MCID: GNG012
MIFTS: 52

Gingival Overgrowth

Categories: Gastrointestinal diseases, Oral diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Gingival Overgrowth

MalaCards integrated aliases for Gingival Overgrowth:

Name: Gingival Overgrowth 12 28 51 41 14
Gingival Enlargement Nos 12
Gingival Enlargement 12
Gingival Hyperplasia 69

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:3086
ICD10 32 K06.1
MeSH 41 D019214

Summaries for Gingival Overgrowth

MalaCards based summary : Gingival Overgrowth, also known as gingival enlargement nos, is related to gingival fibromatosis and fibromatosis, gingival, 1. An important gene associated with Gingival Overgrowth is MMP1 (Matrix Metallopeptidase 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Innate Immune System and GPCR Pathway. The drugs Cetylpyridinium and Ethanol have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include heart, kidney and liver, and related phenotypes are homeostasis/metabolism and cardiovascular system

Wikipedia : 72 Gingival enlargement, (also termed gingival overgrowth, hypertrophic gingivitis, gingival hyperplasia,... more...

Related Diseases for Gingival Overgrowth

Diseases related to Gingival Overgrowth via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 105)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 gingival fibromatosis 30.6 CD36 CTGF ITGA2 MMP1 MMP3 TGFB1
2 fibromatosis, gingival, 1 30.1 CD36 MMP1 TGFB1
3 periodontitis 29.9 IL1A IL6 MMP1 MMP3 TIMP1
4 keloids 29.7 CD36 DCN MMP1 TGFB1
5 periodontal disease 28.8 IL1A IL6 MMP1 MMP3 TIMP1
6 amelogenesis imperfecta, type ig 11.2
7 gingivitis 11.1
8 epulis 10.9
9 periodontitis, chronic 10.4 IL6 MMP1
10 laryngitis 10.4 IL6 TGFB1
11 cholecystolithiasis 10.4 CTGF TGFB1
12 stiff skin syndrome 10.4 CTGF TGFB1
13 posterior urethral valves 10.4 IL6 TGFB1
14 eosinophilic granuloma 10.3 CD36 DCN
15 tendinopathy 10.3 DCN MMP1
16 interstitial keratitis 10.3 CD36 DCN
17 scleroderma, familial progressive 10.3 CD36 CTGF
18 penile disease 10.3 DCN TGFB1
19 carpal tunnel syndrome 10.3 CTGF IL6 TGFB1
20 urinary system disease 10.3 CTGF IL6 TGFB1
21 leukoregulin 10.3 IL1A TGFB1
22 ocular cicatricial pemphigoid 10.3 CD36 CTGF TGFB1
23 epithelial basement membrane dystrophy 10.3 IL1A TGFB1
24 renal fibrosis 10.2 CD36 CTGF TGFB1
25 superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis 10.2 MMP1 MMP3
26 hypertrophic scars 10.2 CD36 TGFB1 TIMP1
27 vitreoretinopathy, neovascular inflammatory 10.2 CTGF TGFB1 TIMP1
28 inguinal hernia 10.2 IL6 MMP1 TIMP1
29 diabetic foot ulcers 10.2 IL6 PDGFB TGFB1
30 biliary atresia 10.2 CTGF TGFB1 TIMP1
31 periodontitis, aggressive, 1 10.2 IL1A MMP1
32 spastic entropion 10.2 MMP1 MMP3
33 clonorchiasis 10.2 CTSL TGFB1
34 odontogenic myxoma 10.2 CD36 DCN MMP1
35 pulmonary fibrosis 10.1 CTGF TGFB1 TIMP1
36 chronic graft versus host disease 10.1 CD36 IL1A
37 idiopathic neutropenia 10.1 IL1A IL6 TGFB1
38 pneumoconiosis 10.1 IL1A IL6 TGFB1
39 chronic ulcer of skin 10.1 MMP1 PDGFB
40 bronchiolitis obliterans 10.1 IL6 PDGFB TIMP1
41 lymph node disease 10.0 IL6 MMP1 MMP3
42 adult astrocytic tumour 10.0 MMP1 MMP3
43 aging 10.0
44 epilepsy 10.0
45 endotheliitis 10.0
46 synovitis 10.0 IL6 MMP1 MMP3
47 liver cirrhosis 10.0 CTGF TGFB1 TIMP1
48 squamous cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx 10.0 MMP1 MMP3 TIMP1
49 joint disorders 10.0 IL6 MMP3 TIMP1
50 conjunctivochalasis 10.0 MMP1 MMP3 TIMP1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Gingival Overgrowth:



Diseases related to Gingival Overgrowth

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Gingival Overgrowth

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Gingival Overgrowth:

43 (show all 11)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.18 TGFB1 TIMP1 MMP1 MMP3 PDGFB IL6
2 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.1 PDGFB TGFB1 TIMP1 IL1A CTGF IL6
3 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10.09 PDGFB TGFB1 ITGA2 TIMP1 MMP3 IL6
4 immune system MP:0005387 10.07 TGFB1 TIMP1 MMP1 MMP3 PDGFB IL6
5 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.06 TGFB1 TIMP1 CTGF CTSB IL6 ITGA2
6 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 9.95 TGFB1 CTGF CTSB IL6 DCN CD36
7 integument MP:0010771 9.92 TGFB1 PDGFB IL6 CTSB DCN ITGA2
8 neoplasm MP:0002006 9.8 TGFB1 TIMP1 MMP1 IL6 CTSB DCN
9 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.7 TGFB1 PDGFB IL6 CTSB DCN CD36
10 respiratory system MP:0005388 9.5 PDGFB TGFB1 TIMP1 IL6 DCN FAM20A
11 skeleton MP:0005390 9.23 TGFB1 TIMP1 MMP3 IL6 DCN CD36

Drugs & Therapeutics for Gingival Overgrowth

Drugs for Gingival Overgrowth (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 27)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1 Cetylpyridinium Approved Phase 4 7773-52-6
2
Ethanol Approved Phase 4 64-17-5 702
3
Menthol Approved Phase 4 2216-51-5 16666
4
Methyl salicylate Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 119-36-8 4133
5
Thymol Approved Phase 4 89-83-8 6989
6
Eucalyptol Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 470-82-6 2758
7 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
8 Anti-Infective Agents, Local Phase 4
9 Fluorides Phase 4
10 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4
11 Salicylates Phase 4
12
Phenytoin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 57-41-0 1775
13
Folic Acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 3 59-30-3 6037
14
leucovorin Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 3 58-05-9 143 6006
15 Anticonvulsants Phase 3
16 Diuretics, Potassium Sparing Phase 3
17 Hematinics Phase 3
18 Micronutrients Phase 3
19 Sodium Channel Blockers Phase 3
20 Trace Elements Phase 3
21 Vitamin B Complex Phase 3
22 Vitamins Phase 3
23 Folate Nutraceutical Phase 3
24 Vitamin B9 Nutraceutical Phase 3
25 calcium channel blockers
26 Calcium, Dietary
27 Cyclosporins

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Mouthwashes During Orthodontic Treatment Enrolling by invitation NCT03179735 Phase 4 Essential oils;Cetylpyridinium Chloride 0.7 mg/ml;Placebos
2 Folic Acid Supplementation in Phenytoin Induced Gingival Overgrowth Completed NCT00781196 Phase 3 folic acid;placebo
3 Diode Laser in Gingival Enlargement Related to Orthodontics Unknown status NCT01286298
4 Genes Associated With Hereditary and Drug-Induced Gingival Overgrowth Completed NCT00104026
5 Soft Tissue Wound Healing Following Different Gingivectomy Techniques Completed NCT03435068
6 Flapless Esthetic Crown Lengthening for the Treatment of Excessive Gingival Display Completed NCT01821157
7 Development and Validation of the Periodontal Aesthetic Perception Scale in Patients With Periodontal Problems Completed NCT03436537

