Ibuprofen
Preferred Plus Ibuprofen
Preferred Plus Ibuprofen 200
Proartinal
Probufen
Profen
Profen Ib
Profen Ib childrens
Profen Ib infants
Proflex
Proprinal
Provon
Quadrax
Quality Choice Ibuprofen 200
R.D. 13621
RD 13621
Rafen
Ranofen
Rebugen
Relcofen
Rexall Ibuprofen
Rhinadvil
Rofen
Roidenin
Rufen
Rufin
Rupan
Rx Act Ibuprofen
Rx Act Ibuprofen childrens
SAM002264619
SMR000058184
SPBio_000178
STK177358
Sadefen
Salivia
Salprofen
Seclodin
Sednafen
Seklodin
Seskafen
Shoprite Childrens Ibuprofen
Shoprite Ibuprofen
Shoprite Ibuprofen Ib
Shoprite Ibuprophen
Shoprite Infants Ibuprofen
Simply Right Ibuprofen
Siyafen
Smart Sense Ibuprofen
Smart Sense Ibuprofen gluten free
Smart Sense Ibuprofen infants
Solpaflex
Solufen
Stelar
Sugafen
Sunmark Ibuprofen
Sunmark Ibuprofen Ib
Sunmark Ibuprofen childrens
Sunmark Ibuprofen infants
Suprafen
Suspren
Syntofene
TL8001184
Tab-Profen
Tabalon
Tabalon 400
Tatanal
Tempil
Tofen
Togal N
Tonal
Topcare Childrens Ibuprofen
Topcare Ibuprofen
Topcare Ibuprofen Junior Strength
Topcare Ibuprofen childrens
Topcare Infants Ibuprofen
Trendar
U 18573
U-18,573
U-18573
UCB 79171
Unipron
Upfen
Uprofen
Urem
VUFB 9649
Welby Health Ibuprofen
Zafen
Zofen
alpha-(4-Isobutylphenyl)propionate
alpha-(4-Isobutylphenyl)propionic acid
alpha-(P-Isobutylphenyl)propionic acid
alpha-p-Isobutylphenylpropionate
alpha-p-Isobutylphenylpropionic acid
ibuprofen
p-Isobutyl-2-phenylpropionate
p-Isobutyl-2-phenylpropionic acid
p-Isobutylhydratropate
p-Isobutylhydratropic acid
3
Fentanylapproved, illicit, investigationalPhase 4705437-38-73345
Synonyms:
1-Phenethyl-4-(N-phenylpropionamido)piperidine
1-Phenethyl-4-N-propionylanilinopiperidine
437-38-7
5-22-08-00049 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)
80832-90-2
990-73-8 (citrate)
AC1L1FQ2
Abstral
Actiq
BIDD:GT0555
BRN 0494484
CHEBI:119915
CHEMBL596
CID3345
D00320
DB00813
Duragesic
Duragesic (TN)
Duragesic-100
Duragesic-12
Duragesic-25
Duragesic-50
Duragesic-75
Durogesic
EINECS 207-113-6
Fentanest
Fentanil
Fentanil [DCIT]
Fentanila
Fentanila [INN-Spanish]
Fentanilo
Fentanyl
Fentanyl (JAN/USAN/INN)
Fentanyl - Novaplus
Fentanyl Citrate
Fentanyl [INN:BAN]
Fentanyl citrate
Fentanyl-100
 
Fentanyl-12
Fentanyl-25
Fentanyl-50
Fentanyl-75
Fentanylum
Fentanylum [INN-Latin]
HSDB 3329
IONSYS
JNS020QD
L001275
LS-124439
Lazanda
Matrifen
MolPort-003-847-369
N-(1-Phenethyl-4-piperidinyl)-N-phenylpropionamide
N-(1-Phenethyl-4-piperidyl)propionanilide
N-(1-Phenethyl-piperidin-4-yl)-N-phenyl-propionamide
N-(1-Phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-phenylpropionamide
N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-phenylpropanamide
N-Phenethyl-4-(N-propionylanilino)piperidine
N-Phenyl-N-(1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl)propanamide
N-phenyl-N-[1-(2-phenylethyl)piperidin-4-yl]propanamide
NCGC00168252-01
Nasalfent
Oprea1_152073
Oprea1_207148
PDSP1_000860
PDSP2_000846
Pentanyl
Phentanyl
Propanamide, N-phenyl-N-(1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl)- (9CI)
R 4263
Rapinyl
Sentonil
Sublimase
Sublimaze
Subsys
UNII-UF599785JZ
fentanyl
4
AcetylcholineexperimentalPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2, Phase 168951-84-3187
Synonyms:
ACh
Acetyl choline ion
Acetylcholine Chloride
Acetylcholine cation
 
