MCID: FCL022
MIFTS: 35

Focal Dystonia malady

Rare diseases, Neuronal diseases categories

Aliases & Classifications for Focal Dystonia

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Aliases & Descriptions for Focal Dystonia:

Name: Focal Dystonia 10 45 47 65
Task-Specific Focal Dystonia 23 65
Ftsd 45 23
Dystonia, Focal, Task-Specific 65
Focal Task Specific Dystonia 45
 
Focal Task-Specific Dystonia 23
Task-Specific Dystonia 23
Occupational Dystonia 23
Focal Hand Dystonia 23
Occupational Cramp 23


Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology10 DOID:0050836

Summaries for Focal Dystonia

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NIH Rare Diseases:45 Focal dystonia is a movement disorder that is localized to a specific part of the body. the dystonias are a group of movement problems characterized by involuntary, sustained muscle contractions, tremors, and other uncontrolled movements. focal task-specific dystonia, or ftsd, interferes with the performance of particular tasks, such as writing, playing a musical instrument, or participating in a sport. additionally, ftsd has been reported in tailors, shoemakers, hair stylists, and people who frequently type or use a computer mouse. while the abnormal movements associated with focal dystonia are usually painless, they can cause high levels of anxiety. the causes of focal dystonia are unknown, although the disorder likely results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. it is possible that the different forms of ftsd have different underlying causes. researchers have found that at least some cases are related to malfunction of the basal ganglia, which are structures deep within the brain that help start and control movement. most cases of focal dystonia are sporadic, which means they occur in people with no history of the condition in their family. however, at least 10 percent of affected individuals have a family history which seems to follow an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. last updated: 9/11/2013

MalaCards based summary: Focal Dystonia, also known as task-specific focal dystonia, is related to cervical dystonia and dystonia-11, myoclonic. An important gene associated with Focal Dystonia is TOR1A (Torsin Family 1, Member A (Torsin A)), and among its related pathways is Dopamine-DARPP32 Feedback onto cAMP Pathway. Affiliated tissues include brain, cortex and skin.

Disease Ontology:10 A dystonia that is localized to a specific part of the body.

Genetics Home Reference:23 Task-specific focal dystonia is a movement disorder that interferes with the performance of particular tasks, such as writing, playing a musical instrument, or participating in a sport. Dystonias are a group of movement problems characterized by involuntary, sustained muscle contractions, tremors, and other uncontrolled movements. The term "focal" refers to a type of dystonia that affects a single part of the body, such as the hand or jaw.

Wikipedia:68 Focal dystonia is a neurological condition that affects a muscle or group of muscles in a specific part... more...

Related Diseases for Focal Dystonia

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Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Focal Dystonia:



Diseases related to focal dystonia

Symptoms for Focal Dystonia

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Drugs & Therapeutics for Focal Dystonia

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Drugs for Focal Dystonia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 8)
idNameStatusPhaseClinical TrialsCas NumberPubChem Id
1Botulinum ToxinsPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2, Phase 1590
2RimabotulinumtoxinBPhase 413
3Botulinum Toxins, Type APhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2561
4
MexiletineapprovedPhase 21931828-71-44178
Synonyms:
(+-)-1-(2,6-Dimethylphenoxy)propan-2-amine
(+-)-1-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)propan-2-amine
(2RS)-1-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)-2-aminopropane
1-(2',6'-Dimethylphenoxy)-2-aminopropane
1-(2,6-Dimethylphenoxy)-2-propanamine
1-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)propan-2-amine
1-Methyl-2-(2,6-xylyloxy)ethanamine
1-Methyl-2-(2,6-xylyloxy)ethylamine
1-methyl-2-(2,6-xylyloxy)ethanamine
2-(2-Aminopropoxy)-1,3-DiMethyl-Benzene Hydrochloride
2-(2-aminopropoxy)-1,3-dimethylbenzene
31828-71-4
5370-01-4 (hydrochloride)
AB00053683
AC1L1HL7
AC1Q2BC5
AC1Q2BC6
BPBio1_000026
BRD-A64092382-003-04-3
BRN 2092205
BSPBio_000022
BSPBio_002254
C07220
CHEBI:115958
CHEBI:6916
CHEMBL558
CID4178
D08215
DB00379
DivK1c_000834
EINECS 250-825-7
I01-6374
IDI1_000834
KBio1_000834
KBio2_002082
KBio2_004650
KBio2_007218
 