Search NIH Clinical Center for Gingival Overgrowth

Cochrane evidence based reviews: gingival overgrowth

Genetic Tests for Gingival Overgrowth

Genetic tests related to Gingival Overgrowth:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Gingival Overgrowth 28

Anatomical Context for Gingival Overgrowth

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Gingival Overgrowth:

38
Heart, Kidney, Liver, Endothelial, Lung, Bone, Bone Marrow

Publications for Gingival Overgrowth

Articles related to Gingival Overgrowth:

(show top 50) (show all 457)
# Title Authors Year
1
Reversal of drug-induced gingival overgrowth by UV-mediated apoptosis of gingival fibroblasts - an in vitro study. ( 29427738 )
2018
2
High-power diode laser on management of drug-induced gingival overgrowth: Report of two cases and long-term follow-up. ( 29351498 )
2018
3
Gingival overgrowth: Part 2: management strategies. ( 28184072 )
2017
4
Lack of Association Between TGF-I^1 and MDR1 Genetic Polymorphisms and Cyclosporine-Induced Gingival Overgrowth in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Meta-analysis. ( 28736004 )
2017
5
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition in Cyclosporine A-induced rat gingival overgrowth. ( 28472720 )
2017
6
Gingival overgrowth: Part 1: aetiology and clinical diagnosis. ( 28127024 )
2017
7
Oral squamous cell carcinoma masquerading as gingival overgrowth. ( 28932153 )
2017
8
Mulberry-Shaped Gingival Overgrowth Induced by Amlodipine and Cyclosporine. ( 29208265 )
2017
9
On the Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Drug-Induced Gingival Overgrowth. ( 28868093 )
2017
10
A novel gingival overgrowth mouse model induced by the combination of CsA and ligature-induced inflammation. ( 28274836 )
2017
11
Lack of pathogenic mutations in SOS1 gene in phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth patients. ( 28433619 )
2017
12
Drug-induced gingival overgrowth after renal transplantation. ( 28656480 )
2017
13
A Rare Case of Digoxin Associated Gingival Overgrowth. ( 28571294 )
2017
14
Systematic review of cyclosporin A-induced gingival overgrowth and genetic predisposition. ( 28439573 )
2017
15
Phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth caused by death receptor pathway malfunction. ( 28160766 )
2017
16
In vivo association of immunophenotyped macrophages expressing CD163 with PDGF-B in gingival overgrowth-induced by three different categories of medications. ( 26937363 )
2016
17
Gingival Overgrowth Leading to the Diagnosis of Familial Tuberous Sclerosis Complex. ( 26885413 )
2016
18
Immunohistochemical Localization of Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition Markers in Cyclosporine A Induced Gingival Overgrowth. ( 27656563 )
2016
19
Possible pharmacotherapy for nifedipine-induced gingival overgrowth: 18I+-glycyrrhetinic acid inhibits human gingival fibroblast growth. ( 26676684 )
2016
20
Amlodipine-induced gingival overgrowth in a child after liver transplant. ( 27818959 )
2016
21
Local cause of gingival overgrowth. Clinical and histological study. ( 27516015 )
2016
22
Efficacy of azithromycin and metronidazole combined therapy on rats' gingival overgrowth induced by cyclosporine-A: An experimental animal study. ( 27761387 )
2016
23
An unusual case report of gingival overgrowth associated with the use of leflunomide. ( 27061898 )
2016
24