Acetylcholinium: acetyl-Choline
Choline acetate
Choline acetate (ester)
Miochol E
O-Acetylcholine
acetylcholine chloride
5RimabotulinumtoxinBPhase 413
6AbobotulinumtoxinAPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2588
7Peripheral Nervous System AgentsPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 218510
8OnabotulinumtoxinAPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2588
9Cholinergic AgentsPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2, Phase 13243
10Botulinum Toxins, Type APhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2588
11Botulinum ToxinsPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2, Phase 1616
12IncobotulinumtoxinAPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2599
13Neurotransmitter AgentsPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2, Phase 114795
14Neuromuscular AgentsPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2922
15Central Nervous System DepressantsPhase 410016
16NarcoticsPhase 42709
17Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-SteroidalPhase 43549
18Cyclooxygenase InhibitorsPhase 42225
19Antirheumatic AgentsPhase 48496
20AnalgesicsPhase 49358
21Anti-Inflammatory AgentsPhase 48478
22Analgesics, OpioidPhase 42304
23Analgesics, Non-NarcoticPhase 45184
24Anesthetics, GeneralPhase 42274
25Anesthetics, IntravenousPhase 41943
26AnestheticsPhase 47385
27
MexiletineapprovedPhase 21931828-71-44178
Synonyms:
(+-)-1-(2,6-Dimethylphenoxy)propan-2-amine
(+-)-1-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)propan-2-amine
(2RS)-1-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)-2-aminopropane
1-(2',6'-Dimethylphenoxy)-2-aminopropane
1-(2,6-Dimethylphenoxy)-2-propanamine
1-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)propan-2-amine
1-Methyl-2-(2,6-xylyloxy)ethanamine
1-Methyl-2-(2,6-xylyloxy)ethylamine
1-methyl-2-(2,6-xylyloxy)ethanamine
2-(2-Aminopropoxy)-1,3-DiMethyl-Benzene Hydrochloride
2-(2-aminopropoxy)-1,3-dimethylbenzene
31828-71-4
5370-01-4 (hydrochloride)
AB00053683
AC1L1HL7
AC1Q2BC5
AC1Q2BC6
BPBio1_000026
BRD-A64092382-003-04-3
BRN 2092205
BSPBio_000022
BSPBio_002254
C07220
CHEBI:115958
CHEBI:6916
CHEMBL558
CID4178
D08215
DB00379
DivK1c_000834
EINECS 250-825-7
I01-6374
IDI1_000834
KBio1_000834
KBio2_002082
KBio2_004650
KBio2_007218
 
