MCID: HRN003
MIFTS: 53

Heroin Dependence malady

Summaries for Heroin Dependence

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8Disease Ontology, 63Wikipedia, 32MalaCards
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Disease Ontology:8 An opiate dependence that involves the continued use of heroin despite despite problems related to use of the substance.

MalaCards: Heroin Dependence is related to drug dependence and personality disorder. An important gene associated with Heroin Dependence is GABRA6 (gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 6), and among its related pathways are Benzodiazepine Pathway, Pharmacodynamics and Dopamine receptors. The drugs buprenorphine and buprenorphine hydrochloride and the compounds p-chloroamphetamine and MMDA have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, testes and pituitary, and related mouse phenotypes are normal and no phenotypic analysis.

Wikipedia:63 Opioid dependence is a medical diagnosis characterized by an individual\'s inability to stop using... more...

Aliases & Classifications for Heroin Dependence

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8Disease Ontology, 10DISEASES, 60UMLS, 39NCIt, 56SNOMED-CT, 34MeSH
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Aliases & Descriptions:

heroin dependence 8 10 60


External Ids:

Disease Ontology8 DOID:9976
NCIt39 C34694
MeSH34 D006556

Related Diseases for Heroin Dependence

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17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
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Diseases related to Heroin Dependence via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards/GeneDecks gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 86)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1drug dependence30.7PDYN, DRD2, OPRM1, MAOA, SLC6A3, SLC6A4
2personality disorder30.7SLC6A4, SLC6A3, MAOA, DRD4, DRD2, HTR1B
3cocaine dependence30.6PDYN, DRD2, OPRM1, SLC6A3, SLC6A4
4alcohol dependence30.6DRD4, GABRA6, OPRM1, ANKK1, MAOA, SLC6A4
5borderline personality disorder30.5HTR1B, MAOA, SLC6A4
6antisocial personality disorder30.5HTR1B, DRD2, GABRA6, ANKK1, MAOA, SLC6A3
7opiate dependence30.2OPRM1
8substance dependence30.2DRD2, DRD4, OPRM1, SLC6A3, SLC6A4, PDYN
9cocaine abuse30.0DRD2, SLC6A3, SLC6A4
10alcohol abuse30.0SLC6A4, SLC6A3, OPRM1, DRD2, COMT
11schizophrenia30.0COMT, PDYN, HTR1B, DRD2, DRD4, GAD1
12dependent personality disorder10.5
13hepatitis10.3
14hepatitis c10.2
15post-traumatic stress disorder10.2
16morphine dependence10.0
17major depressive disorder10.0
18neuronitis10.0
19acquired immunodeficiency syndrome10.0
20alexithymia10.0ANKK1
21restless legs syndrome10.0DRD2
22hypertension10.0SLC6A4
23premature ejaculation10.0SLC6A4
24paranoid schizophrenia10.0COMT
25essential tremor10.0SLC6A3
26hepatic encephalopathy10.0MAOA
27alcoholic psychosis10.0SLC6A4
28fragile x syndrome10.0SLC6A4
29neuroblastoma10.0SLC6A2, OPRM1
30attention deficit hyperactivity disorder10.0SLC6A3, DRD4
31fibromyalgia10.0SLC6A4, COMT
32melancholia10.0MAOA
33seasonal affective disorder10.0SLC6A4, DRD4
34constipation10.0OPRM1, SLC6A4
35myoclonus-dystonia10.0DRD2
36chronic fatigue syndrome10.0SLC6A4, MAOA
37narcolepsy10.0DRD2, COMT
38delusional disorder10.0DRD4, DRD2
39pathological gambling10.0DRD2, DRD4, SLC6A3
40withdrawal disorder10.0PDYN, OPRM1
41gilles de la tourette syndrome10.0DRD2, DRD4, SLC6A3
42huntington's disease10.0DRD2
43striatonigral degeneration10.0SLC6A3, DRD2
44wilson disease10.0SLC6A3, DRD2
45juvenile myoclonic epilepsy10.0GABRA1, GABRG2
46focal epilepsy10.0PDYN, GABRG2
47irritable bowel syndrome10.0SLC6A4
48endogenous depression10.0SLC6A4, GAD1
49amnestic disorder10.0PDYN, GAD1, OPRM1
50cholera10.0GAD1, SLC6A4

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Heroin Dependence:



Diseases related to heroin dependence

Clinical Features for Heroin Dependence

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Drugs & Therapeutics for Heroin Dependence

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Sources:
5CenterWatch, 41NIH Clinical Center, 6ClinicalTrials, 60UMLS, 40NDF-RT
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Approved drugs:

Search CenterWatch for Heroin Dependence

Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Heroin Dependence

Search NIH Clinical Center for Heroin Dependence

Search CenterWatch for Heroin Dependence

Inferred drug relations via UMLS60/NDF-RT40:

Genetic Tests for Heroin Dependence

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Anatomical Context for Heroin Dependence

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32MalaCards
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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Heroin Dependence:

32
Brain, Testes, Pituitary, Bone

Animal Models for Heroin Dependence or affiliated genes

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36MGI
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MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Heroin Dependence:

36
idDescriptionMGI Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MP:00028739.5GABRA6, GABRA1, GABRG2, OPRM1, SLC6A3, SLC6A4
2MP:00030129.3CSNK1E, HTR1B, DRD2, GAD1, GABRA1, OPRM1
3MP:00053789.0PDYN, HTR1B, DRD2, GAD1, GABRA1, GABRG2
4MP:00053768.7COMT, PDYN, DRD2, DRD4, GAD1, GABRA6
5MP:00036318.6GABRA6, GAD1, DRD4, DRD2, PDYN, COMT
6MP:00053868.3PER3, COMT, PDYN, CSNK1E, HTR1B, DRD2

Publications for Heroin Dependence

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50PubMed
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Articles related to Heroin Dependence:

(show top 50)    (show all 217)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Comparative gene expression profiling analysis of lymphoblastoid cells reveals neuron-specific enolase gene (ENO2) as a susceptibility gene of heroin dependence. (21995595)
2014
2
Shattered childhoods and the genetics of heroin dependence. (23496065)
2013
3
Examining the association of NRXN3 SNPs with borderline personality disorder phenotypes in heroin dependent cases and socio-economically disadvantaged controls. (23245376)
2013
4
Deficits in dopamine D(2) receptors and presynaptic dopamine in heroin dependence: commonalities and differences with other types of addiction. (22015315)
2012
5
Alpha-synuclein and heroin craving in opiate-dependent patients on injectable heroin maintenance. (21309955)
2012
6
Gender-specific differences in susceptibility to low-dose methadone-associated QTc prolongation in patients with heroin dependence. (22136144)
2012
7
Former heroin addicts with or without a history of cocaine dependence are more impulsive than controls. (22265192)
2012
8
Deep brain stimulation compared with methadone maintenance for the treatment of heroin dependence: a threshold and cost-effectiveness analysis. (21919988)
2012
9
Association between heroin dependence and prodynorphin gene polymorphisms. (21382455)
2011
10
A possible association of the norepinephrine transporter gene in the development of heroin dependence in Han Chinese. (20818294)
2011
11
Association of VNTR polymorphisms in the MAOA promoter and DRD4 exon 3 with heroin dependence in male Chinese addicts. (20218801)
2010
12
Long-acting depot formulations of naltrexone for heroin dependence: a review. (20224403)
2010
13
Time-dependent neuroendocrine alterations and drug craving during the first month of abstinence in heroin addicts. (19591065)
2009
14
Open-label dose-finding trial of buprenorphine implants (Probuphine) for treatment of heroin dependence. (19403243)
2009
15
Prescription of heroin for the management of heroin dependence: current status. (19480466)
2009
16
Acute and chronic heroin dependence in mice: contribution of opioid and excitatory amino acid receptors. (18343363)
2008
17
The impact of treatment on 3 years' outcome for heroin dependence: findings from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS). (17995994)
2008
18
Comparing drug-related hospital morbidity following heroin dependence treatment with methadone maintenance or naltrexone implantation. (18391134)
2008
19
Mood and neuroendocrine response to a chemical stressor, metyrapone, in buprenorphine-maintained heroin dependence. (17850768)
2008
20
Single versus repeated sessions of ketamine-assisted psychotherapy for people with heroin dependence. (17523581)
2007
21
A stepped care strategy using buprenorphine and methadone versus conventional methadone maintenance in heroin dependence: a randomized controlled trial. (17475739)
2007
22
Spiritual/Religious experiences and in-treatment outcome in an inner-city program for heroin and cocaine dependence. (17523584)
2007
23
Reliability of self-reported trauma exposure among people with heroin dependence: a longitudinal investigation. (17598137)
2007
24
How quick to heroin dependence? (16939944)
2006
25
Heroin dependence and HIV infection in Malaysia. (16769444)
2006
26
Outcomes after detoxification for heroin dependence: findings from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS). (16753648)
2006
27
Studies on TCM syndrome types of heroin-dependence. (15119184)
2004
28
Association between low-activity serotonin transporter genotype and heroin dependence: behavioral and personality correlates. (15048645)
2004
29
Characteristics of adolescents in residential treatment for heroin dependence. (15540495)
2004
30
Non-injecting routes of administration among entrants to three treatment modalities for heroin dependence. (15370024)
2004
31
Bone metabolism in individuals dependent on heroin and after methadone administration]. (14635425)
2003
32
Neurophysiological evidence for abnormal cognitive processing of drug cues in heroin dependence. (12898125)
2003
33
Heroin-assisted treatment as a response to the public health problem of opiate dependence. (12232964)
2002
34
Naltrexone in the treatment of heroin dependence: relationship with depression and risk of overdose. (11982544)
2002
35
The apomorphine test: a biological marker for heroin dependence disorder? (14578019)
2002
36
Treatment of heroin dependence. (11177323)
2001
37
Treatment of heroin dependence. (11304111)
2001
38
A randomized trial of buprenorphine maintenance for heroin dependence in a primary care clinic for substance users versus a methadone clinic. (9727815)
1998
39
Necrolytic migratory erythema without glucagonoma in a heroin-dependent patient. (8003793)
1994
40
Severity of heroin dependence and HIV risk. II. Sharing injecting equipment. (8392383)
1993
41
Efficacy of urinalysis in monitoring heroin and cocaine abuse patterns: implications in clinical trials for treatment of drug dependence. (1436015)
1992
42
Buprenorphine treatment for concurrent heroin and cocaine dependence: phase I study. (1875999)
1990
43
Cocaine and heroin dependence compared in poly-drug abusers. (3354742)
1988
44
Heroin dependence : the new delhi experience. (21966005)
1984
45
Heroin dependence in developing countries: WHO collaborates in treatment evaluation studies. (6445134)
1980
46
Treatment of heroin dependence with naltrexone. (1181122)
1975
47
Current issues in methadone treatment of heroin dependence. (5123755)
1971
48
Intravenous diacetylmorphine (heroin) in studies of opiate dependence. (4886996)
1969
49
Naloxone in heroin dependence. (5676799)
1968
50
Morbidity and mortality from heroin dependence. 3. Relation of hepatitis to self-injection techniques. (5641436)
1968

Genetic Variations for Heroin Dependence

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Expression for genes affiliated with Heroin Dependence

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1BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
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Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Heroin Dependence

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Heroin Dependence.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Heroin Dependence

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49PharmGKB, 53Reactome, 37NCBI BioSystems Database, 29KEGG, 12EMD Millipore, 52R&D Systems
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Pathways related to Heroin Dependence according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 17)
idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
110.2GABRG2, GABRA1
210.2DRD4, DRD2
3
Hide members
10.2SLC6A3, MAOA
4
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10.2SLC6A2, SLC6A4
5
Hide members
10.2MAOA, COMT
6
Hide members
10.1GABRA6, GABRA1, GABRG2
710.1GABRA6, GABRA1, GABRG2
810.0SLC6A2, SLC6A4, SLC6A3
99.9HTR3B, GABRA6, GABRA1, GABRG2
109.9PDYN, DRD2, MAOA, SLC6A3
11
Hide members
9.9PDYN, DRD2, MAOA, SLC6A3
12
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9.8HTR1B, DRD2, DRD4, MAOA, SLC6A4
13
Hide members
9.7HTR3B, GAD1, GABRA6, GABRA1, GABRG2
14
Hide members
9.7HTR3B, GABRA6, GABRA1, GABRG2, SLC6A3, SLC6A2
15
Hide members
9.5PDYN, HTR1B, DRD2, DRD4, GABRA6, GABRA1
16
Hide members
9.5COMT, GAD1, GABRA6, GABRA1, GABRG2, MAOA
17
Hide members
8.5PER3, COMT, HTR1B, HTR3B, DRD2, DRD4

Compounds for genes affiliated with Heroin Dependence

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Sources:
44Novoseek, 11DrugBank, 24HMDB, 49PharmGKB, 28IUPHAR, 59Tocris Bioscience, 2BitterDB
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Compounds related to Heroin Dependence according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show top 50)    (show all 252)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1p-chloroamphetamine4410.2MAOA, SLC6A2, SLC6A4, SLC6A3
2MMDA1110.2MAOA, SLC6A3, SLC6A4, SLC6A2
3phentermine44 1111.2SLC6A2, MAOA, SLC6A3, SLC6A4
4piperazine44 1111.2DRD2, SLC6A2, SLC6A3, DRD4, OPRM1
5pseudoephedrine44 11 2412.2MAOA, SLC6A3, SLC6A4, SLC6A2
6venlafaxine49 44 11 2413.2SLC6A2, SLC6A4, SLC6A3, GABRA6, HTR1B
7pramipexole44 49 28 1113.2DRD4, SLC6A3, COMT, DRD2, HTR1B
8amoxapine44 28 1112.2SLC6A2, GABRA1, DRD2, SLC6A4
9sulpiride44 28 1112.2PDYN, SLC6A3, DRD4, DRD2
10mdma4410.2MAOA, SLC6A4, SLC6A3, SLC6A2
11Ephedra1110.1SLC6A2, MAOA, SLC6A3, SLC6A4
12d amphetamine4410.1DRD2, MAOA, SLC6A3, SLC6A4, SLC6A2
13mhpg4410.1SLC6A4, COMT, MAOA, DRD4, SLC6A2
14apomorphine44 28 1112.1DRD2, HTR1B, SLC6A3, COMT, DRD4
15maprotiline44 1111.1SLC6A2, SLC6A4, SLC6A3, MAOA
16ropinirole44 1111.1DRD2, COMT, HTR1B, DRD4
17trimipramine49 44 1112.1SLC6A4, SLC6A2, DRD2, SLC6A3
18pergolide28 44 1112.1DRD4, COMT, HTR1B, DRD2
19olanzapine49 44 28 11 2414.1HTR1B, COMT, DRD4, SLC6A3, ANKK1, DRD2
20bromocriptine28 44 1112.1SLC6A3, DRD4, DRD2, HTR1B, COMT
21bupropion44 49 11 2413.0COMT, DRD2, ANKK1, SLC6A2, SLC6A4, SLC6A3
22tyramine44 28 2412.0SLC6A2, SLC6A4, SLC6A3, MAOA, OPRM1, COMT
23fluoxetine49 44 28 1113.0SLC6A3, MAOA, SLC6A2, SLC6A4, HTR1B, DRD2
24heroin44 49 1112.0SLC6A4, COMT, DRD4, DRD2, PDYN, OPRM1
25homovanillic acid44 2411.0COMT, MAOA, SLC6A2, SLC6A4
26risperidone28 44 49 59 11 2415.0SLC6A3, ANKK1, SLC6A4, DRD4, DRD2, COMT
27nmda44 2811.0COMT, PDYN, GAD1, OPRM1, MAOA, SLC6A3
28sertraline44 28 49 11 2413.9SLC6A4, SLC6A3, MAOA, SLC6A2
29paroxetine44 49 28 1112.9HTR1B, SLC6A3, MAOA, DRD4, SLC6A4, SLC6A2
30methylphenidate44 49 1111.9COMT, DRD2, DRD4, MAOA, SLC6A3, SLC6A4
31amphetamine44 1110.9DRD2, DRD4, MAOA, PDYN, SLC6A3, SLC6A4
32fluvoxamine44 49 1111.9MAOA, SLC6A2, SLC6A4, SLC6A3
33haloperidol44 28 2 49 1113.9DRD4, SLC6A4, GAD1, SLC6A3, DRD2, OPRM1
346-hydroxydopamine449.8SLC6A2, SLC6A3, MAOA, OPRM1, DRD4, DRD2
35mptp449.8SLC6A2, SLC6A3, MAOA, GAD1, DRD2, COMT
36opiate449.8PDYN, DRD2, OPRM1, SLC6A3, SLC6A4
37maoa449.8DRD2, HTR1B, COMT, DRD4, MAOA, SLC6A3
381 methyl 4 phenylpyridinium449.8SLC6A2, SLC6A4, MAOA, SLC6A3
39clozapine44 28 49 1112.8COMT, HTR1B, DRD2, DRD4, SLC6A3, GAD1
40epinephrine44 11 2411.7DRD4, DRD2, PDYN, COMT, SLC6A2, OPRM1
41cocaine44 1110.7HTR1B, OPRM1, SLC6A3, COMT, PDYN, DRD2
42quinpirole44 2810.7SLC6A3, DRD4, PDYN, DRD2
43levodopa44 1110.7SLC6A3, MAOA, OPRM1, GAD1, DRD4, DRD2
44norepinephrine44 11 2411.6PDYN, DRD2, COMT, DRD4, OPRM1, SLC6A3
45nicotine44 49 28 1112.5COMT, PDYN, DRD2, OPRM1, ANKK1, MAOA
46methamphetamine44 49 1111.5SLC6A2, SLC6A4, SLC6A3, MAOA, OPRM1, GABRG2
475-hydroxytryptamine449.5DRD4, DRD2, HTR3B, HTR1B, COMT, OPRM1
48glutamate449.4DRD2, COMT, SLC6A2, SLC6A4, SLC6A3, OPRM1
49dopamine44 28 11 2412.3COMT, SLC6A2, MAOA, OPRM1, GAD1, DRD4
50gaba449.3DRD2, DRD4, GAD1, SLC6A2, SLC6A4, SLC6A3

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Heroin Dependence

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16Gene Ontology
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Cellular components related to Heroin Dependence according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1vesicle membraneGO:01250610.2GAD1, DRD4
2chloride channel complexGO:03470710.0GABRA6, GABRA1, GABRG2
3postsynaptic membraneGO:0452119.6GABRG2, GABRA1, GABRA6, HTR3B
4integral to plasma membraneGO:0058879.1SLC6A2, HTR1B, HTR3B, DRD2, DRD4, GABRA6
5plasma membraneGO:0058868.5DRD4, DRD2, HTR3B, HTR1B, PDYN, COMT

Biological processes related to Heroin Dependence according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 36)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1negative regulation of voltage-gated calcium channel activityGO:190138610.6DRD2, DRD4
2synaptic transmission, GABAergicGO:05193210.6GABRA1, GABRG2
3positive regulation of dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmissionGO:05158610.6DRD2, DRD4
4response to histamineGO:03477610.6DRD2, DRD4
5adenylate cyclase-inhibiting dopamine receptor signaling pathwayGO:00719510.5DRD4, DRD2
6regulation of dopamine metabolic processGO:04205310.5SLC6A3, DRD4
7reduction of cytosolic calcium ion concentrationGO:05148110.5DRD2, OPRM1
8adenohypophysis developmentGO:02198410.5DRD2, SLC6A3
9negative regulation of cAMP biosynthetic processGO:03081810.5HTR1B, DRD4
10gamma-aminobutyric acid signaling pathwayGO:00721410.5GABRG2, GABRA1, GABRA6
11negative regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergicGO:05196710.5DRD2, HTR1B
12behavioral response to ethanolGO:04814910.5OPRM1, DRD4, DRD2
13neurotransmitter catabolic processGO:04213510.5COMT, MAOA
14dopamine metabolic processGO:04241710.5DRD2, DRD4
15negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activityGO:00719410.5OPRM1, DRD4, DRD2
16response to cocaineGO:04222010.5HTR1B, DRD2, SLC6A3
17regulation of behaviorGO:05079510.5HTR1B, OPRM1
18monoamine transportGO:01584410.5SLC6A3, SLC6A4, SLC6A2
19regulation of dopamine secretionGO:01405910.4HTR1B, DRD2
20dopamine catabolic processGO:04242010.4SLC6A3, MAOA, COMT
21negative regulation of protein secretionGO:05070910.4DRD2, DRD4
22behavioral response to cocaineGO:04814810.4DRD2, DRD4
23locomotory behaviorGO:00762610.4DRD2, OPRM1, SLC6A3
24response to iron ionGO:01003910.3DRD2, SLC6A3
25G-protein coupled receptor internalizationGO:00203110.3HTR1B, DRD2
26ion transmembrane transportGO:03422010.3HTR3B, GABRA6, GABRA1, GABRG2
27synaptic transmission, dopaminergicGO:00196310.3DRD2, DRD4
28neurotransmitter biosynthetic processGO:04213610.3COMT, GAD1, MAOA, SLC6A3
29prepulse inhibitionGO:06013410.2DRD2, SLC6A3
30response to painGO:04826510.2SLC6A2, COMT
31arachidonic acid secretionGO:05048210.1DRD4, DRD2
32response to drugGO:04249310.1COMT, DRD2, GAD1, SLC6A3, SLC6A4
33transportGO:00681010.1HTR3B, GABRA6, GABRA1, GABRG2, SLC6A3, SLC6A2
34transmembrane transportGO:05508510.0HTR3B, GABRA6, GABRA1, GABRG2, SLC6A3, SLC6A2
35vasoconstrictionGO:0423109.9SLC6A4, HTR1B
36synaptic transmissionGO:0072689.3SLC6A2, COMT, PDYN, HTR1B, HTR3B, GAD1

Molecular functions related to Heroin Dependence according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 8)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1benzodiazepine receptor activityGO:00850310.2GABRG2, GABRA6
2monoamine transmembrane transporter activityGO:00850410.2SLC6A3, SLC6A4, SLC6A2
3dopamine bindingGO:03524010.2SLC6A3, DRD4, DRD2
4GABA-A receptor activityGO:00489010.2GABRA6, GABRA1, GABRG2
5dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity, coupled via Gi/GoGO:00159110.1DRD2, DRD4
6extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activityGO:00523010.1GABRG2, GABRA1, GABRA6
7drug bindingGO:00814410.0SLC6A3, GABRA1, DRD4, DRD2, HTR1B
8chloride channel activityGO:0052549.8GABRG2, GABRA1, GABRA6

Products for genes affiliated with Heroin Dependence

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Sources for Heroin Dependence

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3CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
28IUPHAR
29KEGG
34MeSH
35MESH via Orphanet
36MGI
39NCIt
40NDF-RT
43NINDS
44Novoseek
46OMIM
47OMIM via Orphanet
50PubMed
51QIAGEN
57SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
60UMLS
61UMLS via Orphanet