Upregulation of Slug expression by cyclosporine A contributes to the pathogenesis of gingival overgrowth. ( 27287534 )
2016
25
An unusual case report of gingival overgrowth associated with the use of leflunomide. ( 27606481 )
2016
26
Effect of azithromycin on gingival overgrowth induced by cyclosporine A + nifedipine combination therapy: A morphometric analysis in rats. ( 28298821 )
2016
27
Gingival overgrowth due to amlodipine. ( 27316509 )
2016
28
Amlodipine-Induced Gingival Overgrowth. ( 27731568 )
2016
29
Biological roles of KGF, CTGF and TGF-I^ in cyclosporine-A- and phenytoin- induced gingival overgrowth: A comparative experimental animal study. ( 26894526 )
2016
30
Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Plasma Levels of Transglutaminase-2 and Oxidative Stress Markers in Cylosporin A-Induced Gingival Overgrowth. ( 27468796 )
2016
31
Immunoexpression of interleukin-6 in drug-induced gingival overgrowth patients. ( 27307657 )
2016
32
Loss of epithelial FAM20A in mice causes amelogenesis imperfecta, tooth eruption delay and gingival overgrowth. ( 27281036 )
2016
33
A Clinical Evaluation of Gingival Overgrowth in Children on Antiepileptic Drug Therapy. ( 26894172 )
2016
34
Experimental animal model in a histological study of drug-induced gingival overgrowth. ( 28002516 )
2016
35
Elevated Snail expression in human gingival fibroblasts by cyclosporine A as the possible pathogenesis for gingival overgrowth. ( 26691272 )
2015
36
Phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth management with periodontal treatment. ( 25672382 )
2015
37
Local Inflammation Alters MMP-2 and MMP-9 Gelatinase Expression Associated with the Severity of Nifedipine-Induced Gingival Overgrowth: a Rat Model Study. ( 25652432 )
2015
38
Molecular and Clinical Aspects of Drug-induced Gingival Overgrowth. ( 25680368 )
2015
39
Ca-channel blocker-induced gingival overgrowth that improved with non-surgical therapy during visiting care: a case report. ( 26205140 )
2015
40
Management of Gingival Overgrowth in a Cardiac Transplant Patient Using Laser-Assisted Gingivectomy/Gingivoplasty. ( 26373224 )
2015
41
Cyclosporine A: Novel concepts in its role in drug-induced gingival overgrowth. ( 26759584 )
2015
42
Interleukin-6 Family of Cytokines in Crevicular Fluid of Renal Transplant Recipients With and Without Cyclosporine A-Induced Gingival Overgrowth. ( 25927423 )
2015
43
Prevention of Phenytoin-Induced Gingival Overgrowth by Lovastatin in Mice. ( 25843680 )
2015
44
Case report: drug-induced gingival overgrowth associated with the use of a calcium channel blocker (amlodipine). ( 26665904 )
2015
45
Management of periodontal disease in patients using calcium channel blockers - gingival overgrowth, prescribed medications, treatment responses and added treatment costs. ( 26076712 )
2015
46
Using Salivary Nitrite and Nitrate Levels as a Biomarker for Drug-Induced Gingival Overgrowth. ( 26649282 )
2015
47
Drug induced gingival overgrowth: a rare case report. ( 25738096 )
2015
48
Severe Antiepileptic Drug-induced Gingival Overgrowth in a Physically Disabled Patient. ( 26907979 )
2015
49
Are antimicrobial peptides related to cyclosporine A-induced gingival overgrowth? ( 25555253 )
2015
50
Impact of three different mouthwashes on the incidence of gingival overgrowth induced by cyclosporine-A: a randomized controlled experimental animal study. ( 26153120 )
2015

