Aliases & Classifications for Gigantism

MalaCards integrated aliases for Gigantism:

Name: Gigantism 49 51 69

Classifications:



External Ids:

UMLS 69 C0017547

Summaries for Gigantism

NIH Rare Diseases : 49 Gigantism is abnormally large growth due to an excess of growth hormone (GH) during childhood, before the bone growth plates have closed (epiphyseal fusion). It causes excessive growth in height, muscles, and organs, making the child extremely large for his or her age. Other symptoms may include delayed puberty; double vision or difficulty with side (peripheral) vision; prominent forehead (frontal bossing) and a prominent jaw; headache; increased sweating (hyperhidrosis); irregular periods; large hands and feet with thick fingers and toes; thickening of the facial features; and weakness. It may begin at any age before epiphyseal fusion. The most common cause is a non-cancerous (benign) tumor of the pituitary gland, which may cause it to make too much GH, but it can be caused by other underlying conditions (which may cause a pituitary tumor) including Carney complex; McCune-Albright syndrome ; Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) and type 4; and Neurofibromatosis. In some cases the disease is caused by mutations in the GPR101 gene. Treatment typically includes surgery to remove the tumor and can cure many cases. Medication or radiation therapy may be used to reduce GH release or block the effect of GH.  If the condition occurs after normal bone growth has stopped (in adulthood), it is referred to as acromegaly. Last updated: 2/10/2017

MalaCards based summary : Gigantism is related to pituitary adenoma 1, multiple types and mccune-albright syndrome, and has symptoms including endocrine system signs and symptoms An important gene associated with Gigantism is AIP (Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Interacting Protein), and among its related pathways/superpathways is Growth hormone receptor signaling. The drugs lanreotide and Somatostatin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include pituitary, bone and liver.

Wikipedia : 72 Gigantism... more...

Related Diseases for Gigantism

Diseases related to Gigantism via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 199)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 pituitary adenoma 1, multiple types 31.9 AIP GH1 PRL
2 mccune-albright syndrome 31.6 GH1 PRL
3 acromegaly 30.4 AIP GH1 GHRH GPR101 PRL
4 dwarfism 29.8 GH1 GHRH
5 fibrous dysplasia 29.7 GH1 PRL
6 hyperprolactinemia 29.4 GH1 GHRH PRL
7 hypopituitarism 29.3 GH1 GHRH PRL
8 insulin-like growth factor i 29.2 GH1 GHRH PRL
9 pituitary apoplexy 29.0 AIP PRL
10 growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma 28.9 AIP PRL
11 adenoma 28.8 AIP GH1 GPR101 PRL
12 pituitary tumors 28.7 AIP GH1 PRL
13 pituitary adenoma, prolactin-secreting 28.4 AIP GH1 PRL
14 pituitary adenoma 28.2 AIP GH1 GHRH GPR101 PRL
15 cerebral gigantism jaw cysts 12.2
16 sotos syndrome 1 12.0
17 gigantism advanced bone age hoarse cry 11.9
18 beckwith-wiedemann syndrome 11.8
19 perlman syndrome 11.8
20 chromosome xq26.3 duplication syndrome 11.7
21 simpson-golabi-behmel syndrome, type 1 11.6
22 proteus syndrome 11.4
23 x-linked acrogigantism due to a point mutation 11.2
24 lipodystrophy, congenital generalized, type 2 11.1
25 simpson-golabi-behmel syndrome 11.0
26 cowden syndrome 1 10.8
27 simpson-golabi-behmel syndrome, type 2 10.8
28 pituitary adenoma 2, growth hormone-secreting 10.8
29 lipodystrophy, congenital generalized, type 1 10.8
30 macrocephaly mesodermal hamartoma spectrum 10.8
31 cerebritis 10.5
32 isolated growth hormone deficiency, type ib 10.1 GH1 GHRH
33 isolated growth hormone deficiency, type ii 10.1 GH1 GHRH
34 sella turcica neoplasm 10.1 GHRH PRL
35 macroglossia 10.1
36 tuberculum sellae meningioma 10.1 GHRH PRL
37 isolated growth hormone deficiency 10.1 GH1 GHRH
38 fibrous dysplasia/mccune-albright syndrome 10.0 GH1 PRL
39 neurofibromatosis, type iv, of riccardi 10.0
40 tsh producing pituitary tumor 10.0 GH1 PRL
41 pituitary-dependent cushing's disease 10.0 GHRH PRL
42 adenohypophysitis 10.0 GH1 PRL
43 pseudohypoparathyroidism, type ia 10.0 GH1 PRL
44 empty sella syndrome 10.0 GH1 PRL
45 hypothyroidism, congenital, nongoitrous, 4 10.0 GH1 PRL
46 tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency 10.0 GH1 PRL
47 pituitary stalk interruption syndrome 9.9 GH1 PRL
48 growth hormone deficiency 9.9 GH1 GHRH
49 wilms tumor 5 9.9
50 wilms tumor 6 9.9