KBio3_001474
KBioGR_001270
KBioSS_002082
KO-1173
KO1173
KOE-1173
LS-68257
Lopac0_000784
Mexiletene
Mexiletina
Mexiletina [INN-Spanish]
Mexiletine
Mexiletine (INN)
Mexiletine HCL
Mexiletine Hydrochloride
Mexiletine [INN:BAN]
Mexiletinum
Mexiletinum [INN-Latin]
Mexilitine
Mexilétine
Mexitil
Mexityl
MolPort-001-790-944
NCGC00015659-04
NCGC00162253-01
NCGC00162253-02
NINDS_000834
Prestwick0_000241
Prestwick1_000241
Prestwick2_000241
Prestwick3_000241
SBB070242
SPBio_002241
Spectrum3_000727
Spectrum4_000795
Spectrum5_001279
Spectrum_001602
UNII-1U511HHV4Z
5
AmlodipineapprovedPhase 243188150-42-92162
Synonyms:
()-Amlodipine
(RS)-3-ethyl 5-methyl 2-[(2-aminoethoxy)methyl]-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate
-3-(ethoxycarbonyl)-5-(methoxycarbonyl)-6-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine
2-[(2-Aminoethoxy)methyl]-4-(2-chlorophenyl)
3,5-Pyridinedicarboxylic acid, 2-((2-aminoethoxy)methyl)-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-6-methyl-, 3-ethyl 5-methyl ester
3,5-Pyridinedicarboxylic acid, 2-[(2-aminoethoxy)methyl]-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-6-methyl-, 3-ethyl 5-methyl ester
3-Ethyl 5-methylester, (±)-2-[(2-aminoethoxy)methyl]-4-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-6-methyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate
3-Ethyl-5-methyl ( -)-2-((2-aminoethoxy)methyl)-4-(2-chlorphenyl)-1,4-dihydro-6-methyl-3,5-pyridindicarboxylat
3-Ethyl-5-methyl ( -)-2-((2-aminoethoxymethyl)-4-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-6-methyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate
3-Ethyl-5-methyl (+-)-2-(2-aminoethoxymethyl)-4-(O-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-6-methyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate
3-Ethyl-5-methyl (+-)-2-(2-aminoethoxymethyl)-4-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-6-methyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate
3-Ethyl-5-methyl (.+/-.)-2-[(2-aminoethoxy)methyl]-4-(o-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-6-methyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate
3-O-ethyl 5-O-methyl 2-(2-aminoethoxymethyl)-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate
3-ethyl 5-methyl 2-[(2-aminoethoxy)methyl]-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate
3-ethyl 5-methyl 2-{[(2-aminoethyl)oxy]methyl}-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-methyl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate
88150-42-9
88150-47-4 (maleate (1:1))
AC-4535
AC1L1D26
AC1Q32ZS
AMLODIPINE BASE
AMVAZ
Ambap88150-42-9
Amlocard
Amlodipine
Amlodipine (INN)
Amlodipine Benzenesulfonate
Amlodipine Besilate
Amlodipine Besylate
Amlodipine Free Base
Amlodipine Maleate
Amlodipine [INN:BAN]
Amlodipine besilate
Amlodipine besylate
Amlodipine free base
Amlodipino
Amlodipino [Spanish]
Amlodipinum
Amlodipinum [Latin]
Amlodis
Amlopres
Amlor
 