Variations for Gingival Overgrowth

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Gingival Overgrowth:

6
# Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1 RET NM_020975.4(RET): c.2753T> C (p.Met918Thr) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic rs74799832 GRCh37 Chromosome 10, 43617416: 43617416

Copy number variations for Gingival Overgrowth from CNVD:

7
# CNVD ID Chromosom Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 116297 17 64200000 70900000 Copy number Gingival hyperplasia

Expression for Gingival Overgrowth

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Gingival Overgrowth.

Pathways for Gingival Overgrowth

Pathways related to Gingival Overgrowth according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 44)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.92 CD36 CTSB CTSL IL1A IL6 MMP1
2
Show member pathways
13.6 CTGF IL6 ITGA2 MMP1 MMP3 PDGFB
3
Show member pathways
13.44 CTGF IL1A IL6 ITGA2 PDGFB TGFB1
4
Show member pathways
13.28 CTGF IL1A IL6 ITGA2 PDGFB TGFB1
5
Show member pathways
13.22 CD36 ITGA2 MMP1 PDGFB TGFB1 TIMP1
6
Show member pathways
13.2 CTGF IL1A IL6 PDGFB TGFB1 TIMP1
7
Show member pathways
13.15 CD36 IL1A IL6 MMP1 MMP3 PDGFB
8
Show member pathways
12.96 CTGF IL6 PDGFB TGFB1 TIMP1
9
Show member pathways
12.89 CTGF IL6 ITGA2 PDGFB TGFB1 TIMP1
10 12.75 IL6 ITGA2 MMP1 PDGFB TGFB1
11
Show member pathways
12.75 CTSB CTSL IL1A IL6 TGFB1
12
Show member pathways
12.5 CTGF IL1A IL6 PDGFB TGFB1 TIMP1
13
Show member pathways
12.26 CTSB CTSL DCN ITGA2 MMP1 MMP3
14 12.19 CTSL DCN ITGA2 TGFB1
15 12.05 CD36 CTSL ITGA2
16 12.01 CTSL IL1A PDGFB
17 11.99 IL6 PDGFB TGFB1
18 11.98 ITGA2 MMP1 TGFB1
19 11.93 IL1A IL6 TGFB1
20 11.91 CD36 IL6 ITGA2
21 11.86 IL1A IL6 TGFB1
22 11.82 IL1A IL6 TGFB1
23
Show member pathways
11.82 MMP1 MMP3 TIMP1
24 11.76 MMP3 TGFB1 TIMP1
25 11.76 CD36 IL1A IL6 ITGA2
26 11.74 DCN IL6 PDGFB TGFB1
27
Show member pathways
11.62 ITGA2 PDGFB TGFB1
28 11.6 CD36 IL6 TGFB1
29 11.59 CTSL IL1A IL6 MMP1 MMP3 TGFB1
30 11.56 MMP1 MMP3 TIMP1
31 11.51 DCN ITGA2 TGFB1
32
Show member pathways
11.47 IL1A IL6 MMP1 MMP3
33 11.45 IL6 MMP1 TGFB1
34 11.45 CTGF IL6 PDGFB TGFB1 TIMP1
35 11.42 IL1A IL6 TIMP1
36 11.41 CD36 IL6 TGFB1
37 11.39 IL6 PDGFB TGFB1
38 11.22 DCN IL6 MMP1
39 11.22 CD36 IL1A IL6 MMP1 MMP3 TGFB1
40 11.15 IL1A IL6 TGFB1
41 10.96 MMP1 TIMP1
42 10.91 MMP1 TGFB1
43 10.77 CTGF IL1A IL6 ITGA2 PDGFB TGFB1
44 10.72 IL6 TGFB1

GO Terms for Gingival Overgrowth

Cellular components related to Gingival Overgrowth according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular matrix GO:0031012 9.73 DCN MMP1 MMP3 PDGFB TGFB1 TIMP1
2 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.73 CTGF CTSB CTSL DCN FAM20A IL1A
3 proteinaceous extracellular matrix GO:0005578 9.63 CTGF DCN MMP1 MMP3 TGFB1 TIMP1
4 Golgi lumen GO:0005796 9.58 DCN PDGFB TGFB1
5 platelet alpha granule lumen GO:0031093 9.54 PDGFB TGFB1 TIMP1
6 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.4 CD36 CTGF CTSB CTSL DCN FAM20A
7 endolysosome lumen GO:0036021 9.32 CTSB CTSL