KBio3_001474
KBioGR_001270
KBioSS_002082
KO-1173
KO1173
KOE-1173
LS-68257
Lopac0_000784
Mexiletene
Mexiletina
Mexiletina [INN-Spanish]
Mexiletine
Mexiletine (INN)
Mexiletine HCL
Mexiletine Hydrochloride
Mexiletine [INN:BAN]
Mexiletinum
Mexiletinum [INN-Latin]
Mexilitine
Mexilétine
Mexitil
Mexityl
MolPort-001-790-944
NCGC00015659-04
NCGC00162253-01
NCGC00162253-02
NINDS_000834
Prestwick0_000241
Prestwick1_000241
Prestwick2_000241
Prestwick3_000241
SBB070242
SPBio_002241
Spectrum3_000727
Spectrum4_000795
Spectrum5_001279
Spectrum_001602
UNII-1U511HHV4Z
28
AmlodipineapprovedPhase 244988150-42-92162
Synonyms:
()-Amlodipine
(RS)-3-ethyl 5-methyl 2-[(2-aminoethoxy)methyl]-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate
-3-(ethoxycarbonyl)-5-(methoxycarbonyl)-6-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine
2-[(2-Aminoethoxy)methyl]-4-(2-chlorophenyl)
3,5-Pyridinedicarboxylic acid, 2-((2-aminoethoxy)methyl)-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-6-methyl-, 3-ethyl 5-methyl ester
3,5-Pyridinedicarboxylic acid, 2-[(2-aminoethoxy)methyl]-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-6-methyl-, 3-ethyl 5-methyl ester
3-Ethyl 5-methylester, (±)-2-[(2-aminoethoxy)methyl]-4-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-6-methyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate
3-Ethyl-5-methyl ( -)-2-((2-aminoethoxy)methyl)-4-(2-chlorphenyl)-1,4-dihydro-6-methyl-3,5-pyridindicarboxylat
3-Ethyl-5-methyl ( -)-2-((2-aminoethoxymethyl)-4-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-6-methyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate
3-Ethyl-5-methyl (+-)-2-(2-aminoethoxymethyl)-4-(O-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-6-methyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate
3-Ethyl-5-methyl (+-)-2-(2-aminoethoxymethyl)-4-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-6-methyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate
3-Ethyl-5-methyl (.+/-.)-2-[(2-aminoethoxy)methyl]-4-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-6-methyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate
3-O-ethyl 5-O-methyl 2-(2-aminoethoxymethyl)-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate
3-ethyl 5-methyl 2-[(2-aminoethoxy)methyl]-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate
3-ethyl 5-methyl 2-{[(2-aminoethyl)oxy]methyl}-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate
88150-42-9
88150-47-4 (maleate (1:1))
AC-4535
AC1L1D26
AC1Q32ZS
AMLODIPINE BASE
AMVAZ
Ambap88150-42-9
Amlocard
Amlodipine
Amlodipine (INN)
Amlodipine Benzenesulfonate
Amlodipine Besilate
Amlodipine Besylate
Amlodipine Free Base
Amlodipine Maleate
Amlodipine [INN:BAN]
Amlodipine besilate
Amlodipine besylate
Amlodipine free base
Amlodipino
Amlodipino [Spanish]
Amlodipinum
Amlodipinum [Latin]
Amlodis
Amlopres
Amlor
 
Amvaz
BIDD:GT0810
BRD-A22032524-074-02-4
BRD-A22032524-074-03-2
BSPBio_002727
C06825
CHEBI:2668
CHEMBL1491
CID2162
CPD000469198
Coroval
D07450
DB00381
HMS2052N03
HMS2089H07
I14-0798
Intervask
Istin
KBio3_001947
KBioGR_001643
LS-131183
Lipinox
Lotrel
MLS001401409
MolPort-001-792-963
NCGC00165957-01
NCGC00165957-02
NCGC00165957-03
Norvasc
Norvasc (TN)
Pelmec
R,S)-Amlodipine
Racemic Amlodipine
SAM001246705
SMR000469198
SPBio_000351
Spectrum2_000486
Spectrum3_001004
Spectrum4_001132
Spectrum5_001550
UK-4834011
UNII-1J444QC288
amlodipine
29Diuretics, Potassium SparingPhase 21445
30Anti-Arrhythmia AgentsPhase 22371
31Sodium Channel BlockersPhase 21180
32calcium channel blockersPhase 21743
33Antihypertensive AgentsPhase 23618
34Calcium, DietaryPhase 24678
35Vasodilator AgentsPhase 22926
36
Flumazenilapproved2478755-81-43373
Synonyms:
4H-Imidazo(1,5-a)(1,4)benzodiazepine-3-carboxylic acid, 8-fluoro-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-, ethyl ester
78755-81-4
8-Fluoro-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester
AC-6846
AC1L1FSE
AC1Q33UE
Anexate
BIDD:GT0766
BPBio1_001190
BRD-K98769987-001-01-3
BRN 4763661
Biomol-NT_000285
C07825
C15H14FN3O3
CHEBI:5103
CHEMBL407
CID3373
CPD000058450
D005442
D00697
DB01205
EU-0100506
Ethyl 8-fluoro-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo(1,5-a)(1,4)benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate
Ethyl 8-fluoro-5-methyl-5,6-dihydro-6-oxo-4H-imidazo(1,5-a)(1,4)benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate
Ethyl 8-fluoro-5-methyl-6-oxo-5,6-dihydro-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate
F 6300
F6300_SIGMA
Flumazenil
Flumazenil (JAN/USP/INN)
Flumazenil [USAN:BAN:INN]
Flumazenilo
Flumazenilo [Spanish]
Flumazenilum
Flumazenilum [Latin]
Flumazepil
Flumazepil, Ro 15-1788, Anexate, Lanexat, Mazicon, Roma,Flumazenil
HMS2051D17
HMS2089B15
Hoffman La Roche Brand of Flumazenil
Hoffman-La Roche Brand of Flumazenil
I01-0379
 
