Gigantism malady

Summaries for Gigantism

About this section
42NIH Rare Diseases, 63Wikipedia, 32MalaCards
See all sources

Fully expand this MalaCard

Export this MalaCard
NIH Rare Diseases:42 Gigantism is abnormally large growth due to an excess of growth hormone (gh) during childhood, before the bone growth plates have closed (epiphyseal fusion). it causes excessive growth in height, muscles, and organs, making the child extremely large for age. other symptoms may include delayed puberty; double vision or difficulty with side (peripheral) vision; prominent forehead (frontal bossing) and a prominent jaw; headache; increased sweating (hyperhidrosis); irregular periods; large hands and feet with thick fingers and toes; thickening of the facial features; and weakness. it may begin at any age before epiphyseal fusion. the most common cause is a non-cancerous (benign) tumor of the pituitary gland, which may cause it to make too much gh, but it can be caused by other underlying conditions (which may cause a pituitary tumor) including carney complex; mccune-albright syndrome (mas); multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (men-1); and neurofibromatosis. treatment typically includes surgery to remove the tumor and can cure many cases. medication or radiation therapy may be used to reduce gh release or block the effect of gh. if the condition occurs after normal bone growth has stopped (in adulthood), it is referred to as acromegaly. last updated: 12/10/2010

MalaCards: Gigantism is related to acromegaly and sotos syndrome. An important gene associated with Gigantism is GHRH (growth hormone releasing hormone), and among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors). The compounds ribonucleic acid and octreotide have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include bone and pituitary, and related mouse phenotypes are homeostasis/metabolism and growth/size.

Wikipedia:63 Gigantism, also known as giantism (from Greek γίγας gigas, \"giant\", plural γίγαντες... more...

Aliases & Classifications for Gigantism

About this section
42NIH Rare Diseases, 44Novoseek, 60UMLS
See all sources

Aliases & Descriptions:

gigantism 42 44 60

Related Diseases for Gigantism

About this section
17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
See all sources

Diseases in the Gigantism Due to Ghrf Hypersecretion family:


Diseases related to Gigantism via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards/GeneDecks gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 242)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1acromegaly30.9GH1, PRL, SST, IGFBP3, IGF1
2sotos syndrome30.8GPC3, IGFBP3
3adenoma30.5GH1, GHRH, GHRHR, H19, GNAS, PRL
4beckwith-wiedemann syndrome30.5H19, GPC3
5pituitary adenoma30.5GNAS, GHRHR, GHRH, GH1, PRL, SSTR2
6mccune albright syndrome30.4GNAS, GH1, PRL
7fibrous dysplasia30.3GH1, GNAS
8hyperprolactinemia30.2GNAS, GHRH, GH1, PRL, SST, IGF1
9hypopituitarism30.1GHRH, GH1, PRL, SST, IGFBP3, IGF1
10dwarfism30.1GHRHR, GHRH, GH1, IGFBP3, IGF1
11hypothyroidism30.0GNAS, GHRHR, GHRH, GH1, PRL, IGFBP3
12hypogonadism29.9GH1, PRL, IGFBP3, IGF1
14pituitary apoplexy29.9PRL
15hypoglycemia29.7GHRH, GH1, PRL, SST, IGFBP3, IGF1
16diabetes mellitus29.7PYGM, GH1, SST, IGFBP3, IGF1
17obesity29.7GNAS, GHRH, GH1, IGFBP3, IGF1
18carney complex29.7AIP, GNAS
19melanoma29.7GPC3, SSTR2, SOCS2
20meningioma29.7SST, SSTR2
24renal hamartomas nephroblastomatosis and fetal gigantism10.3
25cerebral gigantism jaw cysts10.2
26familial infantile gigantism10.2
27renal wilms' tumor10.1
28tuberous sclerosis10.1
29klippel-trenaunay syndrome10.0
30diabetic ketoacidosis10.0
34seborrheic keratosis10.0
35pituitary tumors10.0IGF1, AIP, PTTG1, SST, SSTR4, GNAS
36prolactinoma10.0GNAS, GHRHR, GH1, PRL, SSTR2, SSTR4
37breast cancer10.0PYGM, SOCS2, H19, GHRHR, GHRH, GH1
38short stature10.0GNAS, GHRHR, GHRH, GH1, PRL, IGFBP3
39growth hormone deficiency10.0GHRHR, GHRH, GH1, PRL, IGFBP3, IGF1
40hyperthyroidism10.0GNAS, GHRH, GH1, PRL, SST, IGF1
41insulin resistance10.0PYGM, GNAS, GH1, SST, IGFBP3, IGF1
42osteosarcoma10.0H19, GHRHR, GHRH, IGFBP3, IGF1, PTTG1
43precocious puberty10.0GNAS, GH1, PRL, IGFBP3, IGF1
44anorexia nervosa10.0GHRH, GH1, PRL, IGFBP3, IGF1
45hyperandrogenism10.0GNAS, GH1, PRL, IGFBP3, IGF1
46adrenal gland hyperfunction10.0GHRH, GH1, PRL, SST
47insulinoma10.0GHRH, GH1, SSTR2, SSTR4, SST
48carcinoid syndrome10.0GNAS, GHRH, GH1, SSTR2, SST
49growth retardation-mild developmental delay-chronic hepatitis syndrome10.0GHRHR, GH1, IGFBP3, IGF1
50hyperinsulinism10.0GHRH, GH1, SST, IGFBP3, IGF1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Gigantism:

Diseases related to gigantism

Clinical Features for Gigantism

About this section

Drugs & Therapeutics for Gigantism

About this section
5CenterWatch, 41NIH Clinical Center, 6ClinicalTrials, 60UMLS, 40NDF-RT
See all sources

Approved drugs:

Search CenterWatch for Gigantism

Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Gigantism

Search NIH Clinical Center for Gigantism

Search CenterWatch for Gigantism

Genetic Tests for Gigantism

About this section

Anatomical Context for Gigantism

About this section
See all sources

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Gigantism:

Bone, Pituitary

Animal Models for Gigantism or affiliated genes

About this section
See all sources

Publications for Gigantism

About this section

Genetic Variations for Gigantism

About this section

Expression for genes affiliated with Gigantism

About this section
1BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
See all sources
Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Gigantism

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Gigantism.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Gigantism

About this section
53Reactome, 37NCBI BioSystems Database, 29KEGG, 51QIAGEN, 12EMD Millipore
See all sources

Compounds for genes affiliated with Gigantism

About this section
44Novoseek, 59Tocris Bioscience, 28IUPHAR, 11DrugBank, 24HMDB, 49PharmGKB
See all sources

Compounds related to Gigantism according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show top 50)    (show all 94)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1ribonucleic acid4411.1IGF1, PTTG1, IGFBP3, SSTR4, GNAS, H19
2octreotide44 59 28 1114.1IGF1, GHRH, GNAS, IGFBP3, SST, SSTR4
3acth4411.1GNAS, GHRH, GH1, IGF1, PRL, SSTR2
4lanreotide44 2812.1SSTR4, SSTR2, PRL, GH1, GHRH, SST
5ghrp4411.1GH1, PRL, SST, IGFBP3, IGF1, GHRH
6gnrh4411.1IGFBP3, SST, GNAS, SSTR2, PRL, GH1
7hexarelin44 2812.1IGFBP3, SST, PRL, GH1, GHRH, GHRHR
8arginine4411.1IGF1, PYGM, IGFBP3, GHRH, SST, PRL
9pyridostigmine44 1112.0IGF1, IGFBP3, SST, PRL, GH1, GHRH
10clonidine44 28 1113.0IGFBP3, IGF1, SST, PRL, GH1, GHRH
11pegvisomant44 1112.0IGF1, IGFBP3, SST, GHRH, GH1
12thyroxine44 2412.0GHRH, GH1, PRL, SST, IGFBP3, IGF1
13naltrexone44 49 28 1114.0IGFBP3, GHRH, GH1, PRL, IGF1
14cabergoline28 44 1113.0IGFBP3, IGF1, GH1, PRL, SST
15bromocriptine28 44 1113.0SST, IGFBP3, GHRH, PRL
16steroid4411.0IGFBP3, GH1, GHRH, H19, PRL, RASD1
17quinagolide4411.0PRL, SST, IGF1, GH1
18glucose4411.0IGF1, IGFBP3, SSTR2, GHRH, PYGM
19dopamine44 28 11 2414.0PTTG1, IGF1, GNAS, GHRH, SSTR2
20acipimox44 2812.0IGF1, SST, GH1, GHRH
21levodopa44 1112.0SST, PRL, GH1, IGF1, GHRH
22triiodothyronine4411.0GH1, IGF1, IGFBP3, PRL, GHRH
23pirenzepine44 28 1113.0SST, GH1, GHRH, IGF1
24buserelin44 28 1113.0IGF1, PRL, SST, IGFBP3
25clomiphene citrate4410.9GH1, IGFBP3, IGF1, PRL
26thymidine44 2411.9PTTG1, GH1, SSTR2, H19, IGFBP3, GNAS
27somatuline4410.9GH1, SST, IGF1
28tamoxifen44 49 28 1113.9IGF1, SSTR2, IGFBP3, PRL, GHRH, GH1
29adenylate4410.9GNAS, SST, SSTR2, GH1, GHRH, GHRHR
30dexamethasone44 49 28 1113.9GHRH, GH1, GHRHR, RASD1
31cyclosomatostatin5910.9SST, SSTR2, SSTR4
32(1r,1s,3r/1r,1r,3s)-l-054,2645910.9SST, SSTR2, SSTR4
33cyn 1548065910.9SSTR2, SSTR4, SST
34progesterone44 59 28 11 2414.9PRL, IGFBP3, SSTR2, IGF1, GNAS, GHRH
35oxandrolone44 1111.9IGFBP3, IGF1, GH1
36naloxone44 49 28 1113.8GH1, SST, GHRH, PRL
37somatostatin59 2411.8SSTR2, SSTR4, SST
38norepinephrine44 11 2412.8GNAS, GHRH, PRL
39dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate4410.8PRL, IGFBP3, GH1, IGF1
40c-peptide4410.8SST, GH1, IGF1, IGFBP3
41dhea4410.8IGFBP3, IGF1, PRL, GH1
435-hydroxytryptophan4410.7PRL, SST, GH1
44leuprolide acetate4410.7IGF1, PRL, GH1
45androstenedione44 2411.7GH1, PRL, IGFBP3, IGF1
46tyrosine4410.6PYGM, GNAS, SOCS2, SSTR4, IGF1, H19
47fenfluramine28 44 1112.6GHRH, PRL, IGFBP3
48iplex4410.5IGF1, IGFBP3
49estrone44 28 11 2413.5GH1, PRL, IGF1, IGFBP3
50pyridinoline4410.2GH1, IGFBP3, IGF1

