MCID: GGN002
MIFTS: 47

Gigantism malady

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Summaries for Gigantism

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43NIH Rare Diseases, 65Wikipedia, 33MalaCards
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NIH Rare Diseases:43 Gigantism is abnormally large growth due to an excess of growth hormone (gh) during childhood, before the bone growth plates have closed (epiphyseal fusion). it causes excessive growth in height, muscles, and organs, making the child extremely large for age. other symptoms may include delayed puberty; double vision or difficulty with side (peripheral) vision; prominent forehead (frontal bossing) and a prominent jaw; headache; increased sweating (hyperhidrosis); irregular periods; large hands and feet with thick fingers and toes; thickening of the facial features; and weakness. it may begin at any age before epiphyseal fusion. the most common cause is a non-cancerous (benign) tumor of the pituitary gland, which may cause it to make too much gh, but it can be caused by other underlying conditions (which may cause a pituitary tumor) including carney complex; mccune-albright syndrome (mas); multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (men-1); and neurofibromatosis. treatment typically includes surgery to remove the tumor and can cure many cases. medication or radiation therapy may be used to reduce gh release or block the effect of gh. if the condition occurs after normal bone growth has stopped (in adulthood), it is referred to as acromegaly. last updated: 12/10/2010

MalaCards: Gigantism is related to acromegaly and mccune albright syndrome. An important gene associated with Gigantism is GHRH (growth hormone releasing hormone), and among its related pathways are Growth hormone receptor signaling and Nuclear signaling by ERBB4. The compounds atropine and propranolol have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include pituitary, bone and breast, and related mouse phenotypes are liver/biliary system and reproductive system.

Wikipedia:65 Gigantism, also known as giantism (from Greek ????? gigas, \"giant\", plural ???????? gigantes), is a... more...

Aliases & Classifications for Gigantism

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43NIH Rare Diseases, 45Novoseek, 62UMLS
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Classifications:

Malacards categories (disease lists): (See all malacards categories)
Global: Rare diseases


Aliases & Descriptions:

gigantism 43 45 62


Related Diseases for Gigantism

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17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
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Diseases in the Gigantism Due to Ghrf Hypersecretion family:

gigantism

Diseases related to Gigantism via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards/GeneDecks gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 226)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1acromegaly30.8PRL, SST, GH1, IGF1
2mccune albright syndrome30.5GH1, PRL
3adenoma30.3SST, AIP, GH1, IGF1, PRL, GHRH
4dwarfism30.2IGF1, GH1, GHRH
5pituitary adenoma30.2GH1, GHRH, SST, PRL, IGF1, AIP
6hyperprolactinemia30.1PRL, IGF1, SST, GHRH, GH1
7hypopituitarism30.0PRL, GHRH, SST, IGF1, GH1
8hypothyroidism30.0PRL, GHRH, GH1, IGF1
9hypogonadism29.9IGF1, GH1, PRL
10pituitary apoplexy29.9PRL
11pituitary tumors29.7AIP, IGF1, PRL, SST, GH1, GHRH
12diabetes mellitus29.7IGF1, SST, GH1
13obesity29.7GHRH, IGF1, GH1
14hypoglycemia29.6IGF1, GHRH, GH1, SST, PRL
15cerebritis10.8
16sotos syndrome10.6
17beckwith-wiedemann syndrome10.4
18neurofibromatosis10.3
19macroglossia10.3
20renal hamartomas nephroblastomatosis and fetal gigantism10.3
21fibrous dysplasia10.2
22cerebral gigantism jaw cysts10.2
23wilms tumor10.2
24familial infantile gigantism10.2
25tuberous sclerosis10.1
26renal dysplasia10.1
27pituitary hypoplasia10.1GHRH
28pituitary carcinoma10.1PRL
29diabetic ketoacidosis10.1
30klippel-trenaunay syndrome10.1
31hemangioma10.1
32keratosis10.1
33lipomatosis10.1
34seborrheic keratosis10.1
35slipped capital femoral epiphysis10.1
36aneurysm10.1
37rabson-mendenhall syndrome10.1IGF1
38somatostatinoma10.1SST, GHRH
39zollinger-ellison syndrome10.1GHRH, SST
40turner syndrome10.1IGF1
41serotonin syndrome10.1SST, GHRH
42cushing's syndrome10.0GH1, SST
43wermer syndrome10.0SST, AIP
44short bowel syndrome10.0GH1, SST
45acth-secreting pituitary adenoma10.0GH1, PRL
46diabetes insipidus10.0GHRH, PRL
47gastrinoma10.0GH1, SST
48nelson syndrome10.0PRL, SST
49chromophobe adenoma10.0GH1, PRL
50hypothalamic disease10.0PRL, GH1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Gigantism:



Diseases related to gigantism

Symptoms for Gigantism

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Drugs & Therapeutics for Gigantism

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Sources:
42NIH Clinical Center, 6ClinicalTrials, 62UMLS, 41NDF-RT
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Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Gigantism

Search NIH Clinical Center for Gigantism

Genetic Tests for Gigantism

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Anatomical Context for Gigantism

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33MalaCards
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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Gigantism:

33
Pituitary, Bone, Breast, Hypothalamus, Liver, Adrenal cortex, B cells, Testes, Cortex, Brain, Kidney, Colon, Heart, Lung

Animal Models for Gigantism or affiliated genes

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37MGI
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MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Gigantism:

37
idDescriptionMGI Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MP:00053708.4GH1, GHRH, PRL, AIP
2MP:00053898.1IGF1, PRL, GHRH, GH1
3MP:00053797.6PRL, GHRH, AIP, GH1, IGF1
4MP:00036317.5SST, IGF1, PRL, GHRH, GH1
5MP:00053787.4AIP, GH1, GHRH, SST, IGF1
6MP:00053767.2GH1, SST, PRL, IGF1, AIP, GHRH

Publications for Gigantism

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52PubMed
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Articles related to Gigantism:

(show top 50)    (show all 409)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Pituitary gigantism presenting with depressive mood disorder and diabetic ketoacidosis in an Asian adolescent. (23729615)
2013
2
Peripheral gigant cell granuloma (giant cell epulis) associated with metabolic diseases: case report and literature review. (24353822)
2013
3
Gigantic splenomegaly in a 27-year-old male of South-East Asian descent with concurrent diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasm and hemoglobin H disease. (23672282)
2013
4
Why might they be giants? Towards an understanding of polar gigantism. (22623187)
2012
5
Gigantic intrapericardial bronchogenic cyst. (21625867)
2011
6
The evolution of island gigantism and body size variation in tortoises and turtles. (21270022)
2011
7
Neurofibromatosis with unilateral lower limb gigantism. (19921528)
2010
8
Acromegaly and gigantism in the medical literature. Case descriptions in the era before and the early years after the initial publication of Pierre Marie (1886). (18683056)
2009
9
Macrodactyly, syndactyly, and localized gigantism of the forefoot. A case report. (16878777)
2005
10
Pegvisomant therapy in pituitary gigantism: successful treatment in a 12-year-old girl. (16061823)
2005
11
Clinical report of congenital lymphatic malformations and partial gigantism of the hands associated with a heterogeneous karyotype. (15472995)
2005
12
Parasite alteration of host shape: a quantitative approach to gigantism helps elucidate evolutionary advantages. (15002898)
2004
13
Gigantism associated with slipped capital femoral epiphysis. (14651152)
2003
14
Platelet gigantism associated with cholestyramine therapy. (11718596)
2001
15
Neurofibromatosis, gigantism, elephantiasis neuromatosa and recurrent massive subperiosteal hematoma: a new case report and review of 7 case reports from the literature. (11383296)
2001
16
Genomic gigantism: DNA loss is slow in mountain grasshoppers. (11158383)
2001
17
A gigantic squamous cell carcinoma with hypercalcemia arising in an old burn scar. (11562052)
2001
18
Effects of octreotide infusion, surgery and estrogen on suppression of height increase and 20K growth hormone ratio in a girl with gigantism due to a growth hormone-secreting macroadenoma. (11044798)
2000
19
Gigantism. (10599691)
1999
20
The expression of a truncated HMGI-C gene induces gigantism associated with lipomatosis. (10519386)
1999
21
Serial neuroimaging studies in Sotos syndrome (cerebral gigantism syndrome). (9522351)
1998
22
Pyodermia chronica glutealis complicated by acromegalic gigantism. (9609982)
1998
23
Breast gigantism due to D-penicillamine. (8149272)
1994
24
Pathological and experimental investigations in a case of gigantism. (8382895)
1993
25
Congenital gigantism due to growth hormone-releasing hormone excess and pituitary hyperplasia with adenomatous transformation. (8421089)
1993
26
Expression of metallothionein-human growth hormone fusion genes in transgenic mice results in disproportionate skeletal gigantism. (1938045)
1991
27
Pituitary hyperplasia and gigantism in mice caused by a cholera toxin transgene. (1848356)
1991
28
McCune-Albright syndrome with gigantism and hyperprolactinemia. (3680873)
1987
29
Perlman syndrome: familial renal dysplasia with Wilms tumor, fetal gigantism, and multiple congenital anomalies. (3024486)
1986
30
Gigantism associated with McCune-Albright's syndrome. (3934058)
1985
31
Tubular gigantism of the kidney in a 41-mm, Streeter's 23rd horizon, human fetus with a comparative study of renal structures in normal human fetuses at a similar stage of development. (6519136)
1984
32
A new X-linked dysplasia gigantism syndrome: identical with the Simpson dysplasia syndrome? (6490008)
1984
33
Cognition in cerebral gigantism: are the estimates of mental retardation too high? (6662920)
1983
34
Pituitary gigantism: a disabling condition. (7165969)
1982
35
The parasitic castration and gigantism of Lymnaea truncatula infected with the larval stages of Fasciola hepatica. (6892863)
1980
36
Unilateral delayed opercularization in a case of Sotos' syndrome (Cerebral Gigantism). (7422120)
1980
37
Gigantism associated with a pituitary tumour secreting growth hormone and prolactin and cured by transsphenoidal hypophysectomy. (223354)
1979
38
Cerebral gigantism. (1227563)
1975
39
Localised gigantism of the extremities. (4270789)
1973
40
Exomphalos-macroglossia-gigantism (visceromegaly) syndrome. (The Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome). (5058514)
1972
41
Exomphalos-macroglossia-gigantism syndrome in Jamaican infants. (5434588)
1970
42
Atypical cerebral gigantism. A case report. (5763313)
1969
43
Cerebral gigantism in childhood. Report of two cases. (5678413)
1968
44
Cerebral gigantism in childhood. A report of two cases and a review of the literature. (5298529)
1967
45
An unusual form of gigantism. A case report. (5981706)
1966
46
Thyrotoxicosis and gigantism associated with "Klinefelter's syndrome". (5850468)
1965
47
Gigantism with hypopituitarism. (13948760)
1963
48
Congenital gigantism of peroxidase granules; the first case ever reported of qualitative abnormity of peroxidase. (13169161)
1954
49
Gigantism produced in normal female rats by chronic treatment with pure pituitary growth hormone; skeletal changes; tibia, costochondral junction, and caudal vertebrae. (18897304)
1947
50
Acromegalic Gigantism. (19974157)
1910