LS-77778
Lanexat
Lopac-F-6300
Lopac0_000506
MLS000028850
MLS000759529
MLS001076354
Mazicon
MolPort-003-666-855
NCGC00015439-01
NCGC00015439-03
NCGC00015439-07
NCGC00025116-01
NCGC00025116-02
NCGC00025116-03
NCGC00025116-04
NCGC00025116-05
PDSP1_001778
PDSP2_001761
RO-151788
Ro 15 1788
Ro 15-1788
Ro 151788
Ro-15-1788
Ro-?15-1788
Ro15-1788
Roche Brand of Flumazenil
Romazicon
Romazicon (TN)
S1332_Selleck
SAM001246763
SBB063113
SMR000058450
TL8005362
Tocris-1328
UNII-40P7XK9392
UPCMLD-DP137
UPCMLD-DP137:001
ZINC00001464
[3H]Ro15-1788
ethyl 8-fluoro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate
flumazenil
nchembio747-comp37
37
Dopamineapproved308462-31-7, 51-61-6681
Synonyms:
(3H)-Dopamine
.Beta.-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine hydrochloride
.alpha.-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-.beta.-aminoethane
1,2-Benzenediol, 4-(2-aminoethyl)- (9CI)
1,2-Benzenediol, 4-(2-aminoethyl)-, hydrochloride
1,2-Benzenediol, 4-(2-aminoethyl)-, labeled with tritium
153C5321-5FEE-4B0B-8925-F388F0EEEBD1
2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine
2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine
2-benzenediol
3,4-Dihydroxyphenethylamine
3,4-Dihydroxyphenethylamine hydrochloride
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylethylamine
3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine
3-Hydroxtyramine
3-Hydroxytyramine
3-Hydroxytyramine Hydrobromide
3-Hydroxytyramine hydrochloride
4-(2-Aminoethyl)-1,
4-(2-Aminoethyl)-1,2-benzenediol
4-(2-Aminoethyl)-1,2-bezenediol
4-(2-Aminoethyl)-Pyrocatechol
4-(2-Aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol
4-(2-Aminoethyl)catechol
4-(2-Aminoethyl)pyrocatechol
4-(2-Aminoethyl)pyrocatechol hydrochloride
4-(2-aminoethyl)-pyrocatechol
50444-17-2
51-61-6
62-31-7 (HYDROCHLORIDE)
AC1L19S5
AC1Q54AX
AC1Q54AY
AKOS003790978
ASL 279
BIDD:ER0506
BPBio1_001123
BSPBio_001932
Biomol-NT_000001
C03758
CHEBI:18243
CHEMBL59
CID681
D07870
DB00988
Deoxyepinephrine
DivK1c_000780
Dopamin
Dopamina
Dopamina [INN-Spanish]
Dopamine
Dopamine (INN)
Dopamine (USAN)(*hydrochloride*)
Dopamine Hcl
Dopamine Hydrochloride
Dopamine [INN:BAN]
Dopaminum
Dopaminum [INN-Latin]
Dopastat
Dophamine
Dynatra
EINECS 200-110-0
HSDB 3068
Hydroxytyramin
Hydroxytyramine
IDI1_000780
IP 498
Intropin
Intropin [*hydrochloride*]
 
KBio1_000780
KBio2_001492
KBio2_002388
KBio2_002484
KBio2_004060
KBio2_004956
KBio2_005052
KBio2_006628
KBio2_007524
KBio2_007620
KBio3_001152
KBio3_002867
KBio3_002962
KBioGR_001129
KBioGR_002388
KBioGR_002484
KBioSS_001492
KBioSS_002393
KBioSS_002491
KW-3-060
L-DOPAMINE
L000232
LDP
LS-159
Lopac-H-8502
Lopac0_000586
Medopa (TN)
MolPort-001-641-000
NCGC00015519-01
NCGC00015519-08
NCGC00096050-01
NCGC00096050-02
NCGC00096050-03
NCGC00096050-04
NCGC00096050-05
NINDS_000780
NSC 173182
NSC169105
NSC173182
Oprea1_088821
Oxytyramine
Pyrocatechol, 4-(2-aminoethyl)- (8CI)
Pyrocatechol, 4-(2-aminoethyl)-, hydrochloride
Revimine
Revivan
SPBio_001205
SPECTRUM1505155
ST048774
STK301601
Spectrum2_001023
Spectrum3_000406
Spectrum4_000525
Spectrum5_000945
Spectrum_001012
UNII-VTD58H1Z2X
UPCMLD0ENAT5885989:001
a-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-b-aminoethane
alpha-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-beta-aminoethane
cMAP_000036
cMAP_000065
dopamine
hydroxytyramine
intropin
m-Hydroxytyramine hydrochloride
nchembio.105-comp9
nchembio.107-comp4
nchembio.284-comp1
nchembio.78-comp16
nchembio.89-comp3
nchembio705-8
nchembio801-comp8
38Protective Agents5651
39Dopamine Agents3084

