MCID: GGN002
MIFTS: 47

Gigantism malady

Rare diseases category

Summaries for Gigantism

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NIH Rare Diseases:42 Gigantism is abnormally large growth due to an excess of growth hormone (gh) during childhood, before the bone growth plates have closed (epiphyseal fusion). it causes excessive growth in height, muscles, and organs, making the child extremely large for age. other symptoms may include delayed puberty; double vision or difficulty with side (peripheral) vision; prominent forehead (frontal bossing) and a prominent jaw; headache; increased sweating (hyperhidrosis); irregular periods; large hands and feet with thick fingers and toes; thickening of the facial features; and weakness. it may begin at any age before epiphyseal fusion. the most common cause is a non-cancerous (benign) tumor of the pituitary gland, which may cause it to make too much gh, but it can be caused by other underlying conditions (which may cause a pituitary tumor) including carney complex; mccune-albright syndrome (mas); multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (men-1); and neurofibromatosis. treatment typically includes surgery to remove the tumor and can cure many cases. medication or radiation therapy may be used to reduce gh release or block the effect of gh. if the condition occurs after normal bone growth has stopped (in adulthood), it is referred to as acromegaly. last updated: 12/10/2010

MalaCards based summary: Gigantism is related to mccune albright syndrome and acromegaly. An important gene associated with Gigantism is GHRH (growth hormone releasing hormone), and among its related pathways are Growth hormone receptor signaling and Nuclear signaling by ERBB4. The compounds atropine and propranolol have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include pituitary, bone and breast, and related mouse phenotypes are liver/biliary system and reproductive system.

Wikipedia:64 Gigantism, also known as giantism (from Greek ????? gigas, \"giant\", plural ???????? gigantes), is a... more...

Aliases & Classifications for Gigantism

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Sources:
42NIH Rare Diseases, 44Novoseek, 61UMLS
See all sources

Gigantism, Aliases & Descriptions:

Name: Gigantism 42 44 61


Classifications:

Malacards categories (disease lists): (See all malacards categories)
Global: Rare diseases


Related Diseases for Gigantism

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Diseases in the Gigantism Due to Ghrf Hypersecretion family:

gigantism

Diseases related to Gigantism via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards/GeneDecks gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 228)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1mccune albright syndrome30.6GH1, PRL
2acromegaly30.4PRL, SST, GH1, IGF1
3pituitary apoplexy30.4PRL
4dwarfism30.1IGF1, GH1, GHRH
5hypogonadism29.7IGF1, GH1, PRL
6hypothyroidism29.6PRL, GHRH, GH1, IGF1
7adenoma29.5SST, AIP, GH1, IGF1, PRL, GHRH
8hyperprolactinemia29.5PRL, IGF1, SST, GHRH, GH1
9diabetes mellitus29.5IGF1, SST, GH1
10obesity29.5GHRH, IGF1, GH1
11hypopituitarism29.4PRL, GHRH, SST, IGF1, GH1
12pituitary adenoma29.3GH1, GHRH, SST, PRL, IGF1, AIP
13hypoglycemia29.0IGF1, GHRH, GH1, SST, PRL
14pituitary tumors28.8AIP, IGF1, PRL, SST, GH1, GHRH
15cerebritis10.8
16sotos syndrome10.6
17pituitary hypoplasia10.5GHRH
18pituitary carcinoma10.4PRL
19macroglossia10.4
20beckwith-wiedemann syndrome10.4
21neurofibromatosis10.4
22renal hamartomas nephroblastomatosis and fetal gigantism10.3
23rabson-mendenhall syndrome10.3IGF1
24somatostatinoma10.3SST, GHRH
25fibrous dysplasia10.2
26cerebral gigantism jaw cysts10.2
27zollinger-ellison syndrome10.2GHRH, SST
28turner syndrome10.2IGF1
29serotonin syndrome10.2SST, GHRH
30cushing's syndrome10.2GH1, SST
31wilms tumor10.2
32familial infantile gigantism10.2
33wermer syndrome10.2SST, AIP
34short bowel syndrome10.2GH1, SST
35acth-secreting pituitary adenoma10.2GH1, PRL
36diabetes insipidus10.2GHRH, PRL
37gastrinoma10.2GH1, SST
38nelson syndrome10.2PRL, SST
39tuberous sclerosis10.2
40renal dysplasia10.2
41chromophobe adenoma10.2GH1, PRL
42hypothalamic disease10.1PRL, GH1
43acth deficiency10.1GH1, PRL
44hemangioma10.1
45klippel-trenaunay syndrome10.1
46diabetic ketoacidosis10.1
47proteus syndrome10.1
48keratosis10.1
49lipomatosis10.1
50seborrheic keratosis10.1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Gigantism:



Diseases related to gigantism

Symptoms for Gigantism

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Drugs & Therapeutics for Gigantism

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Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Gigantism

Search NIH Clinical Center for Gigantism

Genetic Tests for Gigantism

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Anatomical Context for Gigantism

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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Gigantism:

32
Pituitary, Bone, Breast, Colon, Liver, Hypothalamus, Brain, Cortex, Heart, Kidney, Lung, Testes, B cells, Adrenal cortex, Neutrophil

Animal Models for Gigantism or affiliated genes

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MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Gigantism:

36
idDescriptionMGI Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MP:00053708.4AIP, PRL, GHRH, GH1
2MP:00053898.1GH1, GHRH, PRL, IGF1
3MP:00053797.6AIP, IGF1, PRL, GHRH, GH1
4MP:00036317.5GH1, GHRH, SST, PRL, IGF1
5MP:00053787.4AIP, IGF1, SST, GHRH, GH1
6MP:00053767.2GH1, GHRH, SST, PRL, IGF1, AIP

Publications for Gigantism

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Articles related to Gigantism:

(show top 50)    (show all 423)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Starvation reveals the cause of infection-induced castration and gigantism. (25143034)
2014
2
Pituitary gigantism presenting with depressive mood disorder and diabetic ketoacidosis in an Asian adolescent. (23729615)
2013
3
Peripheral gigant cell granuloma (giant cell epulis) associated with metabolic diseases: case report and literature review. (24353822)
2013
4
Gigantic splenomegaly in a 27-year-old male of South-East Asian descent with concurrent diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasm and hemoglobin H disease. (23672282)
2013
5
Why might they be giants? Towards an understanding of polar gigantism. (22623187)
2012
6
Gigantic intrapericardial bronchogenic cyst. (21625867)
2011
7
The evolution of island gigantism and body size variation in tortoises and turtles. (21270022)
2011
8
Neurofibromatosis with unilateral lower limb gigantism. (19921528)
2010
9
Acromegaly and gigantism in the medical literature. Case descriptions in the era before and the early years after the initial publication of Pierre Marie (1886). (18683056)
2009
10
Macrodactyly, syndactyly, and localized gigantism of the forefoot. A case report. (16878777)
2005
11
Pegvisomant therapy in pituitary gigantism: successful treatment in a 12-year-old girl. (16061823)
2005
12
Clinical report of congenital lymphatic malformations and partial gigantism of the hands associated with a heterogeneous karyotype. (15472995)
2005
13
Parasite alteration of host shape: a quantitative approach to gigantism helps elucidate evolutionary advantages. (15002898)
2004
14
Gigantism associated with slipped capital femoral epiphysis. (14651152)
2003
15
Platelet gigantism associated with cholestyramine therapy. (11718596)
2001
16
Neurofibromatosis, gigantism, elephantiasis neuromatosa and recurrent massive subperiosteal hematoma: a new case report and review of 7 case reports from the literature. (11383296)
2001
17
Genomic gigantism: DNA loss is slow in mountain grasshoppers. (11158383)
2001
18
A gigantic squamous cell carcinoma with hypercalcemia arising in an old burn scar. (11562052)
2001
19
Effects of octreotide infusion, surgery and estrogen on suppression of height increase and 20K growth hormone ratio in a girl with gigantism due to a growth hormone-secreting macroadenoma. (11044798)
2000
20
The expression of a truncated HMGI-C gene induces gigantism associated with lipomatosis. (10519386)
1999
21
Serial neuroimaging studies in Sotos syndrome (cerebral gigantism syndrome). (9522351)
1998
22
Pyodermia chronica glutealis complicated by acromegalic gigantism. (9609982)
1998
23
Breast gigantism due to D-penicillamine. (8149272)
1994
24
Pathological and experimental investigations in a case of gigantism. (8382895)
1993
25
Congenital gigantism due to growth hormone-releasing hormone excess and pituitary hyperplasia with adenomatous transformation. (8421089)
1993
26
Expression of metallothionein-human growth hormone fusion genes in transgenic mice results in disproportionate skeletal gigantism. (1938045)
1991
27
Pituitary hyperplasia and gigantism in mice caused by a cholera toxin transgene. (1848356)
1991
28
McCune-Albright syndrome with gigantism and hyperprolactinemia. (3680873)
1987
29
Perlman syndrome: familial renal dysplasia with Wilms tumor, fetal gigantism, and multiple congenital anomalies. (3024486)
1986
30
Gigantism associated with McCune-Albright's syndrome. (3934058)
1985
31
Tubular gigantism of the kidney in a 41-mm, Streeter's 23rd horizon, human fetus with a comparative study of renal structures in normal human fetuses at a similar stage of development. (6519136)
1984
32
A new X-linked dysplasia gigantism syndrome: identical with the Simpson dysplasia syndrome? (6490008)
1984
33
Cognition in cerebral gigantism: are the estimates of mental retardation too high? (6662920)
1983
34
Pituitary gigantism: a disabling condition. (7165969)
1982
35
The parasitic castration and gigantism of Lymnaea truncatula infected with the larval stages of Fasciola hepatica. (6892863)
1980
36
Gigantism associated with a pituitary tumour secreting growth hormone and prolactin and cured by transsphenoidal hypophysectomy. (223354)
1979
37
Cerebral gigantism. (1227563)
1975
38
Localised gigantism of the extremities. (4270789)
1973
39
Exomphalos-macroglossia-gigantism (visceromegaly) syndrome. (The Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome). (5058514)
1972
40
Exomphalos-macroglossia-gigantism syndrome in Jamaican infants. (5434588)
1970
41
Atypical cerebral gigantism. A case report. (5763313)
1969
42
Cerebral gigantism in childhood. Report of two cases. (5678413)
1968
43
Cerebral gigantism in childhood. A report of two cases and a review of the literature. (5298529)
1967
44
An unusual form of gigantism. A case report. (5981706)
1966
45
Thyrotoxicosis and gigantism associated with "Klinefelter's syndrome". (5850468)
1965
46
Gigantism with hypopituitarism. (13948760)
1963
47
Congenital gigantism of peroxidase granules; the first case ever reported of qualitative abnormity of peroxidase. (13169161)
1954
48
The gigantism produced in normal rats by injection of the pituitary growth hormone; main chemical components of the body. (18871178)
1948
49
Gigantism produced in normal female rats by chronic treatment with pure pituitary growth hormone; skeletal changes; tibia, costochondral junction, and caudal vertebrae. (18897304)
1947
50
Acromegalic Gigantism. (19974157)
1910