Amvaz
BIDD:GT0810
BRD-A22032524-074-02-4
BRD-A22032524-074-03-2
BSPBio_002727
C06825
CHEBI:2668
CHEMBL1491
CID2162
CPD000469198
Coroval
D07450
DB00381
HMS2052N03
HMS2089H07
I14-0798
Intervask
Istin
KBio3_001947
KBioGR_001643
LS-131183
Lipinox
Lotrel
MLS001401409
MolPort-001-792-963
NCGC00165957-01
NCGC00165957-02
NCGC00165957-03
Norvasc
Norvasc (TN)
Pelmec
R,S)-Amlodipine
Racemic Amlodipine
SAM001246705
SMR000469198
SPBio_000351
Spectrum2_000486
Spectrum3_001004
Spectrum4_001132
Spectrum5_001550
UK-4834011
UNII-1J444QC288
amlodipine
6Calcium, DietaryPhase 23529
7
Flumazenilapproved2178755-81-43373
Synonyms:
4H-Imidazo(1,5-a)(1,4)benzodiazepine-3-carboxylic acid, 8-fluoro-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-, ethyl ester
78755-81-4
8-Fluoro-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester
AC-6846
AC1L1FSE
AC1Q33UE
Anexate
BIDD:GT0766
BPBio1_001190
BRD-K98769987-001-01-3
BRN 4763661
Biomol-NT_000285
C07825
C15H14FN3O3
CHEBI:5103
CHEMBL407
CID3373
CPD000058450
D005442
D00697
DB01205
EU-0100506
Ethyl 8-fluoro-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo(1,5-a)(1,4)benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate
Ethyl 8-fluoro-5-methyl-5,6-dihydro-6-oxo-4H-imidazo(1,5-a)(1,4)benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate
Ethyl 8-fluoro-5-methyl-6-oxo-5,6-dihydro-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate
F 6300
F6300_SIGMA
Flumazenil
Flumazenil (JAN/USP/INN)
Flumazenil [USAN:BAN:INN]
Flumazenilo
Flumazenilo [Spanish]
Flumazenilum
Flumazenilum [Latin]
Flumazepil
Flumazepil, Ro 15-1788, Anexate, Lanexat, Mazicon, Roma,Flumazenil
HMS2051D17
HMS2089B15
Hoffman La Roche Brand of Flumazenil
Hoffman-La Roche Brand of Flumazenil
I01-0379
 
LS-77778
Lanexat
Lopac-F-6300
Lopac0_000506
MLS000028850
MLS000759529
MLS001076354
Mazicon
MolPort-003-666-855
NCGC00015439-01
NCGC00015439-03
NCGC00015439-07
NCGC00025116-01
NCGC00025116-02
NCGC00025116-03
NCGC00025116-04
NCGC00025116-05
PDSP1_001778
PDSP2_001761
RO-151788
Ro 15 1788
Ro 15-1788
Ro 151788
Ro-15-1788
Ro-?15-1788
Ro15-1788
Roche Brand of Flumazenil
Romazicon
Romazicon (TN)
S1332_Selleck
SAM001246763
SBB063113
SMR000058450
TL8005362
Tocris-1328
UNII-40P7XK9392
UPCMLD-DP137
UPCMLD-DP137:001
ZINC00001464
[3H]Ro15-1788
ethyl 8-fluoro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate
flumazenil
nchembio747-comp37
8
Dopamineapproved281462-31-7, 51-61-6681
Synonyms:
(3H)-Dopamine
.Beta.-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine hydrochloride
.alpha.-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-.beta.-aminoethane
1,2-Benzenediol, 4-(2-aminoethyl)- (9CI)
1,2-Benzenediol, 4-(2-aminoethyl)-, hydrochloride
1,2-Benzenediol, 4-(2-aminoethyl)-, labeled with tritium
153C5321-5FEE-4B0B-8925-F388F0EEEBD1
2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine
2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine
2-benzenediol
3,4-Dihydroxyphenethylamine
3,4-Dihydroxyphenethylamine hydrochloride
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylethylamine
3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine
3-Hydroxtyramine
3-Hydroxytyramine
3-Hydroxytyramine Hydrobromide
3-Hydroxytyramine hydrochloride
4-(2-Aminoethyl)-1,
4-(2-Aminoethyl)-1,2-benzenediol
4-(2-Aminoethyl)-1,2-bezenediol
4-(2-Aminoethyl)-Pyrocatechol
4-(2-Aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol
4-(2-Aminoethyl)catechol
4-(2-Aminoethyl)pyrocatechol
4-(2-Aminoethyl)pyrocatechol hydrochloride
4-(2-aminoethyl)-pyrocatechol
50444-17-2
51-61-6
62-31-7 (HYDROCHLORIDE)
AC1L19S5
AC1Q54AX
AC1Q54AY
AKOS003790978
ASL 279
BIDD:ER0506
BPBio1_001123
BSPBio_001932
Biomol-NT_000001
C03758
CHEBI:18243
CHEMBL59
CID681
D07870
DB00988
Deoxyepinephrine
DivK1c_000780
Dopamin
Dopamina
Dopamina [INN-Spanish]
Dopamine
Dopamine (INN)
Dopamine (USAN)(*hydrochloride*)
Dopamine Hcl
Dopamine Hydrochloride
Dopamine [INN:BAN]
Dopaminum
Dopaminum [INN-Latin]
Dopastat
Dophamine
Dynatra
EINECS 200-110-0
HSDB 3068
Hydroxytyramin
Hydroxytyramine
IDI1_000780
IP 498
Intropin
Intropin [*hydrochloride*]
 