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50)    (show all 56)
idNameStatusNCT IDPhase
1Quantifying Musical Performance After Treatment With Myobloc in Musician's DystoniaCompletedNCT00208091Phase 4
2Ultrasound Guided Intermediate Cervical Plexus Block for Congenital Muscular TorticollisNot yet recruitingNCT02651311Phase 4
3Comparison of Electrophysiologic and Ultrasound Guidance for Onabotulinum Toxin A Injections in Focal Upper Extremity Dystonia and SpasticityRecruitingNCT02326818Phase 3
4Amlodipine Plus Botulinum Toxin for Focal DystoniaCompletedNCT00015457Phase 2
5Mexiletine for the Treatment of Focal DystoniaCompletedNCT00001784Phase 2
6Motor Training to Treat Hand DystoniaCompletedNCT00021853Phase 2
7Brain Stimulation to Treat Blepharospasm or Meige SyndromeCompletedNCT00411255Phase 2
8A Study of Acetyl Hexapeptide-8 (AH8) in Treatment of BlepharospasmCompletedNCT00942851Phase 1, Phase 2
9Dystonia Synergistic InterventionCompletedNCT01738581Phase 1, Phase 2
10Transcranial Electrical Polarization to Treat Focal Hand DystoniaCompletedNCT00106782Phase 2
11Incobotulinum Toxin A (Xeomin®) As A Treatment For Focal Task-Specific Dystonia Of The Musician's HandRecruitingNCT02107261Phase 2
12Pilot Trial of Botulinum Toxin and Occupational Therapy for Writer's CrampEnrolling by invitationNCT02015039Phase 1, Phase 2
13Safety and Tolerability of Perampanel in Cervical DystoniaNot yet recruitingNCT02131467Phase 1, Phase 2
14Acetyl Hexapeptide-8 for BlepharospasmTerminatedNCT01750346Phase 2
15Motor and Premotor Cortex Stimulation for Treatment of Secondary Focal Dystonia With Striato Palliadal Lesion : Evaluation of Safety and EffectivenessCompletedNCT00505323Phase 1
16Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for the Treatment of Focal Hand DystoniaCompletedNCT01884064Phase 1
17Magnetic Resonance (MR) Guided Functional Ultrasound-Neurosurgery for Movement DisordersCompletedNCT01698450Phase 1
18Survey of Sensory and Motor Tricks in Focal DystoniaCompletedNCT00054652
19Association Between Focal Dystonia and Complex Regional Pain SyndromeCompletedNCT00595439
20Sensory Training to Treat Focal DystoniaCompletedNCT00006336
21Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Electrical Stimulation of Nerves to Study Focal DystoniaCompletedNCT00050024
22EEG and EMG Studies of Hand DystoniaCompletedNCT00025701
23Brain Changes in Patients With Focal Hand DystoniaCompletedNCT00306865
24Neurophysiology of Task-Specificity of Focal Hand DystoniaCompletedNCT00309010
25Brain Function in Focal DystoniaCompletedNCT00102999
26Movement-Related Brain Networks Involved in Hand DystoniaCompletedNCT00137384
27Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) Studies of DystoniaCompletedNCT00017875
28Surround Inhibition in Patients With DystoniaCompletedNCT00029601
29fMRI Studies of Task Specificity in Focal Hand DystoniaCompletedNCT00310414
30Long-Term Motor Learning in Focal Hand DystoniaCompletedNCT00325091
31Movement Disorder Survey in East ChinaCompletedNCT01168388
32Neurophysiological Markers in Patients With Craniofacial Dystonia and Their RelativesCompletedNCT00082615
33Plasticity in Cervical DystoniaCompletedNCT00323765
34Cortical Excitability in Obsessive-Compulsive and Related DisordersCompletedNCT00029068
35Muscle Contraction in Patients With Focal Hand DystoniaCompletedNCT00376753
36MDs on Botox Utility (MOBILITY)CompletedNCT00535938
37Validating a New Writer s Cramp ScaleCompletedNCT01579266
38Identification of Optimal Stimulation Site for Cervical Dystonia Symptoms: An Exploratory StudyCompletedNCT01859247
39Functional Connectivity in Primary Focal DystoniaRecruitingNCT01761903
40Compare Two Guidance Techniques for Botulinum Toxin Injections for the Treatment of Limb Spasticity and Focal DystoniaRecruitingNCT02334683
41Role of Neurotransmission and Functional CNS Networks in Spasmodic DysphoniaRecruitingNCT00713414
42Depotentiation in People With Focal Hand DystoniaRecruitingNCT02106936
43Cholinergic Receptor Imaging in DystoniaRecruitingNCT02689466
44Somatosensory Processing in Focal Hand DystoniaRecruitingNCT00579033
45rTMS and Botulinum Toxin in Benign Essential BlepharospasmRecruitingNCT02370875
46rTMS and Botulinum Toxin in Primary Cervical DystoniaRecruitingNCT02542839
47Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Focal Hand DystoniaRecruitingNCT01792336
48Effect of Increasing Motor Cortex Inhibition on Task Specific DystoniaRecruitingNCT01823237
49ExAblate Transcranial MRgFUS for the Management of Treatment-Refractory Movement DisordersRecruitingNCT02252380
50Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) for the Treatment of Spasticity in Persons With Spinal Cord InjuryRecruitingNCT02203994

