MCID: HPT019
MIFTS: 58

Hepatic Encephalopathy malady

Liver diseases category

Summaries for Hepatic Encephalopathy

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42NIH Rare Diseases, 63Wikipedia, 32MalaCards
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NIH Rare Diseases:42 Hepatic encephalopathy is a syndrome observed in some patients with cirrhosis. it is defined as a spectrum of neuropsychiatric abnormalities in patients with liver dysfunction, when other known brain disease has been excluded. signs and symptoms may be debilitating, and they can begin mildly and gradually, or occur suddenly and severely. they may include personality or mood changes, intellectual impairment, abnormal movements, a depressed level of consciousness, and other symptoms. there are several theories regarding the exact cause, but development of the condition is probably at least partially due to the effect of substances that are toxic to nerve tissue (neurotoxic), which are typically present with liver damage and/or liver disease. treatment depends upon the severity of mental status changes and upon the certainty of the diagnosis. last updated: 1/24/2011

MalaCards: Hepatic Encephalopathy, also known as portal-systemic encephalopathy, is related to hepatitis and hepatitis a. An important gene associated with Hepatic Encephalopathy is TSPO (translocator protein (18kDa)), and among its related pathways are melatonin degradation II and Alanine and aspartate metabolism. The drugs lactulose and kanamycin sulfate and the compounds milacemide and harmine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include liver, brain and testes, and related mouse phenotypes are nervous system and behavior/neurological.

Wikipedia:63 Hepatic encephalopathy (also known as portosystemic encephalopathy) is the occurrence of confusion,... more...

Aliases & Classifications for Hepatic Encephalopathy

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8Disease Ontology, 42NIH Rare Diseases, 10DISEASES, 44Novoseek, 60UMLS, 56SNOMED-CT, 39NCIt, 27ICD9CM, 34MeSH
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Classifications:

Malacards categories (disease lists): (See all malacards categories)
Anatomical: Liver diseases


Aliases & Descriptions:

hepatic encephalopathy 8 42 10 44 60
portal-systemic encephalopathy 8
encephalopathy, hepatic 42
hepatoencephalopathy 42


External Ids:

Disease Ontology8 DOID:13413
NCIt39 C79596
ICD9CM27 572.2
MeSH34 D006501

Related Diseases for Hepatic Encephalopathy

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Sources:
17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
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Diseases related to Hepatic Encephalopathy via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards/GeneDecks gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 168)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1hepatitis32.0SLC17A5, GPT
2hepatitis a31.5F2
3liver cirrhosis30.9GLS, GPT, F2, SLC17A5, TSPO, ALB
4brain edema30.6GLUL, SLC25A13, ALB, AQP4
5acute liver failure30.6GC, GPT, F2, SLC17A5, TSPO, ALB
6alcoholic hepatitis30.5GPT, F2, SLC17A5, ALB
7hepatic coma30.4F2, TSPO
8hypertension30.3ALB, F2
9toxic encephalopathy30.3MAOA, MAOB, GLUL
10diabetes mellitus30.3GC, CSN1S1, GLS2, GPT, SGCB, ALB
11hepatitis c30.2GPT, F2, SLC17A5
12wilson disease30.1GPT, SLC17A5
13dementia30.1TSPO, NOS1, GLS, MAOB, MAOA
14peritonitis30.1F2, ALB
15urea cycle disorder30.1ASS1
16viral hepatitis30.1SLC17A5, F2, GPT
17portal hypertension30.1MAOA, GPT, F2, SLC17A5, ALB
18citrin deficiency29.9SLC25A13
19malaria29.9ALB
20meningitis29.9ALB
21pancreatitis29.9ALB, SLC17A5
22psychotic disorder29.9MAOA, MAOB, NOS1
23hepatitis b29.9GPT, F2, SLC17A5, ALB
24schizophrenia29.9CSN1S1, MAOA, MAOB, GLS, GLUL, NOS1
25alzheimer's disease29.9CSN1S1, CHERP, MAOA, MAOB, GLS, GLUL
26hepatocellular carcinoma29.9CSN1S1, GLS, GLUL, GLS2, GPT, F2
27cerebritis10.6
28neuronitis10.3
29liver disease10.3
30status epilepticus10.2
31hypertensive encephalopathy10.2
32cortical blindness10.2
33hepatic vein thrombosis10.2
34combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 110.2
35portal vein thrombosis10.1
36autonomic neuropathy10.1
37neuropathy10.1
38infections, recurrent, with encephalopathy, hepatic dysfunction, and cardiovasuclar malformations10.1
39prion disease10.0TSPO
40severe pre-eclampsia10.0MAOA
41alcohol dependence10.0MAOA
42anorexia nervosa10.0MAOA
43huntington's disease10.0ATXN3
44fibromyalgia10.0TSPO
45intrahepatic cholestasis10.0SLC25A13
46hyperthyroidism10.0SLC17A5
47reye syndrome10.0GLUL
48thromboembolism10.0F2
49hepatitis e10.0GPT
50lung cancer10.0ALB