KBio1_000780
KBio2_001492
KBio2_002388
KBio2_002484
KBio2_004060
KBio2_004956
KBio2_005052
KBio2_006628
KBio2_007524
KBio2_007620
KBio3_001152
KBio3_002867
KBio3_002962
KBioGR_001129
KBioGR_002388
KBioGR_002484
KBioSS_001492
KBioSS_002393
KBioSS_002491
KW-3-060
L-DOPAMINE
L000232
LDP
LS-159
Lopac-H-8502
Lopac0_000586
Medopa (TN)
MolPort-001-641-000
NCGC00015519-01
NCGC00015519-08
NCGC00096050-01
NCGC00096050-02
NCGC00096050-03
NCGC00096050-04
NCGC00096050-05
NINDS_000780
NSC 173182
NSC169105
NSC173182
Oprea1_088821
Oxytyramine
Pyrocatechol, 4-(2-aminoethyl)- (8CI)
Pyrocatechol, 4-(2-aminoethyl)-, hydrochloride
Revimine
Revivan
SPBio_001205
SPECTRUM1505155
ST048774
STK301601
Spectrum2_001023
Spectrum3_000406
Spectrum4_000525
Spectrum5_000945
Spectrum_001012
UNII-VTD58H1Z2X
UPCMLD0ENAT5885989:001
a-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-b-aminoethane
alpha-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-beta-aminoethane
cMAP_000036
cMAP_000065
dopamine
hydroxytyramine
intropin
m-Hydroxytyramine hydrochloride
nchembio.105-comp9
nchembio.107-comp4
nchembio.284-comp1
nchembio.78-comp16
nchembio.89-comp3
nchembio705-8
nchembio801-comp8