Variations for Gigantism

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Expression for genes affiliated with Gigantism

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Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Gigantism

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Gigantism.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Gigantism

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Pathways related to Gigantism according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 20)
idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
19.3GH1, PRL
2
Show member pathways
9.3GH1, PRL
39.1IGF1, GH1
4
Show member pathways
9.1GH1, IGF1
59.1GH1, IGF1
6
Show member pathways
8.7GH1, GHRH, IGF1
7
Show member pathways
8.7GH1, GHRH, IGF1
8
Show member pathways
8.7IGF1, GHRH, GH1
9
Show member pathways
8.7GH1, GHRH, IGF1
10
Show member pathways
8.7IGF1, GHRH, GH1
11
Show member pathways
8.7IGF1, GHRH, GH1
12
Show member pathways
8.7IGF1, GHRH, GH1
13
Show member pathways
8.7GH1, GHRH, IGF1
14
Show member pathways
8.7GH1, GHRH, IGF1
15
Show member pathways
8.7IGF1, GHRH, GH1
16
Show member pathways
8.5GH1, PRL, IGF1
178.5IGF1, PRL, GH1
18
Show member pathways
8.5PRL, SST, GHRH, GH1
19
Show member pathways
8.1GH1, GHRH, PRL, IGF1
20
Show member pathways
7.6GH1, GHRH, SST, PRL, IGF1

