MCID: GGN002
MIFTS: 43

Gigantism malady

Genetic diseases, Rare diseases, Endocrine diseases categories

Aliases & Classifications for Gigantism

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Sources:
42NIH Rare Diseases, 44Novoseek, 61UMLS
See all sources

Aliases & Descriptions for Gigantism:

Name: Gigantism 42 44 61


Classifications:



Summaries for Gigantism

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NIH Rare Diseases:42 Gigantism is abnormally large growth due to an excess of growth hormone (gh) during childhood, before the bone growth plates have closed (epiphyseal fusion). it causes excessive growth in height, muscles, and organs, making the child extremely large for age. other symptoms may include delayed puberty; double vision or difficulty with side (peripheral) vision; prominent forehead (frontal bossing) and a prominent jaw; headache; increased sweating (hyperhidrosis); irregular periods; large hands and feet with thick fingers and toes; thickening of the facial features; and weakness. it may begin at any age before epiphyseal fusion. the most common cause is a non-cancerous (benign) tumor of the pituitary gland, which may cause it to make too much gh, but it can be caused by other underlying conditions (which may cause a pituitary tumor) including carney complex; mccune-albright syndrome (mas); multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (men-1); and neurofibromatosis. treatment typically includes surgery to remove the tumor and can cure many cases. medication or radiation therapy may be used to reduce gh release or block the effect of gh. if the condition occurs after normal bone growth has stopped (in adulthood), it is referred to as acromegaly. last updated: 12/10/2010

MalaCards based summary: Gigantism is related to pituitary gigantism and pituitary apoplexy. An important gene associated with Gigantism is GHRH (growth hormone releasing hormone), and among its related pathways are Nuclear signaling by ERBB4 and Growth hormone receptor signaling. The compounds atropine and propranolol have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include pituitary, bone and breast, and related mouse phenotypes are liver/biliary system and reproductive system.

Wikipedia:64 Gigantism, also known as giantism (from Greek ????? gigas, \"giant\", plural ???????? gigantes), is a... more...

Related Diseases for Gigantism

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Diseases in the Gigantism family:

Familial Infantile Gigantism

Diseases related to Gigantism via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 217)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1pituitary gigantism30.4PRL, SST, GH1, IGF1
2pituitary apoplexy30.4PRL
3mccune-albright syndrome, somatic, mosaic30.2GH1, PRL
4dwarfism30.1IGF1, GH1, GHRH
5laron dwarfism29.8IGF1, GH1
6acromegaly29.8PRL, GH1, GHRH, SST, IGF1, AIP
7hypogonadism29.7IGF1, GH1, PRL
8hypothyroidism29.6PRL, GHRH, GH1, IGF1
9adenoma29.5SST, AIP, GH1, IGF1, PRL, GHRH
10hyperprolactinemia29.5PRL, IGF1, SST, GHRH, GH1
11obesity29.5GHRH, IGF1, GH1
12hypopituitarism29.4PRL, GHRH, SST, IGF1, GH1
13pituitary adenoma29.3GH1, GHRH, SST, PRL, IGF1, AIP
14hypoglycemia28.9IGF1, GHRH, GH1, SST, PRL
15pituitary tumors28.8AIP, IGF1, PRL, SST, GH1, GHRH
16cerebritis10.8
17pituitary hypoplasia10.5GHRH
18perlman syndrome10.4
19macroglossia10.4
20pituitary carcinoma10.4PRL
21beckwith-wiedemann syndrome10.4
22cerebral gigantism jaw cysts10.4
23neurofibromatosis10.3
24sotos syndrome 110.3
25rabson-mendenhall syndrome10.3IGF1
26fibrous dysplasia10.2
27familial infantile gigantism10.2
28somatostatinoma10.2SST, GHRH
29zollinger-ellison syndrome10.2GHRH, SST
30turner syndrome10.2IGF1
31serotonin syndrome10.2SST, GHRH
32wilms tumor10.2
33simpson-golabi-behmel syndrome10.2
34cushing's syndrome10.2GH1, SST
35multiple endocrine neoplasia 110.2SST, AIP
36short bowel syndrome10.2GH1, SST
37pituitary-dependent cushing's disease10.2GH1, PRL
38diabetes insipidus10.2GHRH, PRL
39gastrinoma10.2GH1, SST
40nelson syndrome10.2PRL, SST
41proteus syndrome, somatic10.2
42tuberous sclerosis10.2
43renal dysplasia10.2
44chromophobe adenoma10.1GH1, PRL
45hypothalamic disease10.1PRL, GH1
46oligomenorrhea10.1GH1, PRL
47prostatic hypertrophy10.1PRL, GH1
48acth deficiency10.1GH1, PRL
49insulin-like growth factor i10.1
50hemangioma10.1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Gigantism:



Diseases related to gigantism

Symptoms for Gigantism

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Drugs & Therapeutics for Gigantism

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Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Gigantism

Search NIH Clinical Center for Gigantism

Genetic Tests for Gigantism

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Anatomical Context for Gigantism

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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Gigantism:

31
Pituitary, Bone, Breast, Colon, Liver, Hypothalamus, Brain, Cortex, Heart, Kidney, Lung, Testes, B cells, Adrenal cortex, Neutrophil

Animal Models for Gigantism or affiliated genes

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MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Gigantism:

35
idDescriptionMGI Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MP:00053708.4AIP, PRL, GHRH, GH1
2MP:00053898.1GH1, GHRH, PRL, IGF1
3MP:00053797.6AIP, IGF1, PRL, GHRH, GH1
4MP:00036317.5GH1, GHRH, SST, PRL, IGF1
5MP:00053787.4AIP, IGF1, SST, GHRH, GH1
6MP:00053767.2GH1, GHRH, SST, PRL, IGF1, AIP

Publications for Gigantism

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Articles related to Gigantism:

(show top 50)    (show all 430)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Starvation reveals the cause of infection-induced castration and gigantism. (25143034)
2014
2
Rare gigantic giant cell tumor of anterior ribs in a young lady. (25767344)
2014
3
Pituitary gigantism presenting with depressive mood disorder and diabetic ketoacidosis in an Asian adolescent. (23729615)
2013
4
Peripheral gigant cell granuloma (giant cell epulis) associated with metabolic diseases: case report and literature review. (24353822)
2013
5
Gigantic splenomegaly in a 27-year-old male of South-East Asian descent with concurrent diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasm and hemoglobin H disease. (23672282)
2013
6
Why might they be giants? Towards an understanding of polar gigantism. (22623187)
2012
7
Gigantic intrapericardial bronchogenic cyst. (21625867)
2011
8
The evolution of island gigantism and body size variation in tortoises and turtles. (21270022)
2011
9
Acromegaly and gigantism in the medical literature. Case descriptions in the era before and the early years after the initial publication of Pierre Marie (1886). (18683056)
2009
10
Macrodactyly, syndactyly, and localized gigantism of the forefoot. A case report. (16878777)
2005
11
Pegvisomant therapy in pituitary gigantism: successful treatment in a 12-year-old girl. (16061823)
2005
12
Clinical report of congenital lymphatic malformations and partial gigantism of the hands associated with a heterogeneous karyotype. (15472995)
2005
13
Parasite alteration of host shape: a quantitative approach to gigantism helps elucidate evolutionary advantages. (15002898)
2004
14
Gigantism associated with slipped capital femoral epiphysis. (14651152)
2003
15
Platelet gigantism associated with cholestyramine therapy. (11718596)
2001
16
Neurofibromatosis, gigantism, elephantiasis neuromatosa and recurrent massive subperiosteal hematoma: a new case report and review of 7 case reports from the literature. (11383296)
2001
17
Genomic gigantism: DNA loss is slow in mountain grasshoppers. (11158383)
2001
18
A gigantic squamous cell carcinoma with hypercalcemia arising in an old burn scar. (11562052)
2001
19
Gigantism (25905378)
2000
20
Effects of octreotide infusion, surgery and estrogen on suppression of height increase and 20K growth hormone ratio in a girl with gigantism due to a growth hormone-secreting macroadenoma. (11044798)
2000
21
Gigantism. (10599691)
1999
22
The expression of a truncated HMGI-C gene induces gigantism associated with lipomatosis. (10519386)
1999
23
Serial neuroimaging studies in Sotos syndrome (cerebral gigantism syndrome). (9522351)
1998
24
Pyodermia chronica glutealis complicated by acromegalic gigantism. (9609982)
1998
25
Breast gigantism due to D-penicillamine. (8149272)
1994
26
Pathological and experimental investigations in a case of gigantism. (8382895)
1993
27
Congenital gigantism due to growth hormone-releasing hormone excess and pituitary hyperplasia with adenomatous transformation. (8421089)
1993
28
Expression of metallothionein-human growth hormone fusion genes in transgenic mice results in disproportionate skeletal gigantism. (1938045)
1991
29
Pituitary hyperplasia and gigantism in mice caused by a cholera toxin transgene. (1848356)
1991
30
McCune-Albright syndrome with gigantism and hyperprolactinemia. (3680873)
1987
31
Perlman syndrome: familial renal dysplasia with Wilms tumor, fetal gigantism, and multiple congenital anomalies. (3024486)
1986
32
Gigantism associated with McCune-Albright's syndrome. (3934058)
1985
33
Tubular gigantism of the kidney in a 41-mm, Streeter's 23rd horizon, human fetus with a comparative study of renal structures in normal human fetuses at a similar stage of development. (6519136)
1984
34
A new X-linked dysplasia gigantism syndrome: identical with the Simpson dysplasia syndrome? (6490008)
1984
35
Cognition in cerebral gigantism: are the estimates of mental retardation too high? (6662920)
1983
36
Pituitary gigantism: a disabling condition. (7165969)
1982
37
The parasitic castration and gigantism of Lymnaea truncatula infected with the larval stages of Fasciola hepatica. (6892863)
1980
38
Unilateral delayed opercularization in a case of Sotos' syndrome (Cerebral Gigantism). (7422120)
1980
39
Gigantism associated with a pituitary tumour secreting growth hormone and prolactin and cured by transsphenoidal hypophysectomy. (223354)
1979
40
Cerebral gigantism. (1227563)
1975
41
Localised gigantism of the extremities. (4270789)
1973
42
Exomphalos-macroglossia-gigantism (visceromegaly) syndrome. (The Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome). (5058514)
1972
43
Exomphalos-macroglossia-gigantism syndrome in Jamaican infants. (5434588)
1970
44
Atypical cerebral gigantism. A case report. (5763313)
1969
45
Cerebral gigantism in childhood. Report of two cases. (5678413)
1968
46
Cerebral gigantism in childhood. A report of two cases and a review of the literature. (5298529)
1967
47
An unusual form of gigantism. A case report. (5981706)
1966
48
Thyrotoxicosis and gigantism associated with "Klinefelter's syndrome". (5850468)
1965
49
Congenital gigantism of peroxidase granules; the first case ever reported of qualitative abnormity of peroxidase. (13169161)
1954
50
Gigantism produced in normal female rats by chronic treatment with pure pituitary growth hormone; skeletal changes; tibia, costochondral junction, and caudal vertebrae. (18897304)
1947

