Categories: Endocrine diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Hyperpituitarism

MalaCards integrated aliases for Hyperpituitarism:

Name: Hyperpituitarism 12 42 14 69


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:2444
MeSH 42 D006964
UMLS 69 C0020506

Summaries for Hyperpituitarism

MalaCards based summary : Hyperpituitarism is related to functioning pituitary adenoma and glutamate decarboxylase deficiency. An important gene associated with Hyperpituitarism is IGF1 (Insulin Like Growth Factor 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are TGF-Beta Pathway and Peptide ligand-binding receptors. The drugs Aripiprazole and Dopamine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include pituitary, bone and brain, and related phenotypes are endocrine/exocrine gland and growth/size/body region

Wikipedia : 72 Hyperpituitarism is a condition due to the primary hypersecretion of pituitary hormones, it typically... more...

Related Diseases for Hyperpituitarism

Diseases related to Hyperpituitarism via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 129)
id Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 functioning pituitary adenoma 10.6 POMC SST
2 glutamate decarboxylase deficiency 10.6 GHRH SST
3 water-clear cell adenoma 10.6 PRL SST
4 iris mixed cell melanoma 10.6 GHRH SST
5 genital dwarfism, turner type 10.6 PRL TRH
6 renal pelvis carcinoma 10.5 POMC SST
7 g6pc3 deficiency 10.5 GH1 PRL
8 febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome 10.5 IGF1 POMC
9 small cell lung cancer, childhood 10.5 IGF1 IGFBP3
10 cholangiolocellular carcinoma 10.5 POMC TRH
11 pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma 10.4 IGF1 IGFBP3
12 carcinoma of unknown primary site, childhood 10.4 GHRH IGF1 SST
13 lymphoma, gastric non hodgkins type 10.4 GH1 POMC
14 acyl-coa dehydrogenase, short-chain, deficiency of 10.4 GHR IGF1
15 prolactin producing pituitary tumor 10.4 IGF1 POMC SST
16 pityriasis rotunda 10.4 GH1 PRL
17 retinitis pigmentosa 46 10.4 POMC PRL
18 sifrim-hitz-weiss syndrome 10.4 AIP PRL
19 early-onset parkinson disease 10.4 POMC SST
20 hypodermyasis 10.4 GH1 POMC
21 traumatic glaucoma 10.3 IGF1 POMC
22 immunodeficiency, common variable, 5 10.3 GHRH PRL SST
23 african histoplasmosis 10.3 POMC PRL SST
24 immune system organ benign neoplasm 10.3 IGF1 POMC PRL
25 phacolytic glaucoma 10.3 IGF1 IGFBP3
26 lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma 10.3 POMC PRL SST
27 actinobacillosis 10.3 POMC PRL SST
28 trabecular follicular adenocarcinoma 10.3 POMC PRL SST
29 olfactory nerve neoplasm 10.3 GHRH POMC PRL
30 osteoclast-like giant cell neoplasm of the pancreas 10.3 GHRH POMC PRL
31 bronchiectasis 10.3 POMC PRL SST
32 male genital organ stricture 10.3 GH1 IGFBP3
33 combined t cell and b cell immunodeficiency 10.3 GH1 PRL SST
34 osseous heteroplasia, progressive 10.3 GH1 IGF1 PRL
35 mononeuritis of upper limb and mononeuritis multiplex 10.2 AIP IGF1 SST
36 epiphyseal chondrodysplasia, miura type 10.2 GHR IGF1
37 acute gonococcal salpingitis 10.2 POMC PRL TRH
38 47,xyy syndrome 10.2 GH1 PRL
39 pandas 10.2 INS SST
40 cervical keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma 10.1 INS SST
41 plague 10.1 IGF1 IGFBP3 PRL
42 intestinal volvulus 10.1 INS SST
43 repetitive stress injuries 10.1 INS SST
44 uterine corpus adenocarcinofibroma 10.1 POMC PRL
45 spinal muscular atrophy 10.1 INS SST
46 lipase deficiency, combined 10.1 GH1 IGF1 IGFBP3
47 peripheral degeneration of cornea 10.1 INS SST
48 tinf2-related dyskeratosis congenita 10.1 IGF1 INS
49 cutis laxa 10.0 INS POMC
50 group b strep disease in newborns 10.0 INS PRL

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Hyperpituitarism:

Diseases related to Hyperpituitarism

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Hyperpituitarism

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Hyperpituitarism:

id Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.02 AIP GHR GHRH IGF1 IGFBP3 INS
2 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 9.97 TRH AIP GHR GHRH IGF1 IGFBP3
3 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 9.96 AIP GHR GHRH IGF1 IGFBP3 INS
4 adipose tissue MP:0005375 9.8 GHR IGF1 IGFBP3 INS POMC
5 integument MP:0010771 9.7 AIP GHR IGF1 IGFBP3 INS POMC
6 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 9.5 INS POMC PRL AIP GHR GHRH
7 nervous system MP:0003631 9.23 GHR GHRH IGF1 INS POMC PRL

Drugs & Therapeutics for Hyperpituitarism

Drugs for Hyperpituitarism (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 160)
id Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
Aripiprazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 129722-12-9 60795
Dopamine Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
Risperidone Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3 106266-06-2 5073
Octreotide Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 83150-76-9 383414 6400441
Somatostatin Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 38916-34-6, 51110-01-1 53481605
Cabergoline Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2 81409-90-7 54746
7 lanreotide Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 108736-35-2
Quinagolide Approved Phase 4 97805-50-0, 87056-78-8 105105
Liraglutide Approved Phase 4 204656-20-2 44147092
Metformin Approved Phase 4 657-24-9 14219 4091
Zinc Approved Phase 4 7440-66-6 32051 23994
Estradiol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-28-2 5757
Lactitol Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1 585-86-4 3871
14 Antipsychotic Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
15 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
16 Dopamine Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2
17 Dopamine Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 3
18 Dopamine D2 Receptor Antagonists Phase 4
19 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
20 Paliperidone Palmitate Phase 4
21 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
Serotonin Phase 4,Phase 3 50-67-9 5202
23 Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Antagonists Phase 4
24 Serotonin Agents Phase 4,Phase 3
25 Serotonin Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 3
26 Tranquilizing Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
27 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
28 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
29 insulin Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
30 Insulin, Globin Zinc Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
31 Mitogens Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
32 Complement Factor I Phase 4,Phase 3
33 Hormone Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Early Phase 1
34 Hormones Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Early Phase 1
35 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Early Phase 1
36 Dopamine agonists Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2
37 Antiparkinson Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2
38 Protective Agents Phase 4,Phase 1,Phase 2
39 Angiopeptin Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1
40 Hypoglycemic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2
41 Autonomic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
42 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1
43 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 4,Phase 2
44 Liver Extracts Phase 4
45 Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors Phase 4
46 HIV Protease Inhibitors Phase 4
47 Incretins Phase 4
protease inhibitors Phase 4
49 Sitagliptin Phosphate Phase 4
50 Estradiol 17 beta-cypionate Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 189)

id Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 A Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Effects of Switching to Aripiprazole 12 Weeks on the Sexual Dysfunction From Risperidone or Paliperidone in Patients With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders or Bipolar Spectrum Disorders Unknown status NCT01742390 Phase 4 Aripiprazole;risperidone or paliperidone
2 Effects of Sandostatin LAR® in Acromegaly Unknown status NCT01424241 Phase 4 Sandostatin LAR
3 Reversal of Antipsychotic-Induced Hyperprolactinemia, Weight Gain, Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia Unknown status NCT00541554 Phase 4 Abilify (aripiprazole)
4 Growth Hormone Feedback to Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-1) and Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) Unknown status NCT00915954 Phase 4
5 Changes of Left Ventricular Mass and Cardiac Function in Patients With Active Acromegaly During Treatment With the Growth Hormone Receptor Antagonist Pegvisomant Unknown status NCT00552851 Phase 4 pegvisomant
6 Adipokine Profile in Patients With Cushing's Disease on Pasireotide Treatment Completed NCT03080181 Phase 4 Pasireotide 0.6 MG/ML
7 Aripiprazole and Prolactin Study Completed NCT01085383 Phase 4 Aripiprazole
8 Endometriosis Patients Undergoing Quinagolide Treatment Completed NCT00625950 Phase 4
9 Treatment of Acromegaly With Somatostatin Analogs: GH vs. IGF-I as Primary Biochemical Target Completed NCT01618513 Phase 4 Sandostatin® LAR
10 Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Sandostatin LAR at High Dose or in Combination Either With GH-receptor Antagonist or Dopamine-agonist in Acromegalic Patients Completed NCT01278342 Phase 4 Sandostatin LAR;pegvisomant;cabergoline
11 Short and Long Term Efficacy of Combined Cabergoline and Octreotide Treatment in Acromegalic Patients Completed NCT01014793 Phase 4 cabergoline
12 Non Interventional Study For Patients Treated With Somavert® Completed NCT00858143 Phase 4
13 Study to Assess the Efficacy of an Extended Injection Interval Schedule of Lanreotide Autogel in Acromegalic Subjects Completed NCT00701363 Phase 4 Lanreotide Autogel 120 mg
14 Change in Quality of Life After Addition of Weekly 40 mg Pegvisomant/Placebo in Controlled Acromegalic Patients Completed NCT00642720 Phase 4 Pegvisomant
15 Lanreotide Autogel-120 mg as First-Line Treatment of Acromegaly Completed NCT00627796 Phase 4 Lanreotide-Autogel 120 mg
16 Acute Application of Pegvisomant and Octreotide in Acromegaly Completed NCT00595140 Phase 4 pegvisomant;combination with somatostatin analogue octreotide;combination with dopamine agonist cabergoline
17 Preoperative Octreotide Treatment of Acromegaly Completed NCT00521300 Phase 4 Octreotide
18 Predictive Factors of Response to Somatostatin Analogues in Acromegalic Patients With Persistent Disease Following Surgery Completed NCT00500227 Phase 4
19 Dose Escalation of Octreotide-LAR as First-Line Therapy in Resistant Acromegaly Completed NCT00461149 Phase 4 Octreotide-LAR
20 Efficacy of Octreotide Acetate and Cabergoline in Patients With Acromegaly Completed NCT00376064 Phase 4 Octreotide acetate and cabergoline/Octrotide and Somavert
21 A Study to Evaluate the Risk of Developing a Heart Condition Called Valvular Regurgitation in Patients With Acromegaly Treated With Either Lanreotide or Octreotide Completed NCT00234520 Phase 4
22 Lanreotide Autogel in Patients With Acromegaly Previously Treated With Octreotide LAR Completed NCT00216398 Phase 4 Lanreotide (Autogel formulation)
23 Octreotide Efficacy and Safety in First-line Acromegalic Patients Completed NCT00171886 Phase 4 Octreotide
24 Canadian Pegvisomant Compassionate Study In Acromegalic Patients Completed NCT00151437 Phase 4 Pegvisomant treatment
25 Somatuline Autogel: Acromegaly Self/Partner Injection Study Completed NCT00149188 Phase 4 Lanreotide (Autogel formulation)
26 Comparable Effects of Lanreotide Autogel and Octreotide LAR on GH, IGF-I Levels and Patient Satisfaction Completed NCT00145405 Phase 4 Lanreotide Autogel and Octreotide LAR
27 A Study To Compare The Efficacy And Safety Of Pegvisomant To That Of Sandostatin Lar Depot In Patients With Acromegaly Completed NCT00068042 Phase 4 Pegvisomant;Sandostatin LAR
28 Pegvisomant And Sandostatin LAR Combination Study Completed NCT00068029 Phase 4 Pegvisomant/ Sandostatin LAR;Sandostatin LAR;Pegvisomant
29 Hormonal Outcomes in Acromegalic Patients With Treated Surgery With or Without Long Acting Somatostatin Analogues Recruiting NCT02427295 Phase 4 Sandostatin (Octreotide Acetate)
30 Assessment of Changes in Metabolic Activity in Liver & Skeletal Muscle in Patients Suffering From Acromegaly Recruiting NCT02115906 Phase 4
31 Study of Management of Pasireotide-induced Hyperglycemia in Adult Patients With Cushing's Disease or Acromegaly Recruiting NCT02060383 Phase 4 Pasireotide s.c.;Sitagliptin;Liraglutide;Insulin;Pasireotide LAR;Metformin
32 Study to Allow Access to Pasireotide for Patients Benefiting From Pasireotide Treatment in a Novartis-sponsored Study. Recruiting NCT01794793 Phase 4 Pasireotide
33 Pasireotide LAR and Pegvisomant Study in Acromegaly Active, not recruiting NCT02668172 Phase 4 Pasireotide LAR 60 mg;Pegvisomant
34 A Pilot Study of Pre- and Post-operative Use of Somatuline Depot. Terminated NCT01861717 Phase 4 lanreotide
35 Study Assessing the Efficacy and Safety of Octreotide Acetate in Patients With Acromegaly, With Micro or Macroadenomas Terminated NCT00242541 Phase 4 Octreotide acetate
36 The Luveris In Vitro Fertilization Trial Terminated NCT00889512 Phase 4 Luveris fixed dose;Luveris increasing dose
37 Risperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinemia Treated With Bromocriptine Unknown status NCT00315081 Phase 3 Bromocriptin
38 An Open-label, Multi-center, Expanded Access Study of Pasireotide s.c. in Patients With Cushing's Disease. Completed NCT01582061 Phase 3 Pasireotide sub-cutaneous formulation
39 Efficacy and Safety of Pasireotide Administered Monthly in Patients With Cushing's Disease Completed NCT01374906 Phase 3 SOM230 LAR 30 mg;SOM230 LAR 10 mg
40 Safety and Efficacy of Different Dose Levels of Pasireotide in Patients With de Novo, Persistent or Recurrent Cushing's Disease Completed NCT00434148 Phase 3 Pasireotide
41 Efficacy and Safety of Lanreotide Autogel® 60, 90 or 120 mg With Lanreotide 40 mg Prolonged Release (PR) in Acromegaly Completed NCT02493517 Phase 3 Lanreotide Autogel®;Lanreotide Acetate
42 Efficacy and Safety of Octreotide (MYCAPSSA™ [Formerly Octreolin™]) for Acromegaly Completed NCT01412424 Phase 3 Octreotide capsules
43 Efficacy and Safety of Pasireotide Long Acting Release (LAR) Versus Octreotide LAR or Lanreotide Autogel (ATG) in Patients With Inadequately Controlled Acromegaly Completed NCT01137682 Phase 3 Pasireotide (SOM230);octreotide LAR 30mg;lanreotide ATG 120mg
44 Lanreotide as Primary Treatment for Acromegalic Patients With Pituitary Gland Macroadenoma Completed NCT00690898 Phase 3 Lanreotide autogel 120 mg
45 Open Label Extension Study Evaluating Safety and Biological Activity of C2L-OCT-01 PR in Acromegalic Patients Completed NCT00635765 Phase 3 C2L-OCT-01 PR 30 mg
46 Efficacy and Safety of C2L-OCT-01 PR in Acromegalic Patients Completed NCT00616551 Phase 3 C2L-OCT-01 PR, 30 mg;Octreotide acetate prolonged release, 30 mg
47 Safety and Efficacy of Pasireotide Long Acting Release (LAR) vs. Octreotide LAR in Patients With Active Acromegaly Completed NCT00600886 Phase 3 Pasireotide;Octreotide
48 Efficacy and Tolerability of Lanreotide (Autogel 120 mg) in Patients With Acromegaly Completed NCT00499993 Phase 3 lanreotide (Autogel formulation), duration of treatment 46-48 weeks
49 Assessment of the Ability of Subjects With Acromegaly or Their Partners to Administer Somatuline Autogel Completed NCT00447499 Phase 3 Somatuline Autogel (lanreotide acetate)
50 Effect of 120mg Somatuline Autogel at Different Dose Intervals (28, 42 or 56 Days) in Patients With Acromegaly Completed NCT00444873 Phase 3 lanreotide (Autogel formulation), duration of treatment 24-56 weeks, depending on dose interval

Search NIH Clinical Center for Hyperpituitarism

Cochrane evidence based reviews: hyperpituitarism

Genetic Tests for Hyperpituitarism

Anatomical Context for Hyperpituitarism

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Hyperpituitarism:

Pituitary, Bone, Brain, Testes, Skeletal Muscle, Liver, Heart

Publications for Hyperpituitarism

Articles related to Hyperpituitarism:

id Title Authors Year
Congenital hyperpituitarism of hypothalamic origin: a new diencephalic syndrome with endocrine manifestations. ( 14444640 )
Psychological findings in a case of von Recklinghausen's disease and hyperpituitarism. ( 13367234 )
Further evidence that hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease) is not hyperpituitarism: effects of triiodothyronine and sodium iodide. ( 14367487 )
Graves' disease: hyperthyroidism or hyperpituitarism. ( 13022743 )
Creatine-creatinine metabolism in adult and juvenile hyperpituitarism. ( 18877070 )
Hyperpituitarism and Hypopituitarism. ( 19312151 )
Thyrotoxicosis with Unilateral Exophthalmos, Hyperpituitarism, and Infantile Hemiplegia. ( 19990197 )
Case of Hyperpituitarism. ( 19984234 )

Variations for Hyperpituitarism

Expression for Hyperpituitarism

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Hyperpituitarism.

Pathways for Hyperpituitarism

Pathways related to Hyperpituitarism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 14)
id Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
Show member pathways
11.91 GH1 GHR PRL
6 11.75 GH1 IGF1 INS
7 11.63 IGF1 IGFBP3 INS
8 11.56 IGF1 IGFBP3 INS
Show member pathways
10 11.14 GH1 GHR IGF1
11 11.1 IGF1 INS
Show member pathways
13 10.8 IGF1 IGFBP3
Show member pathways
10.41 GH1 GHR PRL

GO Terms for Hyperpituitarism

Cellular components related to Hyperpituitarism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.76 GH1 GHR GHRH IGF1 IGFBP3 INS
2 insulin-like growth factor ternary complex GO:0042567 9.37 IGF1 IGFBP3
3 insulin-like growth factor binding protein complex GO:0016942 9.32 IGF1 IGFBP3
4 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.32 GH1 GHR GHRH IGF1 IGFBP3 INS
5 growth hormone receptor complex GO:0070195 9.26 GH1 GHR
6 endosome lumen GO:0031904 9.13 GH1 INS PRL

Biological processes related to Hyperpituitarism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 23)
id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cellular protein metabolic process GO:0044267 9.73 IGF1 IGFBP3 INS PRL
2 cell-cell signaling GO:0007267 9.72 GHRH INS POMC SST TRH
3 positive regulation of MAPK cascade GO:0043410 9.7 IGF1 IGFBP3 INS
4 positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling GO:0014068 9.65 GH1 IGF1 INS
5 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0042531 9.63 GH1 GHR IGF1
6 JAK-STAT cascade GO:0007259 9.61 GH1 GHR
7 positive regulation of glucose import GO:0046326 9.61 IGF1 INS
8 hormone-mediated signaling pathway GO:0009755 9.6 GHR TRH
9 activation of protein kinase B activity GO:0032148 9.59 IGF1 INS
10 glucose transport GO:0015758 9.58 GH1 INS
11 positive regulation of mitotic nuclear division GO:0045840 9.58 IGF1 INS
12 positive regulation of multicellular organism growth GO:0040018 9.58 GH1 GHR GHRH
13 response to food GO:0032094 9.57 GHR GHRH
14 positive regulation of glycolytic process GO:0045821 9.56 IGF1 INS
15 positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process GO:0045725 9.55 IGF1 INS
16 insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway GO:0048009 9.54 GHR IGF1
17 regulation of multicellular organism growth GO:0040014 9.54 GHR IGF1 PRL
18 growth hormone receptor signaling pathway GO:0060396 9.51 GH1 GHR
19 negative regulation of feeding behavior GO:2000252 9.49 INS TRH
20 positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation GO:0050731 9.46 GH1 GHR IGF1 INS
21 positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascade GO:0046427 9.43 GH1 GHR PRL
22 JAK-STAT cascade involved in growth hormone signaling pathway GO:0060397 9.13 GH1 GHR PRL
23 positive regulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway GO:0043568 8.92 GH1 GHRH IGF1 IGFBP3

Molecular functions related to Hyperpituitarism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 insulin receptor binding GO:0005158 9.26 IGF1 INS
2 hormone activity GO:0005179 9.17 GH1 IGF1 INS POMC PRL SST
3 insulin-like growth factor receptor binding GO:0005159 9.16 IGF1 INS
4 prolactin receptor binding GO:0005148 8.96 GH1 PRL

Sources for Hyperpituitarism

9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
38 LifeMap
40 MedGen
42 MeSH
43 MESH via Orphanet
44 MGI
46 NCI
47 NCIt
52 Novoseek
55 OMIM via Orphanet
59 PubMed
66 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
68 Tocris
70 UMLS via Orphanet
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