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Gigantism:



Diseases related to Gigantism

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Gigantism

UMLS symptoms related to Gigantism:


endocrine system signs and symptoms

Drugs & Therapeutics for Gigantism

Drugs for Gigantism (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 7)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1 lanreotide Approved Phase 4 108736-35-2
2
Somatostatin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 38916-34-6, 51110-01-1 53481605
3 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 2
4 Hormones Phase 4,Phase 2
5 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 2
6 Angiopeptin Phase 4
7 Liver Extracts Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A Pilot Study of Pre- and Post-operative Use of Somatuline Depot. Terminated NCT01861717 Phase 4 lanreotide
2 Efficacy and Safety of Pasireotide LAR in Japanese Patients With Acromegaly or Pituitary Gigantism Completed NCT01673646 Phase 2 SOM230LAR
3 Interdisciplinary Pituitary Disorders Centre of Excellence: Assessment of Patient Education Tools Unknown status NCT01775332
4 Genetics of Endocrine Tumours - Familial Isolated Pituitary Adenoma - FIPA Recruiting NCT00461188

Search NIH Clinical Center for Gigantism

Genetic Tests for Gigantism

Anatomical Context for Gigantism

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Gigantism:

38
Pituitary, Bone, Liver, Hypothalamus, Breast, Colon, B Cells

Publications for Gigantism

Articles related to Gigantism:

(show top 50) (show all 477)
# Title Authors Year
1
Surgical trauma induces overgrowth in lower limb gigantism: regulation with use of rapamycin is promising. ( 29301794 )
2018
2
Efficacy and safety of long-acting pasireotide in Japanese patients with acromegaly or pituitary gigantism: results from a multicenter, open-label, randomized, phase 2 study. ( 28592706 )
2017
3
Independent evolution of baleen whale gigantism linked to Plio-Pleistocene ocean dynamics. ( 28539520 )
2017
4
Regional endothermy as a trigger for gigantism in some extinct macropredatory sharks. ( 28938002 )
2017
5
Earth's oldest 'Bobbit worm' - gigantism in a Devonian eunicidan polychaete. ( 28220886 )
2017
6
Multiple organ gigantism caused by mutation in VmPPD gene in blackgram (Vigna mungo). ( 28588392 )
2017
7
Oldest case of gigantism? Assessment of the alleged remains of Sa-Nakht, king of ancient Egypt. ( 28732663 )
2017
8
Tyrannosauroid integument reveals conflicting patterns of gigantism and feather evolution. ( 28592520 )
2017
9
In-frame seven amino-acid duplication in AIP arose over the last 3000 years, disrupts protein interaction and stability and is associated with gigantism. ( 28634279 )
2017
10
AIP mutations and gigantism. ( 28483363 )
2017
11
A Paleocene penguin from New Zealand substantiates multiple origins of gigantism in fossil Sphenisciformes. ( 29233963 )
2017
12
Submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection of a gigantic esophageal leiomyoma. ( 28946172 )
2017
13
Gigantic Suprapubic Lymphedema: A Case Study. ( 27574599 )
2016
14
Aggressive tumor growth and clinical evolution in a patient with X-linked acro-gigantism syndrome. ( 26607152 )
2016
15
Convergent evolution of sperm gigantism and the developmental origins of sperm size variability in Caenorhabditis nematodes. ( 27565121 )
2016
16
Corrigendum: Gigantism and comparative life-history parameters of tyrannosaurid dinosaurs. ( 26675726 )
2016
17
Pituitary gigantism: a retrospective case series. ( 26887033 )
2016
18
Gigantism: X-linked acrogigantism and GPR101 mutations. ( 27743704 )
2016
19
Genetics of gigantism and acromegaly. ( 27657986 )
2016
20
Combined treatment with octreotide LAR and pegvisomant in patients with pituitary gigantism: clinical evaluation and genetic screening. ( 27287035 )
2016
21
A rare case of Acro-gigantism. ( 27728208 )
2016
22
Salamanders' slow slither into genomic gigantism(). ( 27861781 )
2016
23
Bilateral gigantic earlobe keloids. ( 26833527 )
2016
24
Multiple origins of gigantism in stem baleen whales. ( 27717969 )
2016
25
Coexisting diseases modifying each othera89s presentation - lack of growth failure in Turner syndrome due to the associated pituitary gigantism. ( 29328563 )
2016
26
Benign or Malignant? Two Case Reports of Gigantic Prostatic Cyst. ( 27500085 )
2016
27
Increased Population Risk of AIP-related Acromegaly and Gigantism in Ireland. ( 27650164 )
2016
28
Gigantism and Its Implications for the History of Life. ( 26771527 )
2016
29
Macrodystrophia Lipomatosa: An Unusual Cause of Localized Gigantism. ( 27293271 )
2016
30
Gigantic vascular anomaly in a PHACE syndrome patient managed with photodynamic therapy. ( 27229363 )
2016
31
Genetic drift and mutational hazard in the evolution of salamander genomic gigantism. ( 27714793 )
2016
32
Giants among larges: how gigantism impacts giant virus entry into amoebae. ( 27039270 )
2016
33
Pituitary gigantism: update on molecular biology and management. ( 26574647 )
2015
34
Retraction notice to a89Expression of a truncated Hmga1b gene induces gigantism, lipomatosis and B-cell lymphomas in micea89 [Eur J Cancer 47 (2011) 470a89478]. ( 25977969 )
2015
35
Pituitary gigantism: Causes and clinical characteristics. ( 26585365 )
2015
36
Localised gigantism. ( 25849020 )
2015
37
Clinical and genetic characterization of pituitary gigantism: an international collaborative study in 208 patients. ( 26187128 )
2015
38
The Oldest Recorded Case of Acromegaly and Gigantism in Iran. ( 26443258 )
2015
39
Gigantism, acromegaly, and GPR101 mutations. ( 25806921 )
2015
40
Gigantism, acromegaly, and GPR101 mutations. ( 25806919 )
2015
41
Pituitary Gigantism - Experience of a Single Centre from Western India. ( 25716640 )
2015
42
Ecological explanations to island gigantism: dietary niche divergence, predation, and size in an endemic lizard. ( 26405734 )
2015
43
Gigantism Remains a Clinical Challenge. ( 26621024 )
2015
44
A probable case of gigantism/acromegaly in skeletal remains from the Jewish necropolis of "Ronda Sur" (Lucena, CA^rdoba, Spain; VIII-XII centuries CE). ( 25776010 )
2015
45
Localized gigantism. ( 25987124 )
2015
46
Gigantism, acromegaly, and GPR101 mutations. ( 25806920 )
2015
47
A novel germline mutation in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (Aip) gene in an Italian family with gigantism. ( 24996936 )
2014
48
Lower limb gigantism, lymphedema, and painful varicosities following a thigh vascular access graft. ( 24467313 )
2014
49
A Gray-purple Mass on the Floor of the Mouth: Gigantic Mucogingival Pyogenic Granuloma in a Teenage Patient. ( 24987485 )
2014
50
Change in the immunophenotype of a somatotroph adenoma resulting in gigantism. ( 25396071 )
2014

Variations for Gigantism

Expression for Gigantism

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Gigantism.

Pathways for Gigantism

Pathways related to Gigantism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
10.24 GH1 PRL

GO Terms for Gigantism

Cellular components related to Gigantism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 endosome lumen GO:0031904 8.62 GH1 PRL

Biological processes related to Gigantism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 regulation of receptor activity GO:0010469 9.5 GH1 GHRH PRL
2 positive regulation of multicellular organism growth GO:0040018 9.26 GH1 GHRH
3 positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade GO:0046427 9.16 GH1 PRL
4 JAK-STAT cascade involved in growth hormone signaling pathway GO:0060397 8.96 GH1 PRL
5 positive regulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway GO:0043568 8.62 GH1 GHRH

Molecular functions related to Gigantism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hormone activity GO:0005179 8.96 GH1 PRL
2 prolactin receptor binding GO:0005148 8.62 GH1 PRL

Sources for Gigantism

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HGMD
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 MedGen
41 MeSH
42 MESH via Orphanet
43 MGI
45 NCI
46 NCIt
47 NDF-RT
50 NINDS
51 Novoseek
53 OMIM
54 OMIM via Orphanet
58 PubMed
60 QIAGEN
65 SNOMED-CT via HPO
66 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67 TGDB
68 Tocris
69 UMLS
70 UMLS via Orphanet
Content
Loading form....