MCID: HPT019
MIFTS: 58

Hepatic Encephalopathy malady

Liver diseases category

Summaries for Hepatic Encephalopathy

About this section
Sources:
42NIH Rare Diseases, 63Wikipedia, 32MalaCards
See all sources

Fully expand this MalaCard

Export this MalaCard
NIH Rare Diseases:42 Hepatic encephalopathy is a syndrome observed in some patients with cirrhosis. it is defined as a spectrum of neuropsychiatric abnormalities in patients with liver dysfunction, when other known brain disease has been excluded. signs and symptoms may be debilitating, and they can begin mildly and gradually, or occur suddenly and severely. they may include personality or mood changes, intellectual impairment, abnormal movements, a depressed level of consciousness, and other symptoms. there are several theories regarding the exact cause, but development of the condition is probably at least partially due to the effect of substances that are toxic to nerve tissue (neurotoxic), which are typically present with liver damage and/or liver disease. treatment depends upon the severity of mental status changes and upon the certainty of the diagnosis. last updated: 1/24/2011

MalaCards: Hepatic Encephalopathy, also known as portal-systemic encephalopathy, is related to hepatitis and hepatitis a. An important gene associated with Hepatic Encephalopathy is TSPO (translocator protein (18kDa)), and among its related pathways are melatonin degradation II and Alanine and aspartate metabolism. The drugs lactulose and kanamycin sulfate and the compounds milacemide and harmine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include liver, brain and testes, and related mouse phenotypes are nervous system and behavior/neurological.

Wikipedia:63 Hepatic encephalopathy (also known as portosystemic encephalopathy) is the occurrence of confusion,... more...

Aliases & Classifications for Hepatic Encephalopathy

About this section
Sources:
8Disease Ontology, 42NIH Rare Diseases, 10DISEASES, 44Novoseek, 60UMLS, 56SNOMED-CT, 39NCIt, 27ICD9CM, 34MeSH
See all sources

Classifications:

Malacards categories (disease lists): (See all malacards categories)
Anatomical: Liver diseases


Aliases & Descriptions:

hepatic encephalopathy 8 42 10 44 60
portal-systemic encephalopathy 8
encephalopathy, hepatic 42
hepatoencephalopathy 42


External Ids:

Disease Ontology8 DOID:13413
NCIt39 C79596
ICD9CM27 572.2
MeSH34 D006501

Related Diseases for Hepatic Encephalopathy

About this section
Sources:
17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
See all sources

Diseases related to Hepatic Encephalopathy via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards/GeneDecks gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 168)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1hepatitis32.0SLC17A5, GPT
2hepatitis a31.5F2
3liver cirrhosis30.9GLS, GPT, F2, SLC17A5, TSPO, ALB
4brain edema30.6GLUL, SLC25A13, ALB, AQP4
5acute liver failure30.6GC, GPT, F2, SLC17A5, TSPO, ALB
6alcoholic hepatitis30.5GPT, F2, SLC17A5, ALB
7hepatic coma30.4F2, TSPO
8hypertension30.3ALB, F2
9toxic encephalopathy30.3MAOA, MAOB, GLUL
10diabetes mellitus30.3GC, CSN1S1, GLS2, GPT, SGCB, ALB
11hepatitis c30.2GPT, F2, SLC17A5
12wilson disease30.1GPT, SLC17A5
13dementia30.1TSPO, NOS1, GLS, MAOB, MAOA
14peritonitis30.1F2, ALB
15urea cycle disorder30.1ASS1
16viral hepatitis30.1SLC17A5, F2, GPT
17portal hypertension30.1MAOA, GPT, F2, SLC17A5, ALB
18citrin deficiency29.9SLC25A13
19malaria29.9ALB
20meningitis29.9ALB
21pancreatitis29.9ALB, SLC17A5
22psychotic disorder29.9MAOA, MAOB, NOS1
23hepatitis b29.9GPT, F2, SLC17A5, ALB
24schizophrenia29.9CSN1S1, MAOA, MAOB, GLS, GLUL, NOS1
25alzheimer's disease29.9CSN1S1, CHERP, MAOA, MAOB, GLS, GLUL
26hepatocellular carcinoma29.9CSN1S1, GLS, GLUL, GLS2, GPT, F2
27cerebritis10.6
28neuronitis10.3
29liver disease10.3
30status epilepticus10.2
31hypertensive encephalopathy10.2
32cortical blindness10.2
33hepatic vein thrombosis10.2
34combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 110.2
35portal vein thrombosis10.1
36autonomic neuropathy10.1
37neuropathy10.1
38infections, recurrent, with encephalopathy, hepatic dysfunction, and cardiovasuclar malformations10.1
39prion disease10.0TSPO
40severe pre-eclampsia10.0MAOA
41alcohol dependence10.0MAOA
42anorexia nervosa10.0MAOA
43huntington's disease10.0ATXN3
44fibromyalgia10.0TSPO
45intrahepatic cholestasis10.0SLC25A13
46hyperthyroidism10.0SLC17A5
47reye syndrome10.0GLUL
48thromboembolism10.0F2
49hepatitis e10.0GPT
50lung cancer10.0ALB

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Hepatic Encephalopathy:



Diseases related to hepatic encephalopathy

Clinical Features for Hepatic Encephalopathy

About this section

Drugs & Therapeutics for Hepatic Encephalopathy

About this section
Sources:
5CenterWatch, 41NIH Clinical Center, 6ClinicalTrials, 60UMLS, 40NDF-RT
See all sources

Approved drugs:

Search CenterWatch for Hepatic Encephalopathy

Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Hepatic Encephalopathy

Search NIH Clinical Center for Hepatic Encephalopathy

Search CenterWatch for Hepatic Encephalopathy

Inferred drug relations via UMLS60/NDF-RT40:

Genetic Tests for Hepatic Encephalopathy

About this section

Anatomical Context for Hepatic Encephalopathy

About this section
Sources:
32MalaCards
See all sources

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Hepatic Encephalopathy:

32
Liver, Brain, Testes, Cortex, Cerebellum, Endothelial, Prefrontal cortex, Kidney, Colon, Small intestine, Cingulate cortex, Globus pallidus, Thalamus

Animal Models for Hepatic Encephalopathy or affiliated genes

About this section
Sources:
36MGI
See all sources

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Hepatic Encephalopathy:

36
idDescriptionMGI Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MP:00036319.5MAOA, MAOB, GLUL, F2, SLC17A5, NOS1
2MP:00053869.2ATXN3, MAOA, MAOB, GLS, GLUL, SLC17A5
3MP:00053769.1AQP4, GC, MAOA, MAOB, GLUL, F2

Publications for Hepatic Encephalopathy

About this section
Sources:
50PubMed
See all sources

Articles related to Hepatic Encephalopathy:

(show top 50)    (show all 618)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Insight into the relationship between brain/behavioral speed and variability in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy. (24035204)
2014
2
Early markers of neural dysfunction and compensation: A model from minimal hepatic encephalopathy. (24333166)
2013
3
Systemic inflammation and ammonia in hepatic encephalopathy. (23224356)
2013
4
Diagnosis of Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy in cirrhotic patients: should we bury psychometric tests ? (24318981)
2013
5
Hepatic encephalopathy: etiology, pathogenesis, and clinical signs. (23677822)
2013
6
Pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy: lessons from nitrogen challenges in man. (23180318)
2013
7
Minimal hepatic encephalopathy. Should we treat it? (23619267)
2013
8
Differential impact of hyponatremia and hepatic encephalopathy on health-related quality of life and brain metabolite abnormalities in cirrhosis. (23665182)
2013
9
A study on the position and etiology of infection in cirrhotic patients: A potential precipitating factor contributing to hepatic encephalopathy. (24137231)
2013
10
Clinical and radiological impact of liver transplantation for brain in cirrhosis patients without hepatic encephalopathy. (24034818)
2013
11
Current pathogenetic aspects of hepatic encephalopathy and noncirrhotic hyperammonemic encephalopathy. (23326159)
2013
12
Effects of oral branched-chain amino acids on hepatic encephalopathy and outcome in patients with liver cirrhosis. (23945292)
2013
13
Minimal hepatic encephalopathy. (24106728)
2013
14
Hepatic encephalopathy: an update. Preface. (22321472)
2012
15
Hepatic encephalopathy. (23006457)
2012
16
Validation of the number connection test for identifying patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy. (22876712)
2012
17
The effect of hepatic encephalopathy, hepatic failure, and portosystemic shunt on brain volume of cirrhotic patients: a voxel-based morphometry study. (22912746)
2012
18
Minimal hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis by measuring liver stiffness and hepatic venous pressure gradient. (23006459)
2012
19
Durability of rifaximin response in hepatic encephalopathy. (22011586)
2012
20
Hepatic encephalopathy with epilepsia partialis continua: a case report. (22999918)
2012
21
Behavioral and biochemical characterization of rats treated chronically with thioacetamide: proposal of an animal model for hepatic encephalopathy associated with cirrhosis. (23208432)
2012
22
Efficacy of rifaximin versus lactulose for reducing the recurrence of overt hepatic encephalopathy and hopitalizations in cirrhosis. (23700882)
2012
23
Management of overt hepatic encephalopathy. (22321466)
2012
24
Review of the final report of the 1998 Working Party on definition, nomenclature and diagnosis of hepatic encephalopathy. (22228879)
2011
25
Clinical efficacy and safety of lactulose for minimal hepatic encephalopathy: a meta-analysis. (21971378)
2011
26
Azithromycin induced hepatocellular toxicity and hepatic encephalopathy in asymptomatic dilated cardiomyopathy. (22144789)
2011
27
Meta-analysis: the effects of gut flora modulation using prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics on minimal hepatic encephalopathy. (21251030)
2011
28
Is poor quality of life always present with minimal hepatic encephalopathy? (21733080)
2011
29
Down-regulation of Kir4.1 in the cerebral cortex of rats with liver failure and in cultured astrocytes treated with glutamine: Implications for astrocytic dysfunction in hepatic encephalopathy. (21538466)
2011
30
Portosystemic hepatic encephalopathy model shows reversal learning impairment and dysfunction of neural activity in the prefrontal cortex and regions involved in motivated behavior. (21371891)
2011
31
The relation between pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis, hepatic encephalopathy and serum cytokine levels: what is the role of tumor necrosis factor I+? (21830421)
2011
32
Critical flicker frequency as a marker of hepatic encephalopathy in patients before and after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. (20847560)
2011
33
An unusual case of amoebic liver abscess presenting with hepatic encephalopathy: a case report. (22135606)
2011
34
Persistence of cognitive impairment after resolution of overt hepatic encephalopathy. (20178797)
2010
35
Clinical management of hepatic encephalopathy. (20412035)
2010
36
Re: Management of TIPS-related Refractory Hepatic Encephalopathy with Reduced Wallgraft Endoprostheses. (20494293)
2010
37
Fatal rhinocerebral mucormycosis under the shade of hepatic encephalopathy. (21057167)
2010
38
Factors affecting compliance and persistence with treatment for hepatic encephalopathy. (20412037)
2010
39
Probiotic yogurt for the treatment of minimal hepatic encephalopathy. (18691193)
2008
40
Brain edema and inflammatory activation in bile duct ligated rats with diet-induced hyperammonemia: A model of hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhosis. (16729306)
2006
41
Role of phosphate-activated glutaminase in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. (16382342)
2005
42
Role of zinc in subclinical hepatic encephalopathy: comparison with somatosensory-evoked potentials. (15012773)
2004
43
Patients with autonomic neuropathy are more likely to develop hepatic encephalopathy. (15573909)
2004
44
Cortical blindness and hepatic encephalopathy. (12859270)
2003
45
Flumazenil for hepatic encephalopathy grade III and IVa in patients with cirrhosis: an Italian multicenter double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. (9695999)
1998
46
Increased signals seen in globus pallidus in T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in cirrhotics are not suggestive of chronic hepatic encephalopathy. (7843718)
1995
47
Relationship between plasma benzodiazepine receptor ligand concentrations and severity of hepatic encephalopathy. (8276347)
1994
48
Increased activities of MAOA and MAOB in autopsied brain tissue from cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy. (8242348)
1993
49
The importance of the highest normokalemia in the treatment of early hepatic encephalopathy. (8164617)
1993
50
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria with hepatic vein thrombosis presenting as hepatic encephalopathy. (2307506)
1990

Genetic Variations for Hepatic Encephalopathy

About this section

Expression for genes affiliated with Hepatic Encephalopathy

About this section
Sources:
1BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
See all sources
Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Hepatic Encephalopathy

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Hepatic Encephalopathy.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Hepatic Encephalopathy

About this section
Sources:
37NCBI BioSystems Database, 53Reactome, 29KEGG
See all sources

Pathways related to Hepatic Encephalopathy according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 12)
idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1
Hide members
10.3MAOB, MAOA
210.2GPT, ASS1
3
Hide members
10.1MAOA, GLS, GLS2
4
Hide members
10.1GLS2, GLS, MAOA
5
Hide members
10.1NOS1, GLS2, GLS
6
Hide members
10.0GLS2, GLUL, GLS, MAOA
710.0GLS, GLUL, GLS2, GPT
89.9GLS, GLUL, GLS2, GPT, ASS1
99.9GLS, GLUL, GLS2, GPT, ASS1
10
Hide members
9.8MAOA, MAOB, GLS, GLUL, GLS2, NOS1
11
Hide members
9.7GC, MAOA, MAOB, DPAGT1, GLS, GLUL
12
Hide members
9.7ASS1, NOS1, GLS2, GLUL, GLS, MAOB

Compounds for genes affiliated with Hepatic Encephalopathy

About this section
Sources:
44Novoseek, 11DrugBank, 24HMDB, 49PharmGKB, 28IUPHAR, 2BitterDB, 59Tocris Bioscience
See all sources

Compounds related to Hepatic Encephalopathy according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show top 50)    (show all 205)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1milacemide4410.6MAOB, SLC17A5, MAOA
2harmine4410.6TSPO, MAOB, MAOA
3beta-carboline4410.5MAOB, MAOA, TSPO
4d amphetamine4410.5MAOB, MAOA, TSPO
5hepaplastin4410.4ALB, GPT, F2, SLC17A5
6ammonium4410.4GLS, GLUL, SLC17A5, ASS1
7isoflurane44 1111.3SLC17A5, TSPO, ALB, GPT
8flavin4410.3SGCB, NOS1, MAOA, MAOB
9citrulline44 2411.3ASS1, NOS1, SLC25A13, GLS, SGCB
10bicarbonate4410.3GC, GLS, ALB, AQP4, GLS2
11alpha-ketoglutarate4410.3MAOB, GPT, GLS2, GLUL, GLS
12phosphorus4410.3GPT, SLC17A5, ALB, GC
13fluoxetine49 44 28 1113.3ALB, NOS1, MAOB, MAOA
14vitamin b124410.2MAOB, GPT, ALB, CSN1S1, SLC17A5
15pyridoxal 5-phosphate4410.2GLS, ALB, SLC17A5, GPT
165-hydroxytryptamine4410.2SGCB, NOS1, F2, MAOA, MAOB, TSPO
17asparagine4410.2GPT, GLUL, GLS, DPAGT1, ASS1
18mptp4410.2MAOB, NOS1, MAOA, TSPO
19cocaine44 1111.2GPT, TSPO, MAOB, NOS1, SLC17A5
20acetaminophen44 2 49 11 2414.2GC, CSN1S1, GPT, F2, SLC17A5
21nicotine44 49 28 1113.2TSPO, NOS1, SLC17A5, GPT, MAOB, MAOA
22estrogen4410.2GLUL, MAOB
23glycerol44 11 2412.2TSPO, SLC25A13, GLUL, CSN1S1, NOS1, AQP4
24nmda44 2811.1TSPO, NOS1, GLS, MAOB, MAOA, SGCB
25citrate4410.1CSN1S1, ALB, F2, GLUL, GLS2, GLS
26gaba4410.1MAOB, GLS, GLUL, GLS2, NOS1, TSPO
27choline44 11 2412.1NOS1, MAOB, GLS, GPT, MAOA
28methotrexate44 49 1112.1GLS, GPT, F2, SLC17A5, NOS1, ALB
29norepinephrine44 11 2412.1NOS1, GLUL, MAOA, SLC17A5, TSPO, MAOB
30aminopyrine4410.1F2, GPT, SLC17A5
31h2o24410.1GLUL, SLC17A5, TSPO, SGCB, CSN1S1, MAOA
32thyroxine44 2411.0GPT, CSN1S1, GC, SLC17A5, ALB
33histamine44 28 2412.0TSPO, NOS1, MAOB, MAOA, CSN1S1, ALB
34fibrinogen4410.0CSN1S1, ALB, SLC17A5, GC, F2, GPT
35carbon4410.0CSN1S1, GLUL, MAOB, MAOA, NOS1
36folate449.9ALB, SLC17A5, NOS1, CSN1S1, MAOB
37ascorbic acid44 2410.8MAOA, SLC17A5, GLUL, DPAGT1, ALB, MAOB
38lactate449.8ALB, MAOB, GLS, GLUL, GLS2, GPT
39cholesterol44 28 11 2412.8GC, DPAGT1, GLS2, GPT, SLC17A5, GLUL
40cysteine449.8AQP4, ALB, SGCB, CSN1S1, NOS1, ATXN3
41arginine449.8CSN1S1, GLS, GLUL, GLS2, GPT, SGCB
42alanine449.8GPT, CSN1S1, SLC17A5, GLUL, NOS1, F2
43oxygen44 2410.7NOS1, GLS2, MAOA, MAOB, GLUL, SGCB
44testosterone44 59 11 2412.7SGCB, ALB, TSPO, CHERP, NOS1, SLC17A5
45glutamine449.7GLUL, GLS2, GPT, SLC17A5, TSPO, GLS
46urea44 11 2411.6AQP4, GLS2, GC, CSN1S1, GLS, GLUL
47potassium44 11 2411.5GLS, SLC17A5, GPT, SGCB, ALB, AQP4
48creatinine449.5GC, CSN1S1, MAOB, DPAGT1, GLUL, GPT
49aspartate449.4SLC17A5, SLC25A13, F2, GPT, GLS2, GLUL
50glutamate449.2AQP4, TSPO, ASS1, GC, CSN1S1, MAOA

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Hepatic Encephalopathy

About this section
Sources:
16Gene Ontology
See all sources

Cellular components related to Hepatic Encephalopathy according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1protein complexGO:04323410.0AQP4, ALB, NOS1, GLUL

Biological processes related to Hepatic Encephalopathy according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1anion transportGO:00682010.3TSPO, SLC17A5
2cellular amino acid biosynthetic processGO:00865210.1GPT, GLS2, GLUL, GLS
3cellular nitrogen compound metabolic processGO:0346419.9GLS, GLUL, GLS2, GPT, ASS1
4neurotransmitter secretionGO:0072699.8GLS2, GLS, MAOA
5synaptic transmissionGO:0072689.8ATXN3, MAOA, GLS, GLUL, GLS2
6small molecule metabolic processGO:0442819.4GC, MAOA, MAOB, GLS, GLUL, GLS2

Molecular functions related to Hepatic Encephalopathy according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1primary amine oxidase activityGO:00813110.3MAOB, MAOA
2glutaminase activityGO:0043599.9GLS2, GLS

Products for genes affiliated with Hepatic Encephalopathy

About this section
  • Antibodies
  • Proteins
  • Lysates
  • Antibodies

Sources for Hepatic Encephalopathy

About this section
3CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
28IUPHAR
29KEGG
34MeSH
35MESH via Orphanet
36MGI
39NCIt
40NDF-RT
43NINDS
44Novoseek
46OMIM
47OMIM via Orphanet
50PubMed
51QIAGEN
57SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
60UMLS
61UMLS via Orphanet