MCID: HRN003
MIFTS: 53

Heroin Dependence malady

Summaries for Heroin Dependence

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8Disease Ontology, 63Wikipedia, 32MalaCards
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Disease Ontology:8 An opiate dependence that involves the continued use of heroin despite despite problems related to use of the substance.

MalaCards: Heroin Dependence is related to drug dependence and personality disorder. An important gene associated with Heroin Dependence is GABRA6 (gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 6), and among its related pathways are Benzodiazepine Pathway, Pharmacodynamics and Dopamine receptors. The drugs buprenorphine and buprenorphine hydrochloride and the compounds p-chloroamphetamine and MMDA have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, testes and pituitary, and related mouse phenotypes are normal and no phenotypic analysis.

Wikipedia:63 Opioid dependence is a medical diagnosis characterized by an individual\'s inability to stop using... more...

Aliases & Classifications for Heroin Dependence

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8Disease Ontology, 10DISEASES, 60UMLS, 39NCIt, 56SNOMED-CT, 34MeSH
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Aliases & Descriptions:

heroin dependence 8 10 60


External Ids:

Disease Ontology8 DOID:9976
NCIt39 C34694
MeSH34 D006556

Related Diseases for Heroin Dependence

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Sources:
17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
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Diseases related to Heroin Dependence via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards/GeneDecks gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 86)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1drug dependence30.7PDYN, DRD2, OPRM1, MAOA, SLC6A3, SLC6A4
2personality disorder30.7SLC6A4, SLC6A3, MAOA, DRD4, DRD2, HTR1B
3cocaine dependence30.6PDYN, DRD2, OPRM1, SLC6A3, SLC6A4
4alcohol dependence30.6DRD4, GABRA6, OPRM1, ANKK1, MAOA, SLC6A4
5borderline personality disorder30.5HTR1B, MAOA, SLC6A4
6antisocial personality disorder30.5HTR1B, DRD2, GABRA6, ANKK1, MAOA, SLC6A3
7opiate dependence30.2OPRM1
8substance dependence30.2DRD2, DRD4, OPRM1, SLC6A3, SLC6A4, PDYN
9cocaine abuse30.0DRD2, SLC6A3, SLC6A4
10alcohol abuse30.0SLC6A4, SLC6A3, OPRM1, DRD2, COMT
11schizophrenia30.0COMT, PDYN, HTR1B, DRD2, DRD4, GAD1
12dependent personality disorder10.5
13hepatitis10.3
14hepatitis c10.2
15post-traumatic stress disorder10.2
16morphine dependence10.0
17major depressive disorder10.0
18neuronitis10.0
19acquired immunodeficiency syndrome10.0
20alexithymia10.0ANKK1
21restless legs syndrome10.0DRD2
22hypertension10.0SLC6A4
23premature ejaculation10.0SLC6A4
24paranoid schizophrenia10.0COMT
25essential tremor10.0SLC6A3
26hepatic encephalopathy10.0MAOA
27alcoholic psychosis10.0SLC6A4
28fragile x syndrome10.0SLC6A4
29neuroblastoma10.0SLC6A2, OPRM1
30attention deficit hyperactivity disorder10.0SLC6A3, DRD4
31fibromyalgia10.0SLC6A4, COMT
32melancholia10.0MAOA
33seasonal affective disorder10.0SLC6A4, DRD4
34constipation10.0OPRM1, SLC6A4
35myoclonus-dystonia10.0DRD2
36chronic fatigue syndrome10.0SLC6A4, MAOA
37narcolepsy10.0DRD2, COMT
38delusional disorder10.0DRD4, DRD2
39pathological gambling10.0DRD2, DRD4, SLC6A3
40withdrawal disorder10.0PDYN, OPRM1
41gilles de la tourette syndrome10.0DRD2, DRD4, SLC6A3
42huntington's disease10.0DRD2
43striatonigral degeneration10.0SLC6A3, DRD2
44wilson disease10.0SLC6A3, DRD2
45juvenile myoclonic epilepsy10.0GABRA1, GABRG2
46focal epilepsy10.0PDYN, GABRG2
47irritable bowel syndrome10.0SLC6A4
48endogenous depression10.0SLC6A4, GAD1
49amnestic disorder10.0PDYN, GAD1, OPRM1
50cholera10.0GAD1, SLC6A4

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Heroin Dependence:



Diseases related to heroin dependence

Clinical Features for Heroin Dependence

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Drugs & Therapeutics for Heroin Dependence

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Sources:
5CenterWatch, 41NIH Clinical Center, 6ClinicalTrials, 60UMLS, 40NDF-RT
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Approved drugs:

Search CenterWatch for Heroin Dependence

Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Heroin Dependence

Search NIH Clinical Center for Heroin Dependence

Search CenterWatch for Heroin Dependence

Inferred drug relations via UMLS60/NDF-RT40:

Genetic Tests for Heroin Dependence

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Anatomical Context for Heroin Dependence

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32MalaCards
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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Heroin Dependence:

32
Brain, Testes, Pituitary, Bone

Animal Models for Heroin Dependence or affiliated genes

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36MGI
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MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Heroin Dependence:

36
idDescriptionMGI Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MP:00028739.5GABRA6, GABRA1, GABRG2, OPRM1, SLC6A3, SLC6A4
2MP:00030129.3CSNK1E, HTR1B, DRD2, GAD1, GABRA1, OPRM1
3MP:00053789.0PDYN, HTR1B, DRD2, GAD1, GABRA1, GABRG2
4MP:00053768.7COMT, PDYN, DRD2, DRD4, GAD1, GABRA6
5MP:00036318.6GABRA6, GAD1, DRD4, DRD2, PDYN, COMT
6MP:00053868.3PER3, COMT, PDYN, CSNK1E, HTR1B, DRD2

Publications for Heroin Dependence

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50PubMed
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Articles related to Heroin Dependence:

(show top 50)    (show all 217)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
A Population-based Association Study of Casein Kinase 1 Epsilon Loci with Heroin Dependence in Han Chinese. (24338102)
2013
2
Static and dynamic predictors of criminal involvement among people with heroin dependence: findings from a 3-year longitudinal study. (24008022)
2013
3
Assessing the usefulness of health data linkage in obtaining adverse event data in a randomised controlled trial of oral and implant naltrexone in the treatment of heroin dependence. (23241479)
2013
4
Multivariate analysis of dopaminergic gene variants as risk factors of heroin dependence. (23840506)
2013
5
The association of 5-HTR2A-1438A/G, COMTVal158Met, MAOA-LPR, DATVNTR and 5-HTTVNTR gene polymorphisms and antisocial personality disorder in male heroin-dependent Chinese subjects. (22138326)
2012
6
Methadone-mediated autonomic functioning of male patients with heroin dependence: the influence of borderline personality pattern. (22629400)
2012
7
Polymorphisms in the glutamate decarboxylase 1 gene associated with heroin dependence. (22564729)
2012
8
Evaluation of buprenorphine dosage adequacy in opioid receptor agonist substitution therapy for heroin dependence: first use of the BUprenorphine-naloxone Dosage Adequacy eVAluation (BUDAVA) questionnaire. (22559256)
2012
9
The impact of diacetylmorphine on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and heroin craving in heroin dependence. (22286020)
2012
10
Risk of mental disorders in children of parents with alcohol or heroin dependence: a controlled high-risk study. (22688665)
2012
11
Heroin dependence and bloodborne virus transmission behaviors for HIV infection among newly incarcerated injection drug users in Taiwan. (20964533)
2011
12
Polymorphism G861C of 5-HT receptor subtype 1B is associated with heroin dependence in Han Chinese. (21839728)
2011
13
Sex differences amongst dependent heroin users: histories, clinical characteristics and predictors of other substance dependence. (20833480)
2011
14
Polymorphisms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor associated with heroin dependence. (21458533)
2011
15
Long-acting injectable versus oral naltrexone maintenance therapy with psychosocial intervention for heroin dependence: a quasi-experiment. (20673549)
2010
16
Neither single-marker nor haplotype analyses support an association between the dopamine transporter gene and heroin dependence in Han Chinese. (20497233)
2010
17
The influence of GABRA2, childhood trauma, and their interaction on alcohol, heroin, and cocaine dependence. (19833324)
2010
18
Severity of dependence scale as a diagnostic tool for heroin and cocaine dependence. (19142008)
2009
19
Association between heroin dependence and 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphisms. (18182772)
2008
20
Evaluation of OPRM1 variants in heroin dependence by family-based association testing and meta-analysis. (17416470)
2007
21
Borderline personality disorder and persistently elevated levels of risk in 36-month outcomes for the treatment of heroin dependence. (17567402)
2007
22
Pathways into receiving a prescription for diamorphine (heroin) for the treatment of opiate dependence in the United kingdom. (17570910)
2007
23
Follow-up difficulty: correlates and relationship with outcome in heroin dependence treatment in the NEPOD study. (16243439)
2006
24
Changes in HIV risk behaviors among patients receiving combined pharmacological and behavioral interventions for heroin and cocaine dependence. (16085366)
2006
25
Patterns and costs of treatment for heroin dependence over 12 months: findings from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study. (16956156)
2006
26
The association between cocaine use and short-term outcomes for the treatment of heroin dependence: findings from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS). (16627303)
2006
27
Depression among entrants to treatment for heroin dependence in the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS): prevalence, correlates and treatment seeking. (15893162)
2005
28
A randomized trial of one-day vs. three-day buprenorphine inpatient detoxification protocols for heroin dependence. (17315409)
2005
29
Naltrexone implants as treatment for heroin dependence: part I. (16191674)
2005
30
The current status of heroin prescription treatment for heroin dependence. (16111445)
2005
31
Adverse events among patients in a behavioral treatment trial for heroin and cocaine dependence: effects of age, race, and gender. (16157230)
2005
32
Post-traumatic stress disorder among people with heroin dependence in the Australian treatment outcome study (ATOS): prevalence and correlates. (15734224)
2005
33
The contribution of research to Australian policy responses to heroin dependence 1990-2001: a personal retrospection. (15078230)
2004
34
Agonist-like or antagonist-like treatment for cocaine dependence with methadone for heroin dependence: two double-blind randomized clinical trials. (15039761)
2004
35
Adherence to heroin dependence therapies and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome infection rates among drug abusers. (14648465)
2003
36
Effects of buprenorphine maintenance dose on mu-opioid receptor availability, plasma concentrations, and antagonist blockade in heroin-dependent volunteers. (12902992)
2003
37
Treatment of heroin dependence with buprenorphine in primary care. (12014814)
2002
38
LAAM maintenance vs methadone maintenance for heroin dependence. (12076441)
2002
39
Reasons for transition and reverse transition in patients with heroin dependence. (21206876)
2002
40
Diamorphine treatment for opiate dependence: putative markers of concomitant heroin misuse. (11900600)
2001
41
Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in the treatment of alcohol and heroin dependence. (10869867)
2000
42
The medical management of adolescent heroin dependence. (11123006)
2000
43
Buprenorphine-induced changes in mu-opioid receptor availability in male heroin-dependent volunteers: a preliminary study. (10942856)
2000
44
The D(2) dopamine receptor A(1) allele and opioid dependence: association with heroin use and response to methadone treatment. (11054765)
2000
45
A pilot study of primary-care-based buprenorphine maintenance for heroin dependence. (8911590)
1996
46
Heroin dependence effects on some major and trace elements. (8886315)
1996
47
Buprenorphine versus heroin dependence: comparison of toxicologic and psychopathologic characteristics. (8480833)
1993
48
Severity of heroin dependence and HIV risk. I. Sexual behaviour. (8329480)
1993
49
Pituitary volume in men with concurrent heroin and cocaine dependence. (8501161)
1993
50
Heroin dependence and delinquency in women--a study of heroin addicts in Holloway prison. (5270380)
1970

Genetic Variations for Heroin Dependence

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Expression for genes affiliated with Heroin Dependence

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1BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
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Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Heroin Dependence

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Heroin Dependence.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Heroin Dependence

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Sources:
49PharmGKB, 53Reactome, 37NCBI BioSystems Database, 29KEGG, 12EMD Millipore, 52R&D Systems
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Pathways related to Heroin Dependence according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 17)
idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
110.2GABRG2, GABRA1
210.2DRD4, DRD2
3
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10.2SLC6A3, MAOA
4
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10.2SLC6A2, SLC6A4
5
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10.2MAOA, COMT
6
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10.1GABRA6, GABRA1, GABRG2
710.1GABRA6, GABRA1, GABRG2
810.0SLC6A2, SLC6A4, SLC6A3
99.9HTR3B, GABRA6, GABRA1, GABRG2
109.9PDYN, DRD2, MAOA, SLC6A3
11
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9.9PDYN, DRD2, MAOA, SLC6A3
12
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9.8HTR1B, DRD2, DRD4, MAOA, SLC6A4
13
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9.7HTR3B, GAD1, GABRA6, GABRA1, GABRG2
14
Hide members
9.7HTR3B, GABRA6, GABRA1, GABRG2, SLC6A3, SLC6A2
15
Hide members
9.5PDYN, HTR1B, DRD2, DRD4, GABRA6, GABRA1
16
Hide members
9.5COMT, GAD1, GABRA6, GABRA1, GABRG2, MAOA
17
Hide members
8.5PER3, COMT, HTR1B, HTR3B, DRD2, DRD4

Compounds for genes affiliated with Heroin Dependence

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Sources:
44Novoseek, 11DrugBank, 28IUPHAR, 24HMDB, 49PharmGKB, 59Tocris Bioscience, 2BitterDB
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Compounds related to Heroin Dependence according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show top 50)    (show all 252)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1p-chloroamphetamine4410.2SLC6A3, SLC6A4, SLC6A2, MAOA
2MMDA1110.2MAOA, SLC6A2, SLC6A4, SLC6A3
3phentermine44 1111.2MAOA, SLC6A3, SLC6A4, SLC6A2
4piperazine44 1111.2DRD2, SLC6A2, SLC6A3, OPRM1, DRD4
5sulpiride44 28 1112.2SLC6A3, DRD4, DRD2, PDYN
6pseudoephedrine44 11 2412.2SLC6A3, SLC6A2, MAOA, SLC6A4
7venlafaxine49 44 11 2413.2HTR1B, GABRA6, SLC6A2, SLC6A3, SLC6A4
8pramipexole44 49 28 1113.2SLC6A3, DRD4, COMT, HTR1B, DRD2
9mdma4410.2MAOA, SLC6A3, SLC6A4, SLC6A2
10amoxapine44 28 1112.2SLC6A4, SLC6A2, GABRA1, DRD2
11Ephedra1110.1MAOA, SLC6A2, SLC6A4, SLC6A3
12d amphetamine4410.1SLC6A2, SLC6A4, SLC6A3, MAOA, DRD2
13mhpg4410.1SLC6A2, COMT, DRD4, MAOA, SLC6A4
14apomorphine44 28 1112.1SLC6A3, HTR1B, DRD2, DRD4, COMT
15maprotiline44 1111.1MAOA, SLC6A2, SLC6A4, SLC6A3
16ropinirole44 1111.1COMT, DRD4, DRD2, HTR1B
17trimipramine49 44 1112.1SLC6A2, SLC6A4, DRD2, SLC6A3
18olanzapine49 44 28 11 2414.1COMT, HTR1B, DRD2, ANKK1, SLC6A3, DRD4
19bromocriptine28 44 1112.1SLC6A3, DRD4, DRD2, COMT, HTR1B
20bupropion44 49 11 2413.0SLC6A2, COMT, DRD2, ANKK1, SLC6A3, SLC6A4
21sertraline44 28 49 11 2414.0MAOA, SLC6A2, SLC6A4, SLC6A3
22tyramine44 28 2412.0SLC6A2, OPRM1, SLC6A4, SLC6A3, COMT, MAOA
23pergolide28 44 1112.0COMT, HTR1B, DRD4, DRD2
24fluoxetine49 44 28 1113.0HTR1B, MAOA, SLC6A3, SLC6A4, SLC6A2, DRD2
25homovanillic acid44 2411.0SLC6A4, MAOA, COMT, SLC6A2
26risperidone28 44 49 59 11 2415.0DRD2, HTR1B, COMT, DRD4, SLC6A3, SLC6A4
27heroin44 49 1112.0COMT, PDYN, DRD2, DRD4, OPRM1, SLC6A3
28phencyclidine44 28 1112.0DRD2, DRD4, OPRM1, SLC6A3
29nmda44 2811.0COMT, PDYN, SLC6A3, MAOA, GAD1, OPRM1
30paroxetine44 49 28 1112.9DRD4, SLC6A2, SLC6A4, HTR1B, COMT, MAOA
31amphetamine44 1110.9PDYN, MAOA, SLC6A3, SLC6A4, SLC6A2, DRD2
32methylphenidate44 49 1111.9MAOA, SLC6A3, SLC6A4, SLC6A2, DRD4, DRD2
33haloperidol44 28 2 49 1113.9SLC6A4, SLC6A2, GAD1, DRD2, SLC6A3, OPRM1
346-hydroxydopamine449.8SLC6A2, SLC6A3, MAOA, OPRM1, DRD4, DRD2
35mptp449.8SLC6A4, GAD1, COMT, DRD2, MAOA, SLC6A3
36opiate449.8PDYN, DRD2, SLC6A4, OPRM1, SLC6A3
37maoa449.8DRD2, DRD4, MAOA, SLC6A3, SLC6A4, COMT
381 methyl 4 phenylpyridinium449.8SLC6A3, SLC6A4, MAOA, SLC6A2
39clozapine44 28 49 1112.8DRD4, DRD2, COMT, GAD1, ANKK1, SLC6A3
40epinephrine44 11 2411.7DRD4, SLC6A2, DRD2, PDYN, MAOA, COMT
41cocaine44 1110.7SLC6A2, SLC6A4, SLC6A3, OPRM1, DRD4, DRD2
42quinpirole44 2810.7DRD2, PDYN, DRD4, SLC6A3
43levodopa44 1110.7GAD1, DRD4, DRD2, HTR1B, PDYN, COMT
44norepinephrine44 11 2411.6COMT, SLC6A2, SLC6A4, SLC6A3, MAOA, PDYN
45nicotine44 49 28 1112.5SLC6A2, SLC6A4, SLC6A3, MAOA, ANKK1, COMT
46methamphetamine44 49 1111.5DRD4, OPRM1, GABRG2, MAOA, SLC6A3, SLC6A4
475-hydroxytryptamine449.5SLC6A2, SLC6A4, SLC6A3, MAOA, OPRM1, DRD4
48glutamate449.4DRD4, SLC6A2, SLC6A4, COMT, PDYN, DRD2
49dopamine44 28 11 2412.3COMT, GAD1, SLC6A2, MAOA, SLC6A3, SLC6A4
50gaba449.3SLC6A3, MAOA, OPRM1, GABRG2, GABRA1, GAD1

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Heroin Dependence

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16Gene Ontology
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Cellular components related to Heroin Dependence according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1vesicle membraneGO:01250610.2GAD1, DRD4
2chloride channel complexGO:03470710.0GABRA6, GABRA1, GABRG2
3postsynaptic membraneGO:0452119.6GABRG2, GABRA1, GABRA6, HTR3B
4integral to plasma membraneGO:0058879.1SLC6A2, HTR1B, HTR3B, DRD2, DRD4, GABRA6
5plasma membraneGO:0058868.5DRD4, DRD2, HTR3B, HTR1B, PDYN, COMT

Biological processes related to Heroin Dependence according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 36)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1negative regulation of voltage-gated calcium channel activityGO:190138610.6DRD2, DRD4
2synaptic transmission, GABAergicGO:05193210.6GABRA1, GABRG2
3positive regulation of dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmissionGO:05158610.6DRD2, DRD4
4response to histamineGO:03477610.6DRD2, DRD4
5adenylate cyclase-inhibiting dopamine receptor signaling pathwayGO:00719510.5DRD4, DRD2
6regulation of dopamine metabolic processGO:04205310.5SLC6A3, DRD4
7reduction of cytosolic calcium ion concentrationGO:05148110.5DRD2, OPRM1
8adenohypophysis developmentGO:02198410.5DRD2, SLC6A3
9negative regulation of cAMP biosynthetic processGO:03081810.5HTR1B, DRD4
10gamma-aminobutyric acid signaling pathwayGO:00721410.5GABRG2, GABRA1, GABRA6
11negative regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergicGO:05196710.5DRD2, HTR1B
12behavioral response to ethanolGO:04814910.5OPRM1, DRD4, DRD2
13neurotransmitter catabolic processGO:04213510.5COMT, MAOA
14dopamine metabolic processGO:04241710.5DRD2, DRD4
15negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activityGO:00719410.5OPRM1, DRD4, DRD2
16response to cocaineGO:04222010.5HTR1B, DRD2, SLC6A3
17regulation of behaviorGO:05079510.5HTR1B, OPRM1
18monoamine transportGO:01584410.5SLC6A3, SLC6A4, SLC6A2
19regulation of dopamine secretionGO:01405910.4HTR1B, DRD2
20dopamine catabolic processGO:04242010.4SLC6A3, MAOA, COMT
21negative regulation of protein secretionGO:05070910.4DRD2, DRD4
22behavioral response to cocaineGO:04814810.4DRD2, DRD4
23locomotory behaviorGO:00762610.4DRD2, OPRM1, SLC6A3
24response to iron ionGO:01003910.3DRD2, SLC6A3
25G-protein coupled receptor internalizationGO:00203110.3HTR1B, DRD2
26ion transmembrane transportGO:03422010.3HTR3B, GABRA6, GABRA1, GABRG2
27synaptic transmission, dopaminergicGO:00196310.3DRD2, DRD4
28neurotransmitter biosynthetic processGO:04213610.3COMT, GAD1, MAOA, SLC6A3
29prepulse inhibitionGO:06013410.2DRD2, SLC6A3
30response to painGO:04826510.2SLC6A2, COMT
31arachidonic acid secretionGO:05048210.1DRD4, DRD2
32response to drugGO:04249310.1COMT, DRD2, GAD1, SLC6A3, SLC6A4
33transportGO:00681010.1HTR3B, GABRA6, GABRA1, GABRG2, SLC6A3, SLC6A2
34transmembrane transportGO:05508510.0HTR3B, GABRA6, GABRA1, GABRG2, SLC6A3, SLC6A2
35vasoconstrictionGO:0423109.9SLC6A4, HTR1B
36synaptic transmissionGO:0072689.3SLC6A2, COMT, PDYN, HTR1B, HTR3B, GAD1

Molecular functions related to Heroin Dependence according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 8)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1benzodiazepine receptor activityGO:00850310.2GABRG2, GABRA6
2monoamine transmembrane transporter activityGO:00850410.2SLC6A3, SLC6A4, SLC6A2
3dopamine bindingGO:03524010.2SLC6A3, DRD4, DRD2
4GABA-A receptor activityGO:00489010.2GABRA6, GABRA1, GABRG2
5dopamine neurotransmitter receptor activity, coupled via Gi/GoGO:00159110.1DRD2, DRD4
6extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activityGO:00523010.1GABRG2, GABRA1, GABRA6
7drug bindingGO:00814410.0SLC6A3, GABRA1, DRD4, DRD2, HTR1B
8chloride channel activityGO:0052549.8GABRG2, GABRA1, GABRA6

Products for genes affiliated with Heroin Dependence

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  • Antibodies
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Sources for Heroin Dependence

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3CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
28IUPHAR
29KEGG
34MeSH
35MESH via Orphanet
36MGI
39NCIt
40NDF-RT
43NINDS
44Novoseek
46OMIM
47OMIM via Orphanet
50PubMed
51QIAGEN
57SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
60UMLS
61UMLS via Orphanet