MCID: GGN002
MIFTS: 40

Gigantism malady

Summaries for Gigantism

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42NIH Rare Diseases, 63Wikipedia, 32MalaCards
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NIH Rare Diseases:42 Gigantism is abnormally large growth due to an excess of growth hormone (gh) during childhood, before the bone growth plates have closed (epiphyseal fusion). it causes excessive growth in height, muscles, and organs, making the child extremely large for age. other symptoms may include delayed puberty; double vision or difficulty with side (peripheral) vision; prominent forehead (frontal bossing) and a prominent jaw; headache; increased sweating (hyperhidrosis); irregular periods; large hands and feet with thick fingers and toes; thickening of the facial features; and weakness. it may begin at any age before epiphyseal fusion. the most common cause is a non-cancerous (benign) tumor of the pituitary gland, which may cause it to make too much gh, but it can be caused by other underlying conditions (which may cause a pituitary tumor) including carney complex; mccune-albright syndrome (mas); multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (men-1); and neurofibromatosis. treatment typically includes surgery to remove the tumor and can cure many cases. medication or radiation therapy may be used to reduce gh release or block the effect of gh. if the condition occurs after normal bone growth has stopped (in adulthood), it is referred to as acromegaly. last updated: 12/10/2010

MalaCards: Gigantism is related to acromegaly and sotos syndrome. An important gene associated with Gigantism is GHRH (growth hormone releasing hormone), and among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors). The compounds ribonucleic acid and octreotide have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include bone and pituitary, and related mouse phenotypes are homeostasis/metabolism and growth/size.

Wikipedia:63 Gigantism, also known as giantism (from Greek γίγας gigas, \"giant\", plural γίγαντες... more...

Aliases & Classifications for Gigantism

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42NIH Rare Diseases, 44Novoseek, 60UMLS
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Aliases & Descriptions:

gigantism 42 44 60


Related Diseases for Gigantism

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17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
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Diseases in the Gigantism Due to Ghrf Hypersecretion family:

gigantism

Diseases related to Gigantism via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards/GeneDecks gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 242)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1acromegaly30.9GH1, PRL, SST, IGFBP3, IGF1
2sotos syndrome30.8GPC3, IGFBP3
3adenoma30.5GH1, GHRH, GHRHR, H19, GNAS, PRL
4beckwith-wiedemann syndrome30.5H19, GPC3
5pituitary adenoma30.5GNAS, GHRHR, GHRH, GH1, PRL, SSTR2
6mccune albright syndrome30.4GNAS, GH1, PRL
7fibrous dysplasia30.3GH1, GNAS
8hyperprolactinemia30.2GNAS, GHRH, GH1, PRL, SST, IGF1
9hypopituitarism30.1GHRH, GH1, PRL, SST, IGFBP3, IGF1
10dwarfism30.1GHRHR, GHRH, GH1, IGFBP3, IGF1
11hypothyroidism30.0GNAS, GHRHR, GHRH, GH1, PRL, IGFBP3
12hypogonadism29.9GH1, PRL, IGFBP3, IGF1
13hepatitis29.9GPC3
14pituitary apoplexy29.9PRL
15hypoglycemia29.7GHRH, GH1, PRL, SST, IGFBP3, IGF1
16diabetes mellitus29.7PYGM, GH1, SST, IGFBP3, IGF1
17obesity29.7GNAS, GHRH, GH1, IGFBP3, IGF1
18carney complex29.7AIP, GNAS
19melanoma29.7GPC3, SSTR2, SOCS2
20meningioma29.7SST, SSTR2
21hypertension29.7IGF1
22cerebritis10.7
23neurofibromatosis10.3
24renal hamartomas nephroblastomatosis and fetal gigantism10.3
25cerebral gigantism jaw cysts10.2
26familial infantile gigantism10.2
27renal wilms' tumor10.1
28tuberous sclerosis10.1
29klippel-trenaunay syndrome10.0
30diabetic ketoacidosis10.0
31hemangioma10.0
32keratosis10.0
33lipomatosis10.0
34seborrheic keratosis10.0
35pituitary tumors10.0IGF1, AIP, PTTG1, SST, SSTR4, GNAS
36prolactinoma10.0GNAS, GHRHR, GH1, PRL, SSTR2, SSTR4
37breast cancer10.0PYGM, SOCS2, H19, GHRHR, GHRH, GH1
38short stature10.0GNAS, GHRHR, GHRH, GH1, PRL, IGFBP3
39growth hormone deficiency10.0GHRHR, GHRH, GH1, PRL, IGFBP3, IGF1
40hyperthyroidism10.0GNAS, GHRH, GH1, PRL, SST, IGF1
41insulin resistance10.0PYGM, GNAS, GH1, SST, IGFBP3, IGF1
42osteosarcoma10.0H19, GHRHR, GHRH, IGFBP3, IGF1, PTTG1
43precocious puberty10.0GNAS, GH1, PRL, IGFBP3, IGF1
44anorexia nervosa10.0GHRH, GH1, PRL, IGFBP3, IGF1
45hyperandrogenism10.0GNAS, GH1, PRL, IGFBP3, IGF1
46adrenal gland hyperfunction10.0GHRH, GH1, PRL, SST
47insulinoma10.0GHRH, GH1, SSTR2, SSTR4, SST
48carcinoid syndrome10.0GNAS, GHRH, GH1, SSTR2, SST
49growth retardation-mild developmental delay-chronic hepatitis syndrome10.0GHRHR, GH1, IGFBP3, IGF1
50hyperinsulinism10.0GHRH, GH1, SST, IGFBP3, IGF1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Gigantism:



Diseases related to gigantism

Clinical Features for Gigantism

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Drugs & Therapeutics for Gigantism

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5CenterWatch, 41NIH Clinical Center, 6ClinicalTrials, 60UMLS, 40NDF-RT
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Approved drugs:

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Drug clinical trials:

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Genetic Tests for Gigantism

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Anatomical Context for Gigantism

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32MalaCards
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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Gigantism:

32
Bone, Pituitary

Animal Models for Gigantism or affiliated genes

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36MGI
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Publications for Gigantism

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Genetic Variations for Gigantism

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Expression for genes affiliated with Gigantism

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1BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
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Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Gigantism

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Gigantism.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Gigantism

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53Reactome, 37NCBI BioSystems Database, 29KEGG, 51QIAGEN, 12EMD Millipore
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Compounds for genes affiliated with Gigantism

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44Novoseek, 59Tocris Bioscience, 28IUPHAR, 11DrugBank, 24HMDB, 49PharmGKB
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Compounds related to Gigantism according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show top 50)    (show all 94)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1ribonucleic acid4411.1IGF1, PTTG1, IGFBP3, SSTR4, GNAS, H19
2octreotide44 59 28 1114.1IGF1, GHRH, GNAS, IGFBP3, SST, SSTR4
3acth4411.1GNAS, GHRH, GH1, IGF1, PRL, SSTR2
4lanreotide44 2812.1SSTR4, SSTR2, PRL, GH1, GHRH, SST
5ghrp4411.1GH1, PRL, SST, IGFBP3, IGF1, GHRH
6gnrh4411.1IGFBP3, SST, GNAS, SSTR2, PRL, GH1
7hexarelin44 2812.1IGFBP3, SST, PRL, GH1, GHRH, GHRHR
8arginine4411.1IGF1, PYGM, IGFBP3, GHRH, SST, PRL
9pyridostigmine44 1112.0IGF1, IGFBP3, SST, PRL, GH1, GHRH
10clonidine44 28 1113.0IGFBP3, IGF1, SST, PRL, GH1, GHRH
11pegvisomant44 1112.0IGF1, IGFBP3, SST, GHRH, GH1
12thyroxine44 2412.0GHRH, GH1, PRL, SST, IGFBP3, IGF1
13naltrexone44 49 28 1114.0IGFBP3, GHRH, GH1, PRL, IGF1
14cabergoline28 44 1113.0IGFBP3, IGF1, GH1, PRL, SST
15bromocriptine28 44 1113.0SST, IGFBP3, GHRH, PRL
16steroid4411.0IGFBP3, GH1, GHRH, H19, PRL, RASD1
17quinagolide4411.0PRL, SST, IGF1, GH1
18glucose4411.0IGF1, IGFBP3, SSTR2, GHRH, PYGM
19dopamine44 28 11 2414.0PTTG1, IGF1, GNAS, GHRH, SSTR2
20acipimox44 2812.0IGF1, SST, GH1, GHRH
21levodopa44 1112.0SST, PRL, GH1, IGF1, GHRH
22triiodothyronine4411.0GH1, IGF1, IGFBP3, PRL, GHRH
23pirenzepine44 28 1113.0SST, GH1, GHRH, IGF1
24buserelin44 28 1113.0IGF1, PRL, SST, IGFBP3
25clomiphene citrate4410.9GH1, IGFBP3, IGF1, PRL
26thymidine44 2411.9PTTG1, GH1, SSTR2, H19, IGFBP3, GNAS
27somatuline4410.9GH1, SST, IGF1
28tamoxifen44 49 28 1113.9IGF1, SSTR2, IGFBP3, PRL, GHRH, GH1
29adenylate4410.9GNAS, SST, SSTR2, GH1, GHRH, GHRHR
30dexamethasone44 49 28 1113.9GHRH, GH1, GHRHR, RASD1
31cyclosomatostatin5910.9SST, SSTR2, SSTR4
32(1r,1s,3r/1r,1r,3s)-l-054,2645910.9SST, SSTR2, SSTR4
33cyn 1548065910.9SSTR2, SSTR4, SST
34progesterone44 59 28 11 2414.9PRL, IGFBP3, SSTR2, IGF1, GNAS, GHRH
35oxandrolone44 1111.9IGFBP3, IGF1, GH1
36naloxone44 49 28 1113.8GH1, SST, GHRH, PRL
37somatostatin59 2411.8SSTR2, SSTR4, SST
38norepinephrine44 11 2412.8GNAS, GHRH, PRL
39dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate4410.8PRL, IGFBP3, GH1, IGF1
40c-peptide4410.8SST, GH1, IGF1, IGFBP3
41dhea4410.8IGFBP3, IGF1, PRL, GH1
42estrogen4410.7PTTG1
435-hydroxytryptophan4410.7PRL, SST, GH1
44leuprolide acetate4410.7IGF1, PRL, GH1
45androstenedione44 2411.7GH1, PRL, IGFBP3, IGF1
46tyrosine4410.6PYGM, GNAS, SOCS2, SSTR4, IGF1, H19
47fenfluramine28 44 1112.6GHRH, PRL, IGFBP3
48iplex4410.5IGF1, IGFBP3
49estrone44 28 11 2413.5GH1, PRL, IGF1, IGFBP3
50pyridinoline4410.2GH1, IGFBP3, IGF1