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Hepatic Encephalopathy:



Diseases related to hepatic encephalopathy

Clinical Features for Hepatic Encephalopathy

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Drugs & Therapeutics for Hepatic Encephalopathy

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Sources:
5CenterWatch, 41NIH Clinical Center, 6ClinicalTrials, 60UMLS, 40NDF-RT
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Approved drugs:

Search CenterWatch for Hepatic Encephalopathy

Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Hepatic Encephalopathy

Search NIH Clinical Center for Hepatic Encephalopathy

Search CenterWatch for Hepatic Encephalopathy

Inferred drug relations via UMLS60/NDF-RT40:

Genetic Tests for Hepatic Encephalopathy

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Anatomical Context for Hepatic Encephalopathy

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32MalaCards
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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Hepatic Encephalopathy:

32
Liver, Brain, Testes, Cortex, Cerebellum, Prefrontal cortex, Endothelial, Globus pallidus, Thalamus, Colon, Small intestine, Kidney, Cingulate cortex

Animal Models for Hepatic Encephalopathy or affiliated genes

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36MGI
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MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Hepatic Encephalopathy:

36
idDescriptionMGI Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MP:00036319.5MAOA, MAOB, GLUL, F2, SLC17A5, NOS1
2MP:00053869.2ATXN3, MAOA, MAOB, GLS, GLUL, SLC17A5
3MP:00053769.1AQP4, GC, MAOA, MAOB, GLUL, F2

Publications for Hepatic Encephalopathy

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50PubMed
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Articles related to Hepatic Encephalopathy:

(show top 50)    (show all 618)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 as a therapeutic target for the progression of fulminant liver failure with hepatic encephalopathy: A pilot study in mice. (23672352)
2013
2
Randomized, double-blind, controlled study of glycerol phenylbutyrate in hepatic encephalopathy. (23847109)
2013
3
Hyaluronic acid levels predict risk of hepatic encephalopathy and liver-related death in HIV/viral hepatitis coinfected patients. (23724041)
2013
4
Abnormal regional homogeneity of resting-state brain activity in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis without overt hepatic encephalopathy. (23402608)
2013
5
The extent and the nature of the cholinergic contribution to the hepatic encephalopathy-induced cognitive impairment. (23973861)
2013
6
Probiotics Prevent Hepatic Encephalopathy in Patients With Cirrhosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (24246768)
2013
7
Rats with minimal hepatic encephalopathy due to portacaval shunt show differential increase of translocator protein (18A kDa) binding in different brain areas, which is not affected by chronic MAP-kinase p38 inhibition. (24307181)
2013
8
Roles of Changes in Active Glutamine Transport in Brain Edema Development During Hepatic Encephalopathy: An Emerging Concept. (24072671)
2013
9
Value of Critical Flicker Frequency and Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score in Diagnosis of Low-Grade Hepatic Encephalopathy. (24365582)
2013
10
Brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy in episodic hepatic encephalopathy. (23168529)
2013
11
Embolization of large spontaneous portosystemic shunts for refractory hepatic encephalopathy: a multicenter survey on safety and efficacy. (23401201)
2013
12
Satavaptan treatment for ascites in patients with cirrhosis: a meta-analysis of effect on hepatic encephalopathy development. (23463488)
2013
13
Management of covert hepatic encephalopathy. (22321467)
2012
14
Contribution of hyperammonemia and inflammatory factors to cognitive impairment in minimal hepatic encephalopathy. (22072427)
2012
15
Pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. (23316223)
2012
16
Improving treatments for hepatic encephalopathy. (22847290)
2012
17
Spatial working memory dysfunction in minimal hepatic encephalopathy: an ethology and BOLD-fMRI study. (22325099)
2012
18
Encephalopathy or hepatic encephalopathy? (22824470)
2012
19
Role of oxidative/nitrative stress in hepatic encephalopathy induced by thioacetamide. (21699073)
2011
20
Severe pentasomide Armillifer armillatus infestation complicated by hepatic encephalopathy. (21311159)
2011
21
A randomized controlled trial comparing lactulose, probiotics, and L-ornithine L-aspartate in treatment of minimal hepatic encephalopathy. (21646910)
2011
22
Acetyl-L-carnitine improves cognitive functions in severe hepatic encephalopathy: a randomized and controlled clinical trial. (21870121)
2011
23
Sub-clinical hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhotic patients is not aggravated by sedation with propofol compared to midazolam: a randomized controlled study. (20934771)
2011
24
Experimental models for hepatic encephalopathy. (22054269)
2011
25
Nonconvulsive status epilepticus in hepatic encephalopathy. (22224122)
2011
26
The hunter and the pianist: two hepatic encephalopathy tales. (20717046)
2011
27
Management of hepatic encephalopathy. (21994873)
2011
28
The multi-dimensional burden of cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy on patients and caregivers. (21556040)
2011
29
Abnormal brain processing in hepatic encephalopathy: evidence of cerebral reorganization? (20661140)
2010
30
ACP Journal Club. Rifaximin maintained remission from hepatic encephalopathy longer than placebo in patients with cirrhosis. (20713787)
2010
31
Signal intensity loss on T2-weighted gradient-recalled echo magnetic resonance images in the basal ganglia in a patient with chronic hepatic encephalopathy. (20592571)
2010
32
Predictors of minimal hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis. (20616413)
2010
33
Naloxone in the management of hepatic encephalopathy. (20831534)
2010
34
Patent paraumbilical vein-induced hepatic encephalopathy. (20601141)
2010
35
Hepatic encephalopathy--a presentation of hemophagocytosis. (20862993)
2010
36
Pharmacotherapy of hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhosis. (20384539)
2010
37
Neuroinflammation contributes to hypokinesia in rats with hepatic encephalopathy: ibuprofen restores its motor activity. (19025766)
2009
38
Albumin dialysis has a favorable effect on amino acid profile in hepatic encephalopathy. (18773287)
2008
39
Noncirrhotic portal vein thrombosis exhibits neuropsychological and MR changes consistent with minimal hepatic encephalopathy. (16557541)
2006
40
West Nile viral encephalitis mimicking hepatic encephalopathy. (15647737)
2005
41
Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists for hepatic encephalopathy. (15106178)
2004
42
Up-regulation of central mu-opioid receptors in a model of hepatic encephalopathy: a potential mechanism for increased sensitivity to morphine in liver failure. (11991257)
2002
43
Extracorporeal blood detoxification by sorbents in treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. (11927902)
2002
44
Neuronal nitric oxide synthase and Hepatic Encephalopathy. (9804363)
1998
45
Increased density of catalytic sites and expression of brain monoamine oxidase A in humans with hepatic encephalopathy. (9048767)
1997
46
Long-term oral branched-chain amino acid treatment in chronic hepatic encephalopathy. A randomized double-blind casein-controlled trial. The Italian Multicenter Study Group. (2204661)
1990
47
Increased endogenous neuropeptide ligand for benzodiazepine receptors in hepatic encephalopathy. (2158481)
1990
48
Benzodiazepine receptor ligands and the syndrome of hepatic encephalopathy. (2156301)
1990
49
The involvement of the benzodiazepine receptor in hepatic encephalopathy: evidence for the presence of a benzodiazepine receptor ligand. (1963266)
1990
50
Treatment of alcoholic hepatitis with encephalopathy. Comparison of prednisolone with caloric supplements. (340319)
1978