Biological processes related to Gingival Overgrowth according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 30)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 positive regulation of cell proliferation GO:0008284 9.97 CTGF IL6 PDGFB TGFB1 TIMP1
2 negative regulation of gene expression GO:0010629 9.86 CD36 CTGF PDGFB TGFB1
3 positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade GO:0070374 9.84 CD36 CTGF PDGFB TGFB1
4 cytokine-mediated signaling pathway GO:0019221 9.82 DCN IL1A IL6
5 positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity GO:0051092 9.81 CD36 IL6 TGFB1
6 response to organic cyclic compound GO:0014070 9.8 CTGF ITGA2 TGFB1
7 aging GO:0007568 9.8 CTGF DCN TGFB1 TIMP1
8 positive regulation of MAPK cascade GO:0043410 9.77 CD36 IL6 PDGFB
9 response to wounding GO:0009611 9.76 CTGF PDGFB TGFB1
10 platelet degranulation GO:0002576 9.73 CD36 PDGFB TGFB1 TIMP1
11 regulation of receptor activity GO:0010469 9.73 CTGF IL1A IL6 PDGFB TGFB1 TIMP1
12 positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation GO:0048661 9.72 IL6 ITGA2 PDGFB
13 positive regulation of interleukin-6 production GO:0032755 9.7 CD36 IL1A IL6
14 positive regulation of cell division GO:0051781 9.69 IL1A PDGFB TGFB1
15 wound healing GO:0042060 9.67 DCN ITGA2 TGFB1 TIMP1
16 positive regulation of pri-miRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II GO:1902895 9.64 PDGFB TGFB1
17 positive regulation of smooth muscle cell migration GO:0014911 9.63 ITGA2 PDGFB
18 toll-like receptor signaling pathway GO:0002224 9.63 CD36 CTSB CTSL
19 response to fatty acid GO:0070542 9.62 CD36 CTGF
20 cell activation GO:0001775 9.62 TGFB1 TIMP1
21 positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation GO:0050731 9.62 CD36 IL6 PDGFB TGFB1
22 positive regulation of protein oligomerization GO:0032461 9.61 MMP1 MMP3
23 cellular response to thyroid hormone stimulus GO:0097067 9.61 CTSB CTSL
24 positive regulation of chemotaxis GO:0050921 9.6 PDGFB TGFB1
25 positive regulation of phagocytosis, engulfment GO:0060100 9.58 CD36 ITGA2
26 positive regulation of collagen biosynthetic process GO:0032967 9.58 CTGF ITGA2 TGFB1
27 connective tissue replacement involved in inflammatory response wound healing GO:0002248 9.48 IL1A TGFB1
28 collagen catabolic process GO:0030574 9.46 CTSB CTSL MMP1 MMP3
29 positive regulation of gene expression GO:0010628 9.43 CD36 CTGF IL1A IL6 PDGFB TGFB1
30 extracellular matrix disassembly GO:0022617 9.02 CTSL DCN MMP1 MMP3 TIMP1

Molecular functions related to Gingival Overgrowth according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 serine-type endopeptidase activity GO:0004252 9.56 CTSB CTSL MMP1 MMP3
2 cytokine activity GO:0005125 9.46 IL1A IL6 TGFB1 TIMP1
3 growth factor activity GO:0008083 9.35 CTGF IL6 PDGFB TGFB1 TIMP1
4 proteoglycan binding GO:0043394 9.32 CTSB CTSL
5 collagen binding GO:0005518 9.02 CTSB CTSL DCN ITGA2 PDGFB
6 protein binding GO:0005515 10.18 CD36 CTGF CTSB CTSL DCN FAM20A

Sources for Gingival Overgrowth

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HGMD
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 MedGen
41 MeSH
42 MESH via Orphanet
43 MGI
45 NCI
46 NCIt
47 NDF-RT
50 NINDS
51 Novoseek
53 OMIM
54 OMIM via Orphanet
58 PubMed
60 QIAGEN
65 SNOMED-CT via HPO
66 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67 TGDB
68 Tocris
69 UMLS
70 UMLS via Orphanet
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