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Gigantism

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16Gene Ontology
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Cellular components related to Gigantism according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1extracellular regionGO:00557610.6GHRH, GH1, PRL, SST, IGFBP3, IGF1
2insulin-like growth factor binding protein complexGO:01694210.4IGF1, IGFBP3
3extracellular spaceGO:00561510.3GHRH, GH1, SST, IGFBP3, IGF1, GPC3

Biological processes related to Gigantism according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 15)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1positive regulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathwayGO:04356810.9IGF1, IGFBP3, GH1, GHRH, GHRHR
2negative regulation of cell proliferationGO:00828510.9SSTR2, SSTR4, SST, IGFBP3, IGF1, RNF41
3JAK-STAT cascade involved in growth hormone signaling pathwayGO:06039710.8PRL, GH1, SOCS2
4positive regulation of multicellular organism growthGO:04001810.8GHRHR, GHRH, GH1
5positive regulation of cAMP biosynthetic processGO:03081910.8GHRH, GHRHR, GNAS
6water homeostasisGO:03010410.7GHRHR, IGF1
7response to estradiol stimulusGO:03235510.7PRL, GH1, SOCS2
8positive regulation of MAPK cascadeGO:04341010.7SSTR4, IGFBP3, IGF1
9response to nutrientGO:00758410.7SST, SSTR2, PRL
10growth hormone receptor signaling pathwayGO:06039610.6SOCS2, GH1
11positive regulation of growth hormone secretionGO:06012410.6GHRHR, GHRH
12positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat5 proteinGO:04252310.5IGF1, GH1
13growth hormone secretionGO:03025210.5GHRHR, GHRH
14positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascadeGO:04642710.4PRL, GH1
15cellular response to glucocorticoid stimulusGO:07138510.2SSTR4, SSTR2

Molecular functions related to Gigantism according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1prolactin receptor bindingGO:00514810.6PRL, GH1, SOCS2
2hormone activityGO:00517910.6GH1, PRL, SST, IGF1
3insulin-like growth factor receptor bindingGO:00515910.5IGF1, SOCS2
4somatostatin receptor activityGO:00499410.4SSTR4, SSTR2
5growth hormone receptor bindingGO:00513110.2GH1, SOCS2

Products for genes affiliated with Gigantism

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Sources for Gigantism

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3CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
28IUPHAR
29KEGG
34MeSH
35MESH via Orphanet
36MGI
39NCIt
40NDF-RT
43NINDS
44Novoseek
46OMIM
47OMIM via Orphanet
50PubMed
51QIAGEN
57SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
60UMLS
61UMLS via Orphanet