Variations for Gigantism

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Expression for genes affiliated with Gigantism

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2BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
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Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Gigantism

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Gigantism.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Gigantism

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50PathCards, 55Reactome, 38NCBI BioSystems Database, 53QIAGEN, 30KEGG
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Pathways related to Gigantism according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 20)
idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
19.3GH1, PRL
2
Show member pathways
9.3GH1, PRL
39.1IGF1, GH1
4
Show member pathways
9.1GH1, IGF1
59.1GH1, IGF1
6
Show member pathways
8.7GH1, GHRH, IGF1
7
Show member pathways
8.7GH1, GHRH, IGF1
8
Show member pathways
8.7IGF1, GHRH, GH1
9
Show member pathways
8.7GH1, GHRH, IGF1
10
Show member pathways
8.7IGF1, GHRH, GH1
11
Show member pathways
8.7IGF1, GHRH, GH1
12
Show member pathways
8.7IGF1, GHRH, GH1
13
Show member pathways
8.7GH1, GHRH, IGF1
14
Show member pathways
8.7GH1, GHRH, IGF1
15
Show member pathways
8.7IGF1, GHRH, GH1
16
Show member pathways
8.5GH1, PRL, IGF1
178.5IGF1, PRL, GH1
18
Show member pathways
8.5PRL, SST, GHRH, GH1
19
Show member pathways
8.1GH1, GHRH, PRL, IGF1
20
Show member pathways
7.6GH1, GHRH, SST, PRL, IGF1

Compounds for genes affiliated with Gigantism

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45Novoseek, 29IUPHAR, 11DrugBank, 51PharmGKB, 24HMDB, 61Tocris Bioscience, 3BitterDB
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Compounds related to Gigantism according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show top 50)    (show all 85)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1atropine45 29 1111.4GH1, SST, GHRH
2propranolol45 29 51 24 1113.3GHRH, SST, GH1
35-hydroxytryptophan459.3GH1, SST, PRL
4oxandrolone45 1110.2GH1, IGF1
5opiate459.2GH1, GHRH, PRL
6nifedipine45 29 51 1112.1GH1, GHRH, SST
7somatuline459.1SST, GH1, IGF1
8buserelin45 29 1111.0SST, PRL, IGF1
9c-peptide458.9IGF1, GH1, SST
10valproate458.9SST, PRL, IGF1
11leuprolide acetate458.9GH1, PRL, IGF1
12clomiphene citrate458.9IGF1, PRL, GH1
13naloxone45 29 51 1111.9GHRH, SST, PRL, GH1
14dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate458.8PRL, GH1, IGF1
15norepinephrine45 24 1110.8GHRH, SST, PRL, GH1
16dhea458.8IGF1, PRL, GH1
17androstenedione45 249.7PRL, IGF1, GH1
18pegvisomant45 119.7IGF1, GH1, SST, GHRH
19acipimox45 299.7GHRH, SST, IGF1, GH1
20pirenzepine45 29 1110.7IGF1, SST, GHRH, GH1
21estrone45 29 24 1111.7PRL, GH1, IGF1
22ibmx45 61 2910.6GH1, IGF1, SST
23naltrexone45 29 51 1111.5PRL, GHRH, GH1, IGF1
24quinagolide458.5SST, GH1, IGF1, PRL
25triiodothyronine458.5GHRH, IGF1, PRL, GH1
26cabergoline45 29 1110.5SST, PRL, GH1, IGF1
27ribonucleic acid458.4GHRH, PRL, IGF1, GH1
28hydrocortisone45 3 61 1111.4GH1, SST, PRL, IGF1
29tamoxifen45 51 29 1111.4IGF1, GHRH, GH1, PRL
30cycloheximide458.4IGF1, GH1, SST, GHRH
31estradiol45 24 1110.4GH1, PRL, GHRH, IGF1
32progesterone45 29 61 24 1112.2PRL, IGF1, GH1, GHRH
33dihydrotestosterone45 29 24 1111.2IGF1, PRL, GH1
34steroid458.1GH1, GHRH, IGF1, PRL
35ghrp458.1GH1, IGF1, PRL, SST, GHRH
36hexarelin45 299.1PRL, IGF1, GHRH, GH1, SST
37pyridostigmine45 119.1IGF1, PRL, SST, GHRH, GH1
38lanreotide45 299.1SST, GH1, IGF1, PRL, GHRH
39bromocriptine45 29 1110.1IGF1, GH1, GHRH, PRL, SST
40clonidine45 51 29 1111.1GH1, SST, GHRH, PRL, IGF1
41octreotide45 61 29 1111.1IGF1, SST, GHRH, GH1, PRL
42levodopa45 119.1GH1, GHRH, SST, PRL, IGF1
43thyroxine45 249.1SST, IGF1, GH1, GHRH, PRL
44acth458.1IGF1, PRL, SST, GHRH, GH1
45gnrh458.0IGF1, PRL, GH1, SST, GHRH
46dopamine45 29 24 1111.0GH1, SST, GHRH, PRL, IGF1
47testosterone45 61 24 1111.0PRL, IGF1, SST, GHRH, GH1
48dexamethasone45 51 29 1111.0PRL, SST, GHRH, GH1, IGF1
49arginine458.0GH1, GHRH, PRL, SST, IGF1
50glucose457.9GHRH, SST, PRL, GH1, IGF1

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Gigantism

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16Gene Ontology
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Cellular components related to Gigantism according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1extracellular spaceGO:0056158.3GH1, GHRH, SST, IGF1
2extracellular regionGO:0055767.3GH1, GHRH, SST, PRL, IGF1

Biological processes related to Gigantism according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 8)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascadeGO:0464279.5GH1, PRL
2positive regulation of multicellular organism growthGO:0400189.4GH1, GHRH
3JAK-STAT cascade involved in growth hormone signaling pathwayGO:0603979.4PRL, GH1
4positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat5 proteinGO:0425239.2GH1, IGF1
5positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylationGO:0507319.1GH1, IGF1
6regulation of multicellular organism growthGO:0400149.0PRL, IGF1
7positive regulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathwayGO:0435688.9GH1, GHRH, IGF1
8positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signalingGO:0140688.8GH1, IGF1

Molecular functions related to Gigantism according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1prolactin receptor bindingGO:0051489.3GH1, PRL
2hormone activityGO:0051797.8GH1, SST, PRL, IGF1

Products for genes affiliated with Gigantism

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Sources for Gigantism

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4CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
29IUPHAR
30KEGG
35MeSH
36MESH via Orphanet
37MGI
40NCIt
41NDF-RT
44NINDS
45Novoseek
47OMIM
48OMIM via Orphanet
52PubMed
53QIAGEN
59SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
62UMLS
63UMLS via Orphanet