MCID: GGN002
MIFTS: 51

Gigantism malady

Summaries for Gigantism

Sources:
43NIH Rare Diseases, 64Wikipedia, 33MalaCards
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NIH Rare Diseases:43 Gigantism is abnormally large growth due to an excess of growth hormone (gh) during childhood, before the bone growth plates have closed (epiphyseal fusion). it causes excessive growth in height, muscles, and organs, making the child extremely large for age. other symptoms may include delayed puberty; double vision or difficulty with side (peripheral) vision; prominent forehead (frontal bossing) and a prominent jaw; headache; increased sweating (hyperhidrosis); irregular periods; large hands and feet with thick fingers and toes; thickening of the facial features; and weakness. it may begin at any age before epiphyseal fusion. the most common cause is a non-cancerous (benign) tumor of the pituitary gland, which may cause it to make too much gh, but it can be caused by other underlying conditions (which may cause a pituitary tumor) including carney complex; mccune-albright syndrome (mas); multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (men-1); and neurofibromatosis. treatment typically includes surgery to remove the tumor and can cure many cases. medication or radiation therapy may be used to reduce gh release or block the effect of gh. if the condition occurs after normal bone growth has stopped (in adulthood), it is referred to as acromegaly. last updated: 12/10/2010

MalaCards: Gigantism is related to sotos syndrome and acromegaly. An important gene associated with Gigantism is GHRH (growth hormone releasing hormone), and among its related pathways are Signaling by GPCR and Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors). The compounds ribonucleic acid and octreotide have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, cortex and heart, and related mouse phenotypes are homeostasis/metabolism and growth/size.

Wikipedia:64 Gigantism, also known as giantism (from Greek γίγας gigas, \"giant\", plural γίγαντες... more...

Aliases & Classifications for Gigantism

Sources:
43NIH Rare Diseases, 45Novoseek, 61UMLS
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Aliases & Descriptions:

gigantism 43 45 61


Related Diseases for Gigantism

Sources:
17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
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Diseases in the gigantism due to ghrf hypersecretion family:

gigantism

Diseases related to Gigantism via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards/GeneDecks gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 242)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1sotos syndrome30.9GPC3, IGFBP3
2acromegaly30.9GH1, PRL, SSTR2, SST, IGFBP3, IGF1
3adenoma30.6GH1, GHRH, GHRHR, H19, GNAS, PRL
4beckwith-wiedemann syndrome30.5H19, GPC3
5mccune albright syndrome30.4GNAS, GH1, PRL
6fibrous dysplasia30.3GH1, GNAS
7hyperprolactinemia30.2GNAS, GHRH, GH1, PRL, SST, IGF1
8wilms tumor30.2GPC3, H19
9dwarfism30.2GHRHR, GHRH, GH1, IGFBP3, IGF1
10multiple endocrine neoplasia29.9GNAS
11pituitary apoplexy29.9PRL
12pituitary tumors29.7IGF1, AIP, PTTG1, SST, SSTR4, GNAS
13hypoglycemia29.7GHRH, GH1, PRL, SST, IGFBP3, IGF1
14carney complex29.7AIP, GNAS
15macroglossia10.4
16neurofibromatosis10.3
17n syndrome10.3
18renal hamartomas nephroblastomatosis and fetal gigantism10.3
19mccune–albright syndrome10.2
20cerebral gigantism jaw cysts10.2
21renal wilms' tumor10.1
22klippel-trenaunay syndrome10.1
23tuberous sclerosis10.1
24familial infantile gigantism10.1
25renal dysplasia10.1
26diabetic ketoacidosis10.1
27slipped capital femoral epiphysis10.1
28familial wilms tumor10.1
29pituitary adenoma10.0GNAS, GHRHR, GHRH, GH1, PRL, SSTR2
30prolactinoma10.0GNAS, GHRHR, GH1, PRL, SSTR2, SSTR4
31breast cancer10.0PYGM, SOCS2, H19, GHRHR, GHRH, GH1
32short stature10.0GNAS, GHRHR, GHRH, GH1, PRL, IGFBP3
33hypothyroidism10.0GNAS, GHRHR, GHRH, GH1, PRL, IGFBP3
34hypopituitarism10.0GHRH, GH1, PRL, SST, IGFBP3, IGF1
35growth hormone deficiency10.0GHRHR, GHRH, GH1, PRL, IGFBP3, IGF1
36hyperthyroidism10.0GNAS, GHRH, GH1, PRL, SST, IGF1
37insulin resistance10.0PYGM, GNAS, GH1, SST, IGFBP3, IGF1
38osteosarcoma10.0H19, GHRHR, GHRH, IGFBP3, IGF1, PTTG1
39precocious puberty10.0GNAS, GH1, PRL, IGFBP3, IGF1
40anorexia nervosa10.0GHRH, GH1, PRL, IGFBP3, IGF1
41hyperandrogenism10.0GNAS, GH1, PRL, IGFBP3, IGF1
42adrenal gland hyperfunction10.0GHRH, GH1, PRL, SST
43insulinoma10.0GHRH, GH1, SSTR2, SSTR4, SST
44carcinoid syndrome10.0GNAS, GHRH, GH1, SSTR2, SST
45hypogonadism10.0GH1, PRL, IGFBP3, IGF1
46hyperinsulinism10.0GHRH, GH1, SST, IGFBP3, IGF1
47gastrinoma10.0PYGM, GH1, SSTR2, SST
48glucagonoma10.0GHRH, GH1, SSTR2, SST
49wermer syndrome10.0AIP, SST, PYGM
50diabetes mellitus10.0PYGM, GH1, SST, IGFBP3, IGF1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Gigantism:



Diseases related to gigantism

Clinical Features for Gigantism

Drugs & Therapeutics for Gigantism

Sources:
5CenterWatch, 42NIH Clinical Center, 6ClinicalTrials, 61UMLS, 41NDF-RT
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Approved drugs:

Search CenterWatch for Gigantism

Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Gigantism

Search NIH Clinical Center for Gigantism

Search CenterWatch for Gigantism

Genetic Tests for Gigantism

Anatomical Context for Gigantism

Sources:
33MalaCards
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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Gigantism:

33
Brain, Cortex, Heart, Skeletal muscle, Colon, Kidney, Liver, Breast, B cells, Fetal brain, Hypothalamus, Fetal liver, Adrenal cortex, Pituitary

Animal Models for Gigantism or affiliated genes

Sources:
37MGI, 28inGenious Targeting Laboratory
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Publications for Gigantism

Sources:
51PubMed
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Articles related to Gigantism:

(show top 50)    (show all 379)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Why might they be giants? Towards an understanding of polar gigantism. (22623187)
2012
2
Spontaneous remission of acromegaly or gigantism due to subclinical apoplexy of pituitary growth hormone adenoma. (22340248)
2011
3
Dorsal resection of a thoracic hemivertebra in a 4-year-old boy with endochondral gigantism. A case report. (21138230)
2010
4
Gigantism of the lower limb in Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome: anatomy of the lateral marginal vein. (19551303)
2009
5
Focal neuronal gigantism: a rare complication of therapeutic radiation. (19574493)
2009
6
Closed-loop titration of propofol and remifentanil guided by Bispectral Index in a patient with extreme gigantism. (20006268)
2009
7
Dissociation of somatic growth from segmentation drives gigantism in snakes. (17389216)
2007
8
Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor gene polymorphisms in pituitary gigantism. (16622299)
2006
9
Gigantism, temperature and metabolic rate in terrestrial poikilotherms. (16191647)
2005
10
Parasite alteration of host shape: a quantitative approach to gigantism helps elucidate evolutionary advantages. (15002898)
2004
11
Five-year follow-up of a 13-year-old boy with a pituitary adenoma causing gigantism--effect of octreotide therapy. (14739526)
2004
12
Comparative analysis of vertebrate dystrophin loci indicate intron gigantism as a common feature. (12727896)
2003
13
Sotos syndrome (cerebral gigantism): analysis of 8 cases. (12068351)
2002
14
Neurofibromatosis, gigantism, elephantiasis neuromatosa and recurrent massive subperiosteal hematoma: a new case report and review of 7 case reports from the literature. (11383296)
2001
15
A syndrome of multiorgan hyperplasia with features of gigantism, tumorigenesis, and female sterility in p27(Kip1)-deficient mice. (8646781)
1996
16
Cerebral gigantism (Sotos' syndrome). A rare cause of delayed walking and awkward gait. (7562459)
1995
17
Pathological and experimental investigations in a case of gigantism. (8382895)
1993
18
Constitutional relaxation of insulin-like growth factor II gene imprinting associated with Wilms' tumour and gigantism. (8298652)
1993
19
A rare association of localized gigantism with tuberous sclerosis. (1491092)
1992
20
Cerebral gigantism (Sotos syndrome)--two case reports. (3268648)
1988
21
Cerebral gigantism (Sotos syndrome) in two patients with fra(X) chromosomes. (3953650)
1986
22
Cyproheptadine-mediated inhibition of growth hormone and prolactin release from pituitary adenoma cells of acromegaly and gigantism in culture. (2994332)
1985
23
Mammary gigantism and D-penicillamine. (6478628)
1984
24
Gigantism and hyperprolactinemia in polyostotic fibrous dysplasia (Mc Cune--Albright syndrome). (7153476)
1982
25
Pituitary gigantism in a 31 month old girl: endocrine studies and successful response to hypophysectomy. (6278015)
1981
26
Successful treatment of D-penicillamine-induced breast gigantism with danazol. (6780026)
1981
27
Acromegaly and gigantism. (7367366)
1980
28
Gigantism associated with a pituitary tumour secreting growth hormone and prolactin and cured by transsphenoidal hypophysectomy. (223354)
1979
29
Cerebral gigantism and primary hypothyroidism: pleiotropy or incidental concurrence. (263438)
1978
30
Exomphalos-macroglossia-gigantism, or EMG syndrome (Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome). (819872)
1976
31
Letter: Somatomedin in cerebral gigantism. (1245925)
1976
32
Cerebral gigantism. (1227563)
1975
33
Unususpected meningioma in a patient with pituitary gigantism. Case report with autopsy findings. (1128239)
1975
34
Evidence for autosomal recessive inheritance in cerebral gigantism. (4841084)
1974
35
Virginal and gravid mammary gigantism--recurrence after reduction mammaplasty. (5165533)
1971
36
Exomphalos-macroglossia-gigantism syndrome in Jamaican infants. (5434588)
1970
37
A Singapore giant (gigantism with acromegaly): untreated with long survival. (5520865)
1970
38
Hereditary pancellular lysosomal gigantism (Chediak-Higashi syndrome) case report. (5451240)
1970
39
Cerebral gigantism in childhood. Report of two cases. (5678413)
1968
40
Cerebral gigantism with intermittent fractional hypopituitarism and normal sella turcica. (6028644)
1967
41
CEREBRAL GIGANTISM IN CHILDHOOD. A SYNDROME OF EXCESSIVELY RAPID GROWTH AND ACROMEGALIC FEATURES AND A NONPROGRESSIVE NEUROLOGIC DISORDER. (14148233)
1964
42
GIGANTISM-INDUCING FACTORS IN CHLORELLA PYRENOIDOSA. (14058623)
1963
43
Acromegalic gigantism. The Buffalo giant. (14488703)
1961
44
Alkaline phosphatase in congenital gigantism of peroxidase granules. (13337856)
1956
45
Fetal gigantism; report of a case. (13266271)
1955
46
Partial gigantism in a case of neurofibromatosis; Von Recklinghausen's disease. (13295465)
1955
47
Acquired unilateral gigantism of left lower limb. (13011337)
1952
48
"Slipped" Lower Femoral Epiphysis in a Case of Eunuchoid Gigantism. (19993716)
1950
49
The gigantism produced in normal rats by injection of the pituitary growth hormone; histological changes in the pituitary. (18871177)
1948
50
Cellular gigantism and pluripolar mitosis in human hematopoiesis. (20994829)
1946

Genetic Variations for Gigantism

Expression for genes affiliated with Gigantism

Sources:
1BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
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Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Gigantism

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Gigantism.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Gigantism

Sources:
54Reactome, 38NCBI BioSystems Database, 30KEGG, 52QIAGEN, 12EMD Millipore
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Compounds for genes affiliated with Gigantism

Sources:
45Novoseek, 60Tocris Bioscience, 29IUPHAR, 11DrugBank, 24HMDB, 50PharmGKB
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Compounds related to Gigantism according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show top 50)    (show all 94)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1ribonucleic acid4511.1IGF1, PTTG1, IGFBP3, SSTR4, GNAS, H19
2octreotide45 60 29 1114.1IGF1, GHRH, GNAS, IGFBP3, SST, SSTR4
3acth4511.1GNAS, GHRH, GH1, IGF1, PRL, SSTR2
4lanreotide45 2912.1SSTR4, SSTR2, PRL, GH1, GHRH, SST
5ghrp4511.1GH1, PRL, SST, IGFBP3, IGF1, GHRH
6gnrh4511.1IGFBP3, SST, GNAS, SSTR2, PRL, GH1
7hexarelin45 2912.1IGFBP3, SST, PRL, GH1, GHRH, GHRHR
8arginine4511.1IGF1, PYGM, IGFBP3, GHRH, SST, PRL
9pyridostigmine45 1112.0IGF1, IGFBP3, SST, PRL, GH1, GHRH
10clonidine45 29 1113.0IGFBP3, IGF1, SST, PRL, GH1, GHRH
11pegvisomant45 1112.0IGF1, IGFBP3, SST, GHRH, GH1
12thyroxine45 2412.0GHRH, GH1, PRL, SST, IGFBP3, IGF1
13naltrexone45 50 29 1114.0IGFBP3, GHRH, GH1, PRL, IGF1
14cabergoline29 45 1113.0IGFBP3, IGF1, GH1, PRL, SST
15bromocriptine29 45 1113.0SST, IGFBP3, GHRH, PRL
16steroid4511.0IGFBP3, GH1, GHRH, H19, PRL, RASD1
17quinagolide4511.0PRL, SST, IGF1, GH1
18glucose4511.0IGF1, IGFBP3, SSTR2, GHRH, PYGM
19dopamine45 29 11 2414.0PTTG1, IGF1, GNAS, GHRH, SSTR2
20acipimox45 2912.0IGF1, SST, GH1, GHRH
21levodopa45 1112.0SST, PRL, GH1, IGF1, GHRH
22triiodothyronine4511.0GH1, IGF1, IGFBP3, PRL, GHRH
23pirenzepine45 29 1113.0SST, GH1, GHRH, IGF1
24buserelin45 29 1113.0IGF1, PRL, SST, IGFBP3
25clomiphene citrate4510.9GH1, IGFBP3, IGF1, PRL
26thymidine45 2411.9PTTG1, GH1, SSTR2, H19, IGFBP3, GNAS
27somatuline4510.9GH1, SST, IGF1
28tamoxifen45 50 29 1113.9IGF1, SSTR2, IGFBP3, PRL, GHRH, GH1
29adenylate4510.9GNAS, SST, SSTR2, GH1, GHRH, GHRHR
30dexamethasone45 50 29 1113.9GHRH, GH1, GHRHR, RASD1
31cyclosomatostatin6010.9SST, SSTR2, SSTR4
32(1r,1s,3r/1r,1r,3s)-l-054,2646010.9SST, SSTR2, SSTR4
33cyn 1548066010.9SSTR2, SSTR4, SST
34progesterone45 60 29 11 2414.9PRL, IGFBP3, SSTR2, IGF1, GNAS, GHRH
35oxandrolone45 1111.9IGFBP3, IGF1, GH1
36naloxone45 50 29 1113.8GH1, SST, GHRH, PRL
37somatostatin60 2411.8SSTR2, SSTR4, SST
38norepinephrine45 11 2412.8GNAS, GHRH, PRL
39dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate4510.8PRL, IGFBP3, GH1, IGF1
40c-peptide4510.8SST, GH1, IGF1, IGFBP3
41dhea4510.8IGFBP3, IGF1, PRL, GH1
42estrogen4510.7PTTG1
435-hydroxytryptophan4510.7PRL, SST, GH1
44leuprolide acetate4510.7IGF1, PRL, GH1
45androstenedione45 2411.7GH1, PRL, IGFBP3, IGF1
46tyrosine4510.6PYGM, GNAS, SOCS2, SSTR4, IGF1, H19
47fenfluramine29 45 1112.6GHRH, PRL, IGFBP3
48iplex4510.5IGF1, IGFBP3
49estrone45 29 11 2413.5GH1, PRL, IGF1, IGFBP3
50pyridinoline4510.2GH1, IGFBP3, IGF1

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Gigantism

Sources:
16Gene Ontology
See all sources

Cellular components related to Gigantism according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1extracellular regionGO:00557610.6GNAS, GHRH, GH1, PRL, SST, IGFBP3
2insulin-like growth factor binding protein complexGO:01694210.4IGFBP3, IGF1
3extracellular spaceGO:00561510.3GHRH, GH1, SST, IGFBP3, IGF1, GPC3

Biological processes related to Gigantism according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 15)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1positive regulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathwayGO:04356810.9IGF1, IGFBP3, GH1, GHRH, GHRHR
2negative regulation of cell proliferationGO:00828510.9IGFBP3, RNF41, IGF1, SSTR2, SSTR4, SST
3JAK-STAT cascade involved in growth hormone signaling pathwayGO:06039710.8PRL, SOCS2, GH1
4positive regulation of multicellular organism growthGO:04001810.8GHRH, GH1, GHRHR
5positive regulation of cAMP biosynthetic processGO:03081910.8GNAS, GHRHR, GHRH
6water homeostasisGO:03010410.7IGF1, GHRHR
7response to estradiol stimulusGO:03235510.7SOCS2, PRL, GH1
8positive regulation of MAPK cascadeGO:04341010.7IGF1, IGFBP3, SSTR4
9response to nutrientGO:00758410.7SSTR2, SST, PRL
10positive regulation of growth hormone secretionGO:06012410.6GHRHR, GHRH
11growth hormone receptor signaling pathwayGO:06039610.6GH1, SOCS2
12positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat5 proteinGO:04252310.5GH1, IGF1
13growth hormone secretionGO:03025210.5GHRH, GHRHR
14cellular response to glucocorticoid stimulusGO:07138510.4SSTR4, SSTR2
15positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascadeGO:04642710.2PRL, GH1

Molecular functions related to Gigantism according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1prolactin receptor bindingGO:00514810.6SOCS2, PRL, GH1
2hormone activityGO:00517910.6PRL, SST, IGF1, GH1
3insulin-like growth factor receptor bindingGO:00515910.5IGF1, SOCS2
4growth hormone receptor bindingGO:00513110.4SOCS2, GH1
5somatostatin receptor activityGO:00499410.2SSTR2, SSTR4

Products for genes affiliated with Gigantism

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Sources for Gigantism

3CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
29IUPHAR
30KEGG
35MeSH
36MESH via Orphanet
37MGI
40NCIt
41NDF-RT
44NINDS
45Novoseek
47OMIM
48OMIM via Orphanet
51PubMed
52QIAGEN
58SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
61UMLS
62UMLS via Orphanet