Search NIH Clinical Center for Focal Dystonia

Genetic Tests for Focal Dystonia

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Anatomical Context for Focal Dystonia

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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Focal Dystonia:

33
Brain, T cells, Cortex, Prostate, Heart, Bone, Endothelial

Animal Models for Focal Dystonia or affiliated genes

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Publications for Focal Dystonia

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Articles related to Focal Dystonia:

(show top 50)    (show all 204)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
The curse of motor expertise: Use-dependent focal dystonia as a manifestation of maladaptive changes in body representation. (26689332)
2016
2
High prevalence of primary focal dystonia in the Faroe Islands. (26041438)
2015
3
Sensory-motor integration in focal dystonia. (26164472)
2015
4
Isolated Focal Dystonia as a Disorder of Large-Scale Functional Networks. (26679193)
2015
5
Finger-specific loss of independent control of movements in musicians with focal dystonia. (23707706)
2013
6
Diagnosis and treatment of abductor hallucis focal dystonia with botulinum toxin injection: a case presentation. (23953019)
2013
7
Musicians' social representations of health and illness: a qualitative case study about focal dystonia. (22246303)
2012
8
Steroid-responsive focal epilepsy with focal dystonia accompanied by glutamate receptor delta2 antibody. (22613698)
2012
9
Focal dystonia in musicians: phenomenology, pathophysiology, triggering factors, and treatment. (20795373)
2010
10
Quality of sleep in primary focal dystonia: a case-control study. (20039936)
2010
11
Focal dystonia in musicians: phenomenology, pathophysiology and triggering factors. (20590806)
2010
12
Changes in short afferent inhibition during phasic movement in focal dystonia. (18061936)
2008
13
Results by motor cortex stimulation in treatment of focal dystonia, Parkinson's disease and post-ictal spasticity. The experience of the Italian Study Group of the Italian Neurosurgical Society. (18642628)
2008
14
Abnormal vibration-induced illusion of movement in idiopathic focal dystonia: an endophenotypic marker? (18044715)
2008
15
Etiological musculo-skeletal factor in focal dystonia in a musician's hand: A case study of the right hand of a guitarist. (17659635)
2007
16
Botulinum neurotoxin type A free of complexing proteins (XEOMIN) in focal dystonia. (17385940)
2007
17
Paroxysmal focal dystonia with sensory symptoms secondary to cortical oligoastrocytoma. (16598615)
2006
18
Focal dystonia in musicians. (17097479)
2006
19
Kinesthesia is impaired in focal dystonia. (16482525)
2006
20
Animal models of focal dystonia. (16389315)
2005
21
Abnormal co-contraction in yips-affected but not unaffected golfers: evidence for focal dystonia. (15911823)
2005
22
Focal dystonia is associated with a polymorphism of the dopamine D5 receptor gene. (14509667)
2004
23
Quantification of focal dystonia in pianists using scale analysis. (14978672)
2004
24
Musician's focal dystonia. (12852672)
2003
25
Focal dystonia: advances in brain imaging and understanding of fine motor control in musicians. (12945651)
2003
26
The effect of fatigue on abnormal vibration induced illusion of movement in idiopathic focal dystonia. (12876261)
2003
27
I've recently had to stop writing in my journal because my right hand tightens and twists when I try to write. My doctor says it's a focal dystonia. Are there treatments? (14971354)
2003
28
Prevalence of primary late-onset focal dystonia in the Belgrade population. (14639690)
2003
29
Obsessive compulsive disorder among idiopathic focal dystonia patients: an epidemiological and family study. (12208643)
2002
30
Botulinum toxin treatment in atypical parkinsonian disorders associated with disabling focal dystonia. (11993530)