Variations for Gigantism

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Expression for genes affiliated with Gigantism

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Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Gigantism.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Gigantism

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Pathways related to Gigantism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 20)
idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
9.3GH1, PRL
29.3PRL, GH1
39.1IGF1, GH1
49.1IGF1, GH1
5
Show member pathways
9.1GH1, IGF1
6
Show member pathways
8.7IGF1, GHRH, GH1
7
Show member pathways
8.7GH1, GHRH, IGF1
8
Show member pathways
8.7GHRH, GH1, IGF1
9
Show member pathways
8.7GH1, GHRH, IGF1
10
Show member pathways
8.7GH1, GHRH, IGF1
11
Show member pathways
8.7GH1, GHRH, IGF1
12
Show member pathways
8.7GH1, GHRH, IGF1
13
Show member pathways
8.7GH1, IGF1, GHRH
14
Show member pathways
8.7GH1, IGF1, GHRH
15
Show member pathways
8.7GH1, IGF1, GHRH
168.5GH1, IGF1, PRL
17
Show member pathways
8.5IGF1, PRL, GH1
18
Show member pathways
8.5GHRH, PRL, GH1, SST
19
Show member pathways
8.1GH1, GHRH, PRL, IGF1
20
Show member pathways
7.6GHRH, GH1, PRL, IGF1, SST