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50)    (show all 57)
idNameStatusNCT IDPhase
1Quantifying Musical Performance After Treatment With Myobloc in Musician's DystoniaCompletedNCT00208091Phase 4
2Ultrasound Guided Intermediate Cervical Plexus Block for Congenital Muscular TorticollisNot yet recruitingNCT02651311Phase 4
3Comparison of Electrophysiologic and Ultrasound Guidance for Onabotulinum Toxin A Injections in Focal Upper Extremity Dystonia and SpasticityRecruitingNCT02326818Phase 3
4Amlodipine Plus Botulinum Toxin for Focal DystoniaCompletedNCT00015457Phase 2
5Mexiletine for the Treatment of Focal DystoniaCompletedNCT00001784Phase 2
6Motor Training to Treat Hand DystoniaCompletedNCT00021853Phase 2
7Brain Stimulation to Treat Blepharospasm or Meige SyndromeCompletedNCT00411255Phase 2
8A Study of Acetyl Hexapeptide-8 (AH8) in Treatment of BlepharospasmCompletedNCT00942851Phase 1, Phase 2
9Dystonia Synergistic InterventionCompletedNCT01738581Phase 1, Phase 2
10Transcranial Electrical Polarization to Treat Focal Hand DystoniaCompletedNCT00106782Phase 2
11Incobotulinum Toxin A (Xeomin®) As A Treatment For Focal Task-Specific Dystonia Of The Musician's HandRecruitingNCT02107261Phase 2
12Pilot Trial of Botulinum Toxin and Occupational Therapy for Writer's CrampEnrolling by invitationNCT02015039Phase 1, Phase 2
13Safety and Tolerability of Perampanel in Cervical DystoniaNot yet recruitingNCT02131467Phase 1, Phase 2
14Acetyl Hexapeptide-8 for BlepharospasmTerminatedNCT01750346Phase 2
15Motor and Premotor Cortex Stimulation for Treatment of Secondary Focal Dystonia With Striato Palliadal Lesion : Evaluation of Safety and EffectivenessCompletedNCT00505323Phase 1
16Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for the Treatment of Focal Hand DystoniaCompletedNCT01884064Phase 1
17Magnetic Resonance (MR) Guided Functional Ultrasound-Neurosurgery for Movement DisordersCompletedNCT01698450Phase 1
18Survey of Sensory and Motor Tricks in Focal DystoniaCompletedNCT00054652
19Association Between Focal Dystonia and Complex Regional Pain SyndromeCompletedNCT00595439
20Sensory Training to Treat Focal DystoniaCompletedNCT00006336
21Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Electrical Stimulation of Nerves to Study Focal DystoniaCompletedNCT00050024
22EEG and EMG Studies of Hand DystoniaCompletedNCT00025701
23Brain Changes in Patients With Focal Hand DystoniaCompletedNCT00306865
24Neurophysiology of Task-Specificity of Focal Hand DystoniaCompletedNCT00309010
25Brain Function in Focal DystoniaCompletedNCT00102999
26Movement-Related Brain Networks Involved in Hand DystoniaCompletedNCT00137384
27Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) Studies of DystoniaCompletedNCT00017875
28Surround Inhibition in Patients With DystoniaCompletedNCT00029601
29fMRI Studies of Task Specificity in Focal Hand DystoniaCompletedNCT00310414
30Long-Term Motor Learning in Focal Hand DystoniaCompletedNCT00325091
31Movement Disorder Survey in East ChinaCompletedNCT01168388
32Neurophysiological Markers in Patients With Craniofacial Dystonia and Their RelativesCompletedNCT00082615
33Plasticity in Cervical DystoniaCompletedNCT00323765
34Cortical Excitability in Obsessive-Compulsive and Related DisordersCompletedNCT00029068
35Muscle Contraction in Patients With Focal Hand DystoniaCompletedNCT00376753
36MDs on Botox Utility (MOBILITY)CompletedNCT00535938
37Validating a New Writer s Cramp ScaleCompletedNCT01579266
38Identification of Optimal Stimulation Site for Cervical Dystonia Symptoms: An Exploratory StudyCompletedNCT01859247
39Functional Connectivity in Primary Focal DystoniaRecruitingNCT01761903
40Compare Two Guidance Techniques for Botulinum Toxin Injections for the Treatment of Limb Spasticity and Focal DystoniaRecruitingNCT02334683
41Role of Neurotransmission and Functional CNS Networks in Spasmodic DysphoniaRecruitingNCT00713414
42Depotentiation in People With Focal Hand DystoniaRecruitingNCT02106936
43Cholinergic Receptor Imaging in DystoniaRecruitingNCT02689466
44Dystonia Coalition ProjectsRecruitingNCT01373424
45Somatosensory Processing in Focal Hand DystoniaRecruitingNCT00579033
46rTMS and Botulinum Toxin in Benign Essential BlepharospasmRecruitingNCT02370875
47rTMS and Botulinum Toxin in Primary Cervical DystoniaRecruitingNCT02542839
48Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Focal Hand DystoniaRecruitingNCT01792336
49Effect of Increasing Motor Cortex Inhibition on Task Specific DystoniaRecruitingNCT01823237
50ExAblate Transcranial MRgFUS for the Management of Treatment-Refractory Movement DisordersRecruitingNCT02252380