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Gigantism

About this section
16Gene Ontology
See all sources

Cellular components related to Gigantism according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1extracellular regionGO:00557610.6GNAS, GHRH, GH1, PRL, SST, IGFBP3
2insulin-like growth factor binding protein complexGO:01694210.4IGFBP3, IGF1
3extracellular spaceGO:00561510.3GHRH, GH1, SST, IGFBP3, IGF1, GPC3

Biological processes related to Gigantism according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 15)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1positive regulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathwayGO:04356810.9IGF1, IGFBP3, GH1, GHRH, GHRHR
2negative regulation of cell proliferationGO:00828510.9IGFBP3, RNF41, IGF1, SSTR2, SSTR4, SST
3JAK-STAT cascade involved in growth hormone signaling pathwayGO:06039710.8PRL, SOCS2, GH1
4positive regulation of multicellular organism growthGO:04001810.8GHRH, GH1, GHRHR
5positive regulation of cAMP biosynthetic processGO:03081910.8GNAS, GHRHR, GHRH
6water homeostasisGO:03010410.7IGF1, GHRHR
7response to estradiol stimulusGO:03235510.7SOCS2, PRL, GH1
8positive regulation of MAPK cascadeGO:04341010.7IGF1, IGFBP3, SSTR4
9response to nutrientGO:00758410.7SSTR2, SST, PRL
10positive regulation of growth hormone secretionGO:06012410.6GHRHR, GHRH
11growth hormone receptor signaling pathwayGO:06039610.6GH1, SOCS2
12positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat5 proteinGO:04252310.5GH1, IGF1
13growth hormone secretionGO:03025210.5GHRH, GHRHR
14cellular response to glucocorticoid stimulusGO:07138510.4SSTR4, SSTR2
15positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascadeGO:04642710.2PRL, GH1

Molecular functions related to Gigantism according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1prolactin receptor bindingGO:00514810.6SOCS2, PRL, GH1
2hormone activityGO:00517910.6PRL, SST, IGF1, GH1
3insulin-like growth factor receptor bindingGO:00515910.5IGF1, SOCS2
4growth hormone receptor bindingGO:00513110.4SOCS2, GH1
5somatostatin receptor activityGO:00499410.2SSTR2, SSTR4

Products for genes affiliated with Gigantism

About this section
  • Antibodies
  • Proteins
  • Lysates
  • Antibodies

Sources for Gigantism

About this section
26ICD10 via Orphanet
35MESH via Orphanet
47OMIM via Orphanet
57SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
61UMLS via Orphanet