Compounds for genes affiliated with Gigantism

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Compounds related to Gigantism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 85)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1atropine44 28 1111.4GH1, SST, GHRH
2propranolol44 28 50 24 1113.3GHRH, SST, GH1
35-hydroxytryptophan449.3GH1, SST, PRL
4oxandrolone44 1110.2GH1, IGF1
5opiate449.2GH1, GHRH, PRL
6nifedipine44 28 50 1112.1GH1, GHRH, SST
7somatuline449.1SST, GH1, IGF1
8buserelin44 28 1111.0SST, PRL, IGF1
9c-peptide448.9IGF1, GH1, SST
10valproate448.9SST, PRL, IGF1
11leuprolide acetate448.9GH1, PRL, IGF1
12clomiphene citrate448.9IGF1, PRL, GH1
13naloxone44 28 50 1111.9GHRH, SST, PRL, GH1
14dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate448.8PRL, GH1, IGF1
15norepinephrine44 24 1110.8GHRH, SST, PRL, GH1
16dhea448.8IGF1, PRL, GH1
17androstenedione44 249.7PRL, IGF1, GH1
18pegvisomant44 119.7IGF1, GH1, SST, GHRH
19acipimox44 289.7GHRH, SST, IGF1, GH1
20pirenzepine44 28 1110.7IGF1, SST, GHRH, GH1
21estrone44 28 24 1111.7PRL, GH1, IGF1
22ibmx44 60 2810.6GH1, IGF1, SST
23naltrexone44 28 50 1111.5PRL, GHRH, GH1, IGF1
24quinagolide448.5SST, GH1, IGF1, PRL
25triiodothyronine448.5GHRH, IGF1, PRL, GH1
26cabergoline44 28 1110.5SST, PRL, GH1, IGF1
27ribonucleic acid448.4GHRH, PRL, IGF1, GH1
28hydrocortisone44 1 60 1111.4GH1, SST, PRL, IGF1
29tamoxifen44 50 28 1111.4IGF1, GHRH, GH1, PRL
30cycloheximide448.4IGF1, GH1, SST, GHRH
31estradiol44 24 1110.4GH1, PRL, GHRH, IGF1
32progesterone44 28 60 24 1112.2PRL, IGF1, GH1, GHRH
33dihydrotestosterone44 28 24 1111.2IGF1, PRL, GH1
34steroid448.1GH1, GHRH, IGF1, PRL
35ghrp448.1GH1, IGF1, PRL, SST, GHRH
36hexarelin44 289.1PRL, IGF1, GHRH, GH1, SST
37pyridostigmine44 119.1IGF1, PRL, SST, GHRH, GH1
38lanreotide44 289.1SST, GH1, IGF1, PRL, GHRH
39bromocriptine44 28 1110.1IGF1, GH1, GHRH, PRL, SST
40clonidine44 50 28 1111.1GH1, SST, GHRH, PRL, IGF1
41octreotide44 60 28 1111.1IGF1, SST, GHRH, GH1, PRL
42levodopa44 119.1GH1, GHRH, SST, PRL, IGF1
43thyroxine44 249.1SST, IGF1, GH1, GHRH, PRL
44acth448.1IGF1, PRL, SST, GHRH, GH1
45gnrh448.0IGF1, PRL, GH1, SST, GHRH
46dopamine44 28 24 1111.0GH1, SST, GHRH, PRL, IGF1
47testosterone44 60 24 1111.0PRL, IGF1, SST, GHRH, GH1
48dexamethasone44 50 28 1111.0PRL, SST, GHRH, GH1, IGF1
49arginine448.0GH1, GHRH, PRL, SST, IGF1
50glucose447.9GHRH, SST, PRL, GH1, IGF1

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Gigantism

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Cellular components related to Gigantism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1extracellular spaceGO:00056158.3GH1, GHRH, SST, IGF1
2extracellular regionGO:00055767.3GH1, GHRH, SST, PRL, IGF1

Biological processes related to Gigantism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 8)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascadeGO:00464279.5GH1, PRL
2positive regulation of multicellular organism growthGO:00400189.4GH1, GHRH
3JAK-STAT cascade involved in growth hormone signaling pathwayGO:00603979.4PRL, GH1
4positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat5 proteinGO:00425239.2GH1, IGF1
5positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylationGO:00507319.1GH1, IGF1
6regulation of multicellular organism growthGO:00400149.0PRL, IGF1
7positive regulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathwayGO:00435688.9GH1, GHRH, IGF1
8positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signalingGO:00140688.8GH1, IGF1

Molecular functions related to Gigantism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1prolactin receptor bindingGO:00051489.3GH1, PRL
2hormone activityGO:00051797.8GH1, SST, PRL, IGF1

Sources for Gigantism

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2CDC
12ExPASy
13FDA
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
28IUPHAR
29KEGG
33MeSH
34MESH via Orphanet
35MGI
38NCI
39NCIt
40NDF-RT
43NINDS
44Novoseek
46OMIM
47OMIM via Orphanet
51PubMed
52QIAGEN
57SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
61UMLS
62UMLS via Orphanet