Search NIH Clinical Center for Focal Dystonia

Genetic Tests for Focal Dystonia

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Anatomical Context for Focal Dystonia

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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Focal Dystonia:

33
Brain, Cortex, Skin

Animal Models for Focal Dystonia or affiliated genes

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Publications for Focal Dystonia

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Articles related to Focal Dystonia:

(show top 50)    (show all 196)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
High prevalence of primary focal dystonia in the Faroe Islands. (26041438)
2015
2
Sensory-motor integration in focal dystonia. (26164472)
2015
3
Finger-specific loss of independent control of movements in musicians with focal dystonia. (23707706)
2013
4
Diagnosis and treatment of abductor hallucis focal dystonia with botulinum toxin injection: a case presentation. (23953019)
2013
5
Musicians' social representations of health and illness: a qualitative case study about focal dystonia. (22246303)
2012
6
Steroid-responsive focal epilepsy with focal dystonia accompanied by glutamate receptor delta2 antibody. (22613698)
2012
7
Focal dystonia in musicians: phenomenology, pathophysiology, triggering factors, and treatment. (20795373)
2010
8
Quality of sleep in primary focal dystonia: a case-control study. (20039936)
2010
9
Focal dystonia in musicians: phenomenology, pathophysiology and triggering factors. (20590806)
2010
10
Changes in short afferent inhibition during phasic movement in focal dystonia. (18061936)
2008
11
Results by motor cortex stimulation in treatment of focal dystonia, Parkinson's disease and post-ictal spasticity. The experience of the Italian Study Group of the Italian Neurosurgical Society. (18642628)
2008
12
Abnormal vibration-induced illusion of movement in idiopathic focal dystonia: an endophenotypic marker? (18044715)
2008
13
Etiological musculo-skeletal factor in focal dystonia in a musician's hand: A case study of the right hand of a guitarist. (17659635)
2007
14
Botulinum neurotoxin type A free of complexing proteins (XEOMIN) in focal dystonia. (17385940)
2007
15
Morphometric changes of sensorimotor structures in focal dystonia. (17443700)
2007
16
Paroxysmal focal dystonia with sensory symptoms secondary to cortical oligoastrocytoma. (16598615)
2006
17
Focal dystonia in musicians. (17097479)
2006
18
Kinesthesia is impaired in focal dystonia. (16482525)
2006
19
Animal models of focal dystonia. (16389315)
2005
20
Abnormal co-contraction in yips-affected but not unaffected golfers: evidence for focal dystonia. (15911823)
2005
21
Focal dystonia is associated with a polymorphism of the dopamine D5 receptor gene. (14509667)
2004
22
Quantification of focal dystonia in pianists using scale analysis. (14978672)
2004
23
Musician's focal dystonia. (12852672)
2003
24
Focal dystonia: advances in brain imaging and understanding of fine motor control in musicians. (12945651)
2003
25
The effect of fatigue on abnormal vibration induced illusion of movement in idiopathic focal dystonia. (12876261)
2003
26
I've recently had to stop writing in my journal because my right hand tightens and twists when I try to write. My doctor says it's a focal dystonia. Are there treatments? (14971354)
2003
27
Prevalence of primary late-onset focal dystonia in the Belgrade population. (14639690)
2003
28
Obsessive compulsive disorder among idiopathic focal dystonia patients: an epidemiological and family study. (12208643)
2002
29
Botulinum toxin treatment in atypical parkinsonian disorders associated with disabling focal dystonia. (11993530)
2002
30
Impaired brain GABA in focal dystonia. (11782988)
2002
31
Reversible chorea and focal dystonia in vitamin B12 deficiency. (12140313)
2002
32
Abnormalities of sensorimotor integration in focal dystonia: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study. (11222454)
2001
33
The GAG deletion of the DYT1 gene is infrequent in musicians with focal dystonia. (11087801)
2000
34
Movement-related electroencephalographic desynchronization in patients with hand cramps: evidence for motor cortical involvement in focal dystonia. (10762156)
2000
35
Operative management of foot and ankle equinovarus associated with focal dystonia. (9578102)
1998
36
Mitochondrial DNA in focal dystonia: a cybrid analysis. (9708550)
1998
37
Long-latency reflexes of hand muscles in idiopathic focal dystonia and their modification by botulinum toxin. (9126053)
1997
38
Frequency of familial inheritance among 488 index patients with idiopathic focal dystonia and clinical variability in a large family. (9399227)
1997
39
A primate model for studying focal dystonia and repetitive strain injury: effects on the primary somatosensory cortex. (9062569)
1997
40
Focal dystonia secondary to superficial siderosis. (8813232)
1996
41
Biomechanical abnormalities in musicians with occupational cramp/focal dystonia. (8124444)
1993
42
Focal dystonia secondary to cavernous angioma of the basal ganglia: case report and review of the literature. (8327084)
1993
43
Delayed-onset focal dystonia after diffuse cerebral hypoxia--two case reports. (8179837)
1993
44
Writer's cramp--a focal dystonia: etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. (8515033)
1993
45
Botulinum toxin treatment in patients with focal dystonia and hemifacial spasm. A multicenter study of the Italian Movement Disorder Group. (8354632)
1993
46
Severely mutilating focal dystonia in an adolescent. (21927397)
1989
47
The "yips": a focal dystonia of golfers. (2915788)
1989
48
Acquired focal dystonia following recovery from central pontine myelinolysis. (3225594)
1988
49
Localized injections of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal dystonia and hemifacial spasm. (3400513)
1988
50
Focal dystonia in association with cerebral infarction. (7175538)
1982

Variations for Focal Dystonia

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Expression for genes affiliated with Focal Dystonia

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Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Focal Dystonia.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Focal Dystonia

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Pathways related to Focal Dystonia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
19.3DRD2, DRD5, GNAL

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Focal Dystonia

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Cellular components related to Focal Dystonia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1nonmotile primary ciliumGO:00315139.7DRD2, DRD5
2ciliary membraneGO:00601709.4DRD2, DRD5

Biological processes related to Focal Dystonia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 11)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1chaperone-mediated protein transportGO:007232110.3TIMM8A, TOR1A
2phospholipase C-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathwayGO:006015810.2DRD2, DRD5
3adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathwayGO:000718910.1DRD5, GNAL
4activation of adenylate cyclase activityGO:000719010.1DRD5, GNAL
5adenylate cyclase-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathwayGO:00071919.9DRD5, GNAL
6associative learningGO:00083069.9DRD2, DRD5
7synaptic transmission, dopaminergicGO:00019639.8DRD2, DRD5
8negative regulation of blood pressureGO:00457769.7DRD2, DRD5
9response to cocaineGO:00422209.7DRD2, DRD5
10regulation of dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmissionGO:00515849.6DRD2, TOR1A
11response to amphetamineGO:00019759.5DRD2, DRD5, GNAL

Molecular functions related to Focal Dystonia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1dopamine bindingGO:00352409.7DRD2, DRD5
2dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activityGO:00049529.4DRD2, DRD5

Sources for Focal Dystonia

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2CDC
14ExPASy
15FDA
16FMA
24GTR
25HGMD
26HMDB
27ICD10
28ICD10 via Orphanet
29ICD9CM
30IUPHAR
31KEGG
34MedGen
36MeSH
37MESH via Orphanet
38MGI
41NCI
42NCIt
43NDF-RT
46NINDS
47Novoseek
49OMIM
50OMIM via Orphanet
54PubMed
55QIAGEN
60SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
64Tumor Gene Family of Databases
65UMLS
66UMLS via Orphanet