Genetic Variations for Hepatic Encephalopathy

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Expression for genes affiliated with Hepatic Encephalopathy

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1BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
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Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Hepatic Encephalopathy

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Hepatic Encephalopathy.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Hepatic Encephalopathy

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Sources:
37NCBI BioSystems Database, 53Reactome, 29KEGG
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Pathways related to Hepatic Encephalopathy according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 12)
idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1
Hide members
10.3MAOB, MAOA
210.2GPT, ASS1
3
Hide members
10.1MAOA, GLS, GLS2
4
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10.1GLS2, GLS, MAOA
5
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10.1NOS1, GLS2, GLS
6
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10.0GLS2, GLUL, GLS, MAOA
710.0GLS, GLUL, GLS2, GPT
89.9GLS, GLUL, GLS2, GPT, ASS1
99.9GLS, GLUL, GLS2, GPT, ASS1
10
Hide members
9.8MAOA, MAOB, GLS, GLUL, GLS2, NOS1
11
Hide members
9.7GC, MAOA, MAOB, DPAGT1, GLS, GLUL
12
Hide members
9.7ASS1, NOS1, GLS2, GLUL, GLS, MAOB

Compounds for genes affiliated with Hepatic Encephalopathy

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Sources:
44Novoseek, 11DrugBank, 24HMDB, 49PharmGKB, 28IUPHAR, 2BitterDB, 59Tocris Bioscience
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Compounds related to Hepatic Encephalopathy according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show top 50)    (show all 205)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1milacemide4410.6MAOB, SLC17A5, MAOA
2harmine4410.6MAOB, MAOA, TSPO
3beta-carboline4410.5MAOB, MAOA, TSPO
4d amphetamine4410.5MAOA, MAOB, TSPO
5hepaplastin4410.4F2, SLC17A5, ALB, GPT
6ammonium4410.4GLS, ASS1, SLC17A5, GLUL
7flavin4410.3MAOA, SGCB, NOS1, MAOB
8isoflurane44 1111.3GPT, SLC17A5, TSPO, ALB
9citrulline44 2411.3NOS1, ASS1, SGCB, SLC25A13, GLS
10bicarbonate4410.3AQP4, GLS, GC, ALB, GLS2
11alpha-ketoglutarate4410.3MAOB, GLS, GLUL, GLS2, GPT
12phosphorus4410.3SLC17A5, GC, GPT, ALB
13fluoxetine49 44 28 1113.2MAOA, NOS1, MAOB, ALB
14pyridoxal 5-phosphate4410.2GPT, ALB, SLC17A5, GLS
15vitamin b124410.2GPT, CSN1S1, ALB, MAOB, SLC17A5
165-hydroxytryptamine4410.2NOS1, SGCB, F2, MAOA, MAOB, TSPO
17asparagine4410.2ASS1, DPAGT1, GLS, GLUL, GPT
18mptp4410.2MAOA, TSPO, MAOB, NOS1
19cocaine44 1111.2GPT, SLC17A5, MAOB, NOS1, TSPO
20acetaminophen44 2 49 11 2414.2SLC17A5, GC, F2, GPT, CSN1S1
21nicotine44 49 28 1113.2MAOB, GPT, SLC17A5, NOS1, MAOA, TSPO
22estrogen4410.2GLUL, MAOB
23glycerol44 11 2412.2AQP4, TSPO, GLUL, SLC25A13, NOS1, CSN1S1
24phenelzine44 1111.1GPT, MAOB, MAOA
25nmda44 2811.1TSPO, SGCB, NOS1, GLS, MAOB, MAOA
26citrate4410.1CSN1S1, F2, ALB, GLUL, GLS, GLS2
27gaba4410.1GLS, MAOA, GLUL, TSPO, NOS1, MAOB
28choline44 11 2412.1MAOB, NOS1, MAOA, GLS, GPT
29methotrexate44 49 1112.1F2, SLC17A5, GLS, NOS1, ALB, GPT
30norepinephrine44 11 2412.1NOS1, SLC17A5, MAOB, MAOA, TSPO, GLUL
31h2o24410.1MAOB, CSN1S1, SGCB, TSPO, MAOA, GLUL
32thyroxine44 2411.0GPT, GC, CSN1S1, SLC17A5, ALB
33histamine44 28 2412.0NOS1, MAOB, MAOA, CSN1S1, TSPO, ALB
34fibrinogen4410.0SLC17A5, GC, CSN1S1, GPT, ALB, F2
35carbon4410.0CSN1S1, MAOA, MAOB, GLUL, NOS1
36folate449.9ALB, SLC17A5, MAOB, CSN1S1, NOS1
37ascorbic acid44 2410.8GLUL, DPAGT1, MAOB, SLC17A5, SGCB, ALB
38lactate449.8SLC17A5, ALB, MAOB, GLS, GLUL, GLS2
39cholesterol44 28 11 2412.8CSN1S1, GC, DPAGT1, GLS2, GPT, SLC17A5
40cysteine449.8CSN1S1, ATXN3, MAOA, MAOB, GLS, GLUL
41arginine449.8NOS1, GPT, GLS2, GLUL, CSN1S1, GLS
42alanine449.8ASS1, CSN1S1, GLUL, GPT, F2, SLC17A5
43oxygen44 2410.7GLS, MAOA, GLUL, GLS2, SGCB, MAOB
44testosterone44 59 11 2412.7SGCB, ALB, TSPO, GC, NOS1, SLC17A5
45glutamine449.7GLS, GPT, ATXN3, SLC17A5, TSPO, GLS2
46urea44 11 2411.6ALB, GLUL, AQP4, GLS, ASS1, SLC17A5
47potassium44 11 2411.5SLC17A5, GPT, SGCB, ALB, GLS, AQP4
48creatinine449.5GC, CSN1S1, MAOB, DPAGT1, GLUL, GPT
49aspartate449.4GLS2, ALB, GLUL, GLS, CSN1S1, GC
50glutamate449.2AQP4, TSPO, ASS1, SGCB, GC, CSN1S1

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Hepatic Encephalopathy

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16Gene Ontology
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Cellular components related to Hepatic Encephalopathy according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1protein complexGO:04323410.0AQP4, ALB, NOS1, GLUL

Biological processes related to Hepatic Encephalopathy according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1anion transportGO:00682010.3TSPO, SLC17A5
2cellular amino acid biosynthetic processGO:00865210.1GPT, GLS2, GLUL, GLS
3cellular nitrogen compound metabolic processGO:0346419.9GLS, GLUL, GLS2, GPT, ASS1
4neurotransmitter secretionGO:0072699.8GLS2, GLS, MAOA
5synaptic transmissionGO:0072689.8ATXN3, MAOA, GLS, GLUL, GLS2
6small molecule metabolic processGO:0442819.4GC, MAOA, MAOB, GLS, GLUL, GLS2

Molecular functions related to Hepatic Encephalopathy according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1primary amine oxidase activityGO:00813110.3MAOB, MAOA
2glutaminase activityGO:0043599.9GLS2, GLS

Products for genes affiliated with Hepatic Encephalopathy

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  • Antibodies
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  • Lysates
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Sources for Hepatic Encephalopathy

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3CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
28IUPHAR
29KEGG
34MeSH
35MESH via Orphanet
36MGI
39NCIt
40NDF-RT
43NINDS
44Novoseek
46OMIM
47OMIM via Orphanet
50PubMed
51QIAGEN
57SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
60UMLS
61UMLS via Orphanet