GDM
MCID: GST033
MIFTS: 67

Gestational Diabetes (GDM) malady

Summaries for Gestational Diabetes

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63Wikipedia, 46OMIM, 32MalaCards
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Wikipedia:63 Gestational diabetes (or gestational diabetes mellitus, GDM) is a condition in which women without... more...

MalaCards: Gestational Diabetes, also known as diabetes mellitus, gestational, is related to diabetes mellitus and obesity. An important gene associated with Gestational Diabetes is GCK (glucokinase (hexokinase 4)), and among its related pathways are Adipogenesis and Common Cytokine Receptor Gamma-Chain Family Signaling Pathways. The compounds glucose and lipid have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include testes, placenta and ovary, and related mouse phenotypes are homeostasis/metabolism and liver/biliary system.

Description from OMIM:46 125851

Aliases & Classifications for Gestational Diabetes

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Sources:
8Disease Ontology, 9diseasecard, 22GTR, 46OMIM, 10DISEASES, 44Novoseek, 38NCBI Bookshelf, 60UMLS, 56SNOMED-CT, 39NCIt, 34MeSH
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Aliases & Descriptions:

gestational diabetes 8 10 60
diabetes mellitus, gestational 9 22 46
gdm 8 38
maternal gestational diabetes mellitus 8
gestational diabetes mellitus 8
diabetes gestational 44


External Ids:

Disease Ontology8 DOID:11714
NCIt39 C34942
MeSH34 D016640

Related Diseases for Gestational Diabetes

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17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
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Diseases related to Gestational Diabetes via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards/GeneDecks gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 109)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1diabetes mellitus32.0ADIPOQ, HHEX, LEP, INS, NAMPT, RETN
2obesity31.2NAMPT, INS, LEP, RETN, ADIPOQ, RBP4
3type 2 diabetes mellitus30.9GCK, ADIPOQ, LNPEP, CAPN10, RBP4, NAMPT
4glucose intolerance30.8INS, RETN, RBP4, CAPN10, GCK, LEP
5hypertension30.7RETN, INS, LEP
6pre-eclampsia30.7ADIPOQ, RETN, LEP, LNPEP
7polycystic ovary syndrome30.7CAPN10, LEP, INS
8hyperglycemia30.6ADIPOQ, LEP, RETN, GCK, NAMPT, INS
9atherosclerosis30.3APLN, CAPN10, LEP, ADIPOQ, INS, NAMPT
10hyperinsulinism30.3GCK, INS, RETN, LEP
11pancreatitis30.3INS
12acanthosis nigricans30.2ADIPOQ, INS, LEP
13acute pancreatitis29.9RETN
14infertility29.9LNPEP, RETN, INS, LEP, CAPN10
15diabetic retinopathy29.9INS
16maturity-onset diabetes of the young29.9INS, GCK
17eclampsia10.5
18neonatal diabetes mellitus10.5
19diabetes insipidus10.5
20type 1 diabetes mellitus10.3
21periodontitis10.3
22thyroiditis10.3
23diabetic ketoacidosis10.2
24gestational diabetes insipidus10.2
25cryptorchidism10.1
26hypoglycemia10.1
27cholestasis10.1
28maturity-onset diabetes of the young, type 210.1
29insulin resistance10.0RETN, NAMPT, INS, LEP, GCK, APLN
30primary hyperoxaluria10.0INS, NAMPT, RETN, CAPN10, RBP4, LEP
31coronary artery disease10.0NAMPT, RETN, APLN, ADIPOQ, INS, ATHS
32hypertriglyceridemia10.0ADIPOQ, FOXC2, ATHS, INS, LEP
33hyperandrogenism10.0RETN, INS, ADIPOQ, LEP, CAPN10
34hypercholesterolemia10.0CAPN10, RBP4, ADIPOQ, INS, RETN
35liver cirrhosis10.0GCK, RBP4, RETN, LEP, ADIPOQ
36familial hyperlipidemia10.0NAMPT, LEP, INS, RETN, ADIPOQ
37fatty liver disease10.0ADIPOQ, LEP, RETN, INS, RBP4
38type 1 diabetes10.0RETN, RBP4, LEP, GCK, INS
39chronic kidney failure10.0RBP4, RETN, LEP, INS, ADIPOQ
40acromegaly10.0INS, RETN, ADIPOQ, LEP
41lipodystrophy10.0ADIPOQ, RETN, LEP, INS
42morbid obesity10.0LEP, RETN, INS, ADIPOQ
43coronary heart disease10.0RETN, LEP, INS, ADIPOQ
44acquired generalized lipodystrophy10.0LEP, ADIPOQ, RETN
45essential hypertension10.0LEP, RETN, ADIPOQ, INS
46growth hormone deficiency10.0LEP, ADIPOQ, INS
47congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 210.0ADIPOQ, INS, LEP
48hyperthyroidism10.0INS, RETN, LEP
49rheumatoid arthritis10.0ADIPOQ, NAMPT, RETN
50metabolic syndrome x10.0INS, ADIPOQ, LEP