Compounds for genes affiliated with Gigantism

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Compounds related to Gigantism according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show top 50)    (show all 85)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1atropine44 29 1211.4SST, GHRH, GH1
2propranolol44 29 50 25 1213.3SST, GHRH, GH1
35-hydroxytryptophan449.3GH1, SST, PRL
4oxandrolone44 1210.2GH1, IGF1
5opiate449.2PRL, GHRH, GH1
6nifedipine44 29 50 1212.1SST, GHRH, GH1
7somatuline449.1GH1, SST, IGF1
8buserelin44 29 1210.9IGF1, PRL, SST
9c-peptide448.9GH1, SST, IGF1
10valproate448.9IGF1, PRL, SST
11leuprolide acetate448.9IGF1, PRL, GH1
12clomiphene citrate448.9IGF1, PRL, GH1
13naloxone44 29 50 1211.9GH1, GHRH, SST, PRL
14dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate448.8IGF1, PRL, GH1
15norepinephrine44 25 1210.8GH1, GHRH, SST, PRL
16dhea448.8GH1, PRL, IGF1
17androstenedione44 259.7GH1, PRL, IGF1
18pegvisomant44 129.7GH1, GHRH, SST, IGF1
19acipimox44 299.7IGF1, SST, GHRH, GH1
20pirenzepine44 29 1210.7GH1, GHRH, SST, IGF1
21estrone44 29 25 1211.7IGF1, PRL, GH1
22ibmx44 60 2910.6GH1, SST, IGF1
23naltrexone44 29 50 1211.5IGF1, PRL, GHRH, GH1
24quinagolide448.5GH1, SST, PRL, IGF1
25triiodothyronine448.5IGF1, PRL, GHRH, GH1
26cabergoline44 29 1210.5IGF1, PRL, SST, GH1
27ribonucleic acid448.4GH1, GHRH, PRL, IGF1
28hydrocortisone44 3 60 1211.4IGF1, PRL, SST, GH1
29tamoxifen44 50 29 1211.4IGF1, PRL, GHRH, GH1
30cycloheximide448.4GH1, GHRH, SST, IGF1
31estradiol44 25 1210.4GH1, GHRH, PRL, IGF1
32progesterone44 29 60 25 1212.2IGF1, PRL, GHRH, GH1
33dihydrotestosterone44 29 25 1211.2IGF1, PRL, GH1
34steroid448.1GH1, GHRH, PRL, IGF1
35ghrp448.1GH1, IGF1, PRL, SST, GHRH
36hexarelin44 299.1IGF1, PRL, SST, GHRH, GH1
37pyridostigmine44 129.1IGF1, PRL, SST, GHRH, GH1
38lanreotide44 299.1IGF1, PRL, SST, GHRH, GH1
39bromocriptine44 29 1210.1IGF1, PRL, SST, GHRH, GH1
40clonidine44 50 29 1211.1GH1, GHRH, SST, PRL, IGF1
41octreotide44 60 29 1211.1IGF1, PRL, SST, GHRH, GH1
42levodopa44 129.1IGF1, PRL, SST, GHRH, GH1
43thyroxine44 259.1IGF1, PRL, SST, GHRH, GH1
44acth448.1IGF1, PRL, SST, GHRH, GH1
45gnrh448.0IGF1, PRL, SST, GHRH, GH1
46dopamine44 29 25 1211.0GH1, GHRH, SST, PRL, IGF1
47testosterone44 60 25 1211.0GH1, GHRH, SST, PRL, IGF1
48dexamethasone44 50 29 1211.0IGF1, PRL, SST, GHRH, GH1
49arginine448.0IGF1, PRL, SST, GHRH, GH1
50glucose447.9IGF1, PRL, SST, GHRH, GH1

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Gigantism

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Cellular components related to Gigantism according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1extracellular spaceGO:0056158.3GH1, GHRH, SST, IGF1
2extracellular regionGO:0055767.3GH1, GHRH, SST, PRL, IGF1

Biological processes related to Gigantism according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 8)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascadeGO:0464279.5GH1, PRL
2positive regulation of multicellular organism growthGO:0400189.4GH1, GHRH
3JAK-STAT cascade involved in growth hormone signaling pathwayGO:0603979.4PRL, GH1
4positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat5 proteinGO:0425239.2GH1, IGF1
5positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylationGO:0507319.1GH1, IGF1
6regulation of multicellular organism growthGO:0400149.0PRL, IGF1
7positive regulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathwayGO:0435688.9GH1, GHRH, IGF1
8positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signalingGO:0140688.8GH1, IGF1

Molecular functions related to Gigantism according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1prolactin receptor bindingGO:0051489.3GH1, PRL
2hormone activityGO:0051797.8GH1, SST, PRL, IGF1

Products for genes affiliated with Gigantism

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Sources for Gigantism

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4CDC
14ExPASy
15FMA
23GTR
24HGMD
25HMDB
26ICD10
27ICD10 via Orphanet
28ICD9CM
29IUPHAR
30KEGG
34MeSH
35MESH via Orphanet
36MGI
39NCIt
40NDF-RT
43NINDS
44Novoseek
46OMIM
47OMIM via Orphanet
51PubMed
52QIAGEN
57SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
61UMLS
62UMLS via Orphanet