2002
31
Impaired brain GABA in focal dystonia. (11782988)
2002
32
Reversible chorea and focal dystonia in vitamin B12 deficiency. (12140313)
2002
33
Abnormalities of sensorimotor integration in focal dystonia: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study. (11222454)
2001
34
The GAG deletion of the DYT1 gene is infrequent in musicians with focal dystonia. (11087801)
2000
35
Movement-related electroencephalographic desynchronization in patients with hand cramps: evidence for motor cortical involvement in focal dystonia. (10762156)
2000
36
Operative management of foot and ankle equinovarus associated with focal dystonia. (9578102)
1998
37
Long-latency reflexes of hand muscles in idiopathic focal dystonia and their modification by botulinum toxin. (9126053)
1997
38
Frequency of familial inheritance among 488 index patients with idiopathic focal dystonia and clinical variability in a large family. (9399227)
1997
39
A primate model for studying focal dystonia and repetitive strain injury: effects on the primary somatosensory cortex. (9062569)
1997
40
Focal dystonia secondary to superficial siderosis. (8813232)
1996
41
Biomechanical abnormalities in musicians with occupational cramp/focal dystonia. (8124444)
1993
42
Focal dystonia secondary to cavernous angioma of the basal ganglia: case report and review of the literature. (8327084)
1993
43
Delayed-onset focal dystonia after diffuse cerebral hypoxia--two case reports. (8179837)
1993
44
Writer's cramp--a focal dystonia: etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. (8515033)
1993
45
Botulinum toxin treatment in patients with focal dystonia and hemifacial spasm. A multicenter study of the Italian Movement Disorder Group. (8354632)
1993
46
Severely mutilating focal dystonia in an adolescent. (21927397)
1989
47
The "yips": a focal dystonia of golfers. (2915788)
1989
48
Acquired focal dystonia following recovery from central pontine myelinolysis. (3225594)
1988
49
Localized injections of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal dystonia and hemifacial spasm. (3400513)
1988
50
Focal dystonia in association with cerebral infarction. (7175538)
1982

Variations for Focal Dystonia

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Expression for genes affiliated with Focal Dystonia

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Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Focal Dystonia.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Focal Dystonia

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Pathways related to Focal Dystonia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

idSuper pathwaysScoreTop Affiliating Genes
19.2DRD2, DRD5, GNAL

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Focal Dystonia

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Biological processes related to Focal Dystonia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1chaperone-mediated protein transportGO:007232110.2TIMM8A, TOR1A
2adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathwayGO:00071899.9DRD5, GNAL
3adenylate cyclase-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathwayGO:00071919.8DRD5, GNAL
4phospholipase C-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathwayGO:00601589.5DRD2, DRD5
5synaptic transmission, dopaminergicGO:00019639.3DRD2, DRD5

Molecular functions related to Focal Dystonia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1protein bindingGO:00055157.8CIZ1, DRD2, HLA-DRB1, TBP, TIMM8A, TOR1A

Sources for Focal Dystonia

About this section
2CDC
14ExPASy
15FDA
16FMA
24GTR
25HGMD
26HMDB
27ICD10
28ICD10 via Orphanet
29ICD9CM
30IUPHAR
31KEGG
34MedGen
36MeSH
37MESH via Orphanet
38MGI
41NCI
42NCIt
43NDF-RT
46NINDS
47Novoseek
49OMIM
50OMIM via Orphanet
54PubMed
55QIAGEN
60SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
64Tumor Gene Family of Databases
65UMLS
66UMLS via Orphanet