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Gestational Diabetes:



Diseases related to gestational diabetes

Clinical Features for Gestational Diabetes

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46OMIM
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Clinical features from OMIM:

125851

Drugs & Therapeutics for Gestational Diabetes

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Sources:
5CenterWatch, 41NIH Clinical Center, 6ClinicalTrials, 60UMLS, 40NDF-RT
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Approved drugs:

Search CenterWatch for Gestational Diabetes

Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Gestational Diabetes

Search NIH Clinical Center for Gestational Diabetes

Search CenterWatch for Gestational Diabetes

Genetic Tests for Gestational Diabetes

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22GTR
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Genetic tests related to Gestational Diabetes:

id Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Diabetes Mellitus, Gestational22

Anatomical Context for Gestational Diabetes

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32MalaCards
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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Gestational Diabetes:

32
Testes, Placenta, Ovary, Endothelial, Skeletal muscle, Breast, Thyroid, Adipocyte, Monocytes, Skin, Heart, T cells, B cells, Liver, Smooth muscle

Animal Models for Gestational Diabetes or affiliated genes

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36MGI
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MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Gestational Diabetes:

36
idDescriptionMGI Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MP:000537611.3RBP4, FOXC2, APLN, CAPN10, GCK, RETN
2MP:000537011.1ADIPOQ, GCK, CAPN10, FOXC2, RETN, INS
3MP:000537911.0GCK, CAPN10, RBP4, NAMPT, INS, LEP
4MP:000537510.9CAPN10, FOXC2, RETN, INS, LEP, FSTL3
5MP:000538510.9CAPN10, APLN, FOXC2, RBP4, INS, LEP
6MP:000536710.8CAPN10, FOXC2, INS, LEP, ADIPOQ, GCK
7MP:000536910.6APLN, FOXC2, RBP4, INS, LEP, FSTL3

Publications for Gestational Diabetes

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50PubMed
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Articles related to Gestational Diabetes:

(show top 50)    (show all 955)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Increased placental expression of Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 in gestational diabetes mellitus. (24432989)
2014
2
Improvement of selective screening strategy for gestational diabetes through a more accurate definition of high-risk groups. (24114434)
2014
3
Maternal adiposity and blood pressure in pregnancy: varying relations by ethnicity and gestational diabetes. (24390251)
2014
4
Expression of toll-like receptor 4 in maternal monocytes of patients with gestational diabetes mellitus. (24348797)
2014
5
Levels of thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor in gestational diabetes mellitus. (23327722)
2013
6
The importance of gestational diabetes beyond pregnancy. (24147923)
2013
7
Screening tests for gestational diabetes: a systematic review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (23712349)
2013
8
The DIAMIND study: postpartum SMS reminders to women who have had gestational diabetes mellitus to test for type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial - study protocol. (23587090)
2013
9
Estimating the risk after gestational diabetes mellitus: can we improve the information from the postpartum OGTT? (23299502)
2013
10
Cost-effectiveness of lifestyle counselling as primary prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus: findings from a cluster-randomised trial. (23457562)
2013
11
Glyburide as treatment option for gestational diabetes mellitus. (23718748)
2013
12
DALI: Vitamin D and lifestyle intervention for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) prevention: an European multicentre, randomised trial - study protocol. (23829946)
2013
13
Pregnancy glycemia in Mexican-American women without diabetes or gestational diabetes and programming for childhood obesity. (23504745)
2013
14
Periodontitis and gestational diabetes mellitus in non-smoking females. (23075430)
2013
15
Gestational diabetes, pre-pregnancy obesity and pregnancy weight gain in relation to excess fetal growth: variations by race/ethnicity. (23571827)
2013
16
Circulating galanin levels are increased in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus. (23266294)
2013
17
An interpretive review of women's experiences of gestational diabetes mellitus: proposing a framework to enhance midwifery assessment. (23333029)
2013
18
Strategies associated with higher postpartum glucose tolerance screening rates for gestational diabetes mellitus patients. (23789581)
2013
19
Gestational diabetes is associated with high energy and saturated fat intakes and with low plasma visfatin and adiponectin levels independent of prepregnancy BMI. (23385969)
2013
20
Periodontal disease as a potential risk factor for the development of diabetes in women with a prior history of gestational diabetes mellitus. (23215856)
2013
21
Heterogeneity of pregnancy outcomes and risk of LGA neonates in Caucasian females according to IADPSG criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus. (23182459)
2013
22
Postpartum reversibility of impaired incretin effect in gestational diabetes mellitus. (23958841)
2013
23
Gestational diabetes induces alterations in the function of neonatal endothelial colony-forming cells. (24232636)
2013
24
Changes in serum obestatin, preptin and ghrelins in patients with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. (21889930)
2012
25
HLA-DQB1 genotypes and islet cell autoantibodies against GAD65 and IA-2 in relation to development of diabetes post partum in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. (22104260)
2012
26
Maternal serum heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) concentrations in early pregnancy and subsequent risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. (23139759)
2012
27
Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia evolving to gestational diabetes and diabetes mellitus in a family carrying the inactivating ABCC8 E1506K mutation. (20042013)
2010
28
Plasma apelin levels and apelin/APJ mRNA expression in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus. (19926159)
2010
29
Ghrelin in gestational diabetes: serum level and mRNA expression in fat and placental tissue. (20180161)
2010
30
Fetal macrosomia in pregnant women with gestational diabetes. (20102057)
2009
31
Serum visfatin concentration is elevated in pregnant women irrespectively of the presence of gestational diabetes. (19323054)
2009
32
Acylated ghrelin concentrations are markedly decreased during pregnancy in mothers with and without gestational diabetes: relationship with cholinesterase. (19240252)
2009
33
Gestational diabetes insipidus and intrauterine fetal death of monochorionic twins. (18825149)
2008
34
Impact of maternal circulating cholesterol and gestational diabetes mellitus on lipid metabolism in human term placenta. (18095312)
2008
35
Glyburide for the treatment of gestational diabetes. A critical appraisal. (17596474)
2007
36
Elevated serum levels of visfatin in gestational diabetes: a comparative study across various degrees of glucose tolerance. (17334748)
2007
37
Nitric oxide reduces adenosine transporter ENT1 gene (SLC29A1) promoter activity in human fetal endothelium from gestational diabetes. (16688763)
2006
38
Association of the E23K polymorphism in the KCNJ11 gene with gestational diabetes mellitus. (16320083)
2005
39
Repression of oxidant-induced nuclear factor-kappaB activity mediates placental cytokine responses in gestational diabetes. (15240650)
2004
40
Effect of fetal macrosomia on human placental glucose transport and utilization in insulin-treated gestational diabetes. (14711103)
2003
41
Study of the Trp64Arg polymorphism of the beta3-adrenergic receptor in Greek women with gestational diabetes. (10937501)
2000
42
Elevated islet amyloid pancreatic polypeptide and proinsulin in lean gestational diabetes. (9075800)
1997
43
Islet cell autoimmunity in women with gestational diabetes and risk of progression to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. (9013072)
1996
44
Indication and results of insulin therapy for gestational diabetes mellitus. (8950733)
1996
45
Prevalence of antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase in women who have had gestational diabetes. (7503202)
1995
46
Insulin secretion in insulin-resistant women with a history of gestational diabetes. (7637649)
1995
47
Glucokinase gene in gestational diabetes mellitus: population association study and molecular scanning. (8150222)
1994
48
Plasma molecular forms of gastrin, neurotensin and somatostatin in pregnancy and gestational diabetes after an oral glucose load or a mixed meal. (8105515)
1993
49
Abnormalities of intermediary metabolism following a gestational diabetic pregnancy. (1424175)
1992
50
Urinary C-peptide in gestational diabetes. (1734553)
1992

Genetic Variations for Gestational Diabetes

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62UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
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Genetic disease variations for Gestational Diabetes:

62 (show all 42)
id Symbol AA change Variation ID SNP ID
1GCKp.Glu70LysVAR_003693
2GCKp.Gly80AlaVAR_003694
3GCKp.Gly80SerVAR_003695
4GCKp.Ser131ProVAR_003697
5GCKp.Gly175ArgVAR_003698
6GCKp.Val182MetVAR_003699
7GCKp.Ala188ThrVAR_003700
8GCKp.Val203AlaVAR_003701
9GCKp.Glu221LysVAR_003702
10GCKp.Val226MetVAR_003703
11GCKp.Gly227CysVAR_003704
12GCKp.Thr228MetVAR_003705
13GCKp.Glu256LysVAR_003706
14GCKp.Trp257ArgVAR_003707
15GCKp.Gly261ArgVAR_003708
16GCKp.Glu279GlnVAR_003709rs104894005
17GCKp.Gly299ArgVAR_003710
18GCKp.Glu300GlnVAR_003711
19GCKp.Glu300LysVAR_003712
20GCKp.Leu309ProVAR_003713
21GCKp.Lys414GluVAR_003714
22GCKp.Arg36TrpVAR_010584
23GCKp.Ala53SerVAR_010585
24GCKp.Tyr108HisVAR_010586
25GCKp.His137ArgVAR_010587
26GCKp.Phe150SerVAR_010588
27GCKp.Thr168ProVAR_010589
28GCKp.Thr209MetVAR_010590
29GCKp.Met210ThrVAR_010591
30GCKp.Cys213ArgVAR_010592
31GCKp.Ala259ThrVAR_010593
32GCKp.Gly261GluVAR_010594
33GCKp.Ser336LeuVAR_010595
34GCKp.Val367MetVAR_010596
35GCKp.Cys382TyrVAR_010597
36GCKp.Ala384ThrVAR_010598
37GCKp.Arg392CysVAR_010599
38GCKp.Leu164ProVAR_012350
39GCKp.Met210LysVAR_012351
40GCKp.Ile110ThrVAR_012352
41GCKp.Ala119AspVAR_012353
42GCKp.Gly385ValVAR_012354

Expression for genes affiliated with Gestational Diabetes

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1BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
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Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Gestational Diabetes

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Gestational Diabetes.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Gestational Diabetes

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37NCBI BioSystems Database, 52R&D Systems, 29KEGG, 49PharmGKB
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Pathways related to Gestational Diabetes according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
110.8ADIPOQ, LEP, INS, NAMPT, RETN, FOXC2
2
Hide members
10.7RBP4, RETN, NAMPT, ADIPOQ
3
Hide members
10.6ADIPOQ, INS, GCK

Compounds for genes affiliated with Gestational Diabetes

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44Novoseek, 28IUPHAR, 11DrugBank, 24HMDB, 49PharmGKB, 59Tocris Bioscience
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Compounds related to Gestational Diabetes according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show top 50)    (show all 66)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1glucose4411.6FOXC2, ADIPOQ, APLN, RBP4, RETN, NAMPT
2lipid4411.5GCK, NAMPT, INS, LNPEP, LEP, RETN
3cholesterol44 28 11 2414.4RBP4, ADIPOQ, LEP, INS, NAMPT, RETN
4fatty acid4411.3LEP, INS, NAMPT, RBP4, GCK, RETN
5creatinine4411.3LEP, INS, GCK, RBP4, RETN, NAMPT
6metformin44 49 1113.2NAMPT, RETN, INS, LEP, GCK, ADIPOQ
7dexamethasone44 49 28 1114.2RETN, GCK, RBP4, NAMPT, INS, LEP
8pioglitazone44 49 28 1114.2RBP4, RETN, ADIPOQ, INS, NAMPT, LEP
9rosiglitazone44 49 28 11 2415.2RETN, LEP, INS, NAMPT, ADIPOQ, RBP4
10arginine4411.2ADIPOQ, GCK, CAPN10, IGKV2D-29, LEP, LNPEP
11ly2940024411.2ADIPOQ, LEP, INS, GCK, APLN, RETN
12glycogen44 2412.2CAPN10, GCK, RETN, ADIPOQ, LNPEP, INS
13alanine4411.2INS, RBP4, ADIPOQ, LNPEP, APLN, GCK
14c-peptide4411.2GCK, RETN, INS, ADIPOQ, LEP
15thyroxine44 2412.2RBP4, RETN, INS, LEP, ADIPOQ
16nash4411.1INS, LEP, ADIPOQ, RETN
17thiazolidinedione4411.1LEP, INS, ADIPOQ, RETN
18aicar44 11 2413.1LEP, ADIPOQ, INS, GCK
198-isoprostane4411.1RETN, ADIPOQ, LEP, INS
20dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate4411.1RBP4, LEP, ADIPOQ, INS
21progesterone44 59 28 11 2415.1LEP, RETN, RBP4, GCK, LNPEP, FSTL3
22fenofibrate44 49 1113.1INS, ADIPOQ, LEP, RETN
23dhea4411.1ADIPOQ, LEP, INS, RETN
24triacylglycerol4411.1ADIPOQ, LEP, RBP4, INS
25fibrinogen4411.1LEP, ADIPOQ, INS, NAMPT, RETN
26androstenedione44 2412.1LEP, RBP4, INS, ADIPOQ
27sibutramine44 1112.0ADIPOQ, LEP, INS
28p0024411.0ADIPOQ, RBP4, LEP, RETN
29acipimox44 2812.0INS, LEP, ADIPOQ
30phosphatidylinositol4411.0NAMPT, RETN, APLN, ADIPOQ, LEP, INS
31glimepiride44 49 1113.0INS, ADIPOQ, RETN
32carbohydrates4411.0INS, ADIPOQ, LEP, GCK
33telmisartan44 28 1113.0LEP, ADIPOQ, INS
34sulfonylurea4411.0INS, GCK, ADIPOQ
35orlistat44 59 1113.0INS, ADIPOQ, LEP
36glycerol44 11 2412.9ADIPOQ, GCK, LEP, INS
37niacin44 1111.9INS, ADIPOQ, NAMPT
3825-hydroxyvitamin d4410.9LEP, ADIPOQ, CYP2R1
3911beta-hydroxysteroid4410.9ADIPOQ, LEP, RETN
40chromium picolinate4410.9INS, GCK
41streptozotocin4410.9ADIPOQ, INS, GCK
42vitamin a44 11 2412.9RBP4, RETN, LEP, ADIPOQ
43glycerol 3-phosphate44 2411.8GCK, ADIPOQ, LEP
44olanzapine49 44 28 11 2414.8INS, LEP, ADIPOQ
45glibenclamide44 28 49 5913.7ADIPOQ, INS, LEP
46exenatide44 1111.7INS, LEP
472-deoxyglucose44 1111.6ADIPOQ, INS, GCK
482-arachidonoylglycerol44 2811.6LEP, ADIPOQ
49preproinsulin4410.5GCK, INS
50atazanavir44 49 1112.3ADIPOQ, INS

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Gestational Diabetes

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16Gene Ontology
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Cellular components related to Gestational Diabetes according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1extracellular regionGO:00557610.9RBP4, RETN, INS, LEP, FSTL3, LNPEP
2extracellular spaceGO:00561510.5ADIPOQ, APLN, RBP4, RETN, INS, LEP

Biological processes related to Gestational Diabetes according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 15)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1glucose homeostasisGO:04259311.0ADIPOQ, INS, MTNR1B, RBP4, GCK
2regulation of insulin secretionGO:05079611.0GCK, MTNR1B, INS, LEP
3negative regulation of gluconeogenesisGO:04572110.9GCK, INS, ADIPOQ
4positive regulation of glucose importGO:04632610.9ADIPOQ, INS, CAPN10
5positive regulation of insulin secretionGO:03202410.9GCK, CAPN10, RBP4
6response to insulin stimulusGO:03286810.8RBP4, RETN, LEP
7cellular response to insulin stimulusGO:03286910.8ADIPOQ, CAPN10, GCK
8negative regulation of vasoconstrictionGO:04590610.8LEP, APLN
9positive regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathwayGO:04662810.7LEP, INS
10positive regulation of glycolysisGO:04582110.7INS, GCK
11positive regulation of cellular protein metabolic processGO:03227010.6INS, ADIPOQ
12positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic processGO:04572510.6INS, GCK
13adipose tissue developmentGO:06061210.6LEP, NAMPT
14glucose metabolic processGO:00600610.5INS, LEP, ADIPOQ
15embryonic heart tube developmentGO:03505010.3HHEX, FOXC2

Molecular functions related to Gestational Diabetes according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1hormone activityGO:00517910.7ADIPOQ, LEP, INS, RETN, APLN

Products for genes affiliated with Gestational Diabetes

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  • Antibodies
  • Proteins
  • Lysates
  • Antibodies

Sources for Gestational Diabetes

About this section
3CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
28IUPHAR
29KEGG
34MeSH
35MESH via Orphanet
36MGI
39NCIt
40NDF-RT
43NINDS
44Novoseek
46OMIM
47OMIM via Orphanet
50PubMed
51QIAGEN
57SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
60UMLS
61UMLS via Orphanet