MCID: HYP595
MIFTS: 66

Hypertension, Essential

Categories: Genetic diseases, Cardiovascular diseases, Blood diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Hypertension, Essential

MalaCards integrated aliases for Hypertension, Essential:

Name: Hypertension, Essential 54 13 42
Essential Hypertension 12 71 29 52 14 69
Hypertension 54 38 29 3
Hypertension, Salt-Sensitive Essential, Susceptibility to; Drug Sensitivity 24
Susceptibility to Salt-Sensitive Essential Hypertension 24
Hypertension, Essential, Susceptibility to, 5 13
Hypertension, Essential, Susceptibility to, 1 13
Hypertension, Essential, Susceptibility to, 3 13
Hypertension, Essential, Susceptibility to, 2 13
Hypertension, Essential, Susceptibility to, 6 13
Hypertension, Essential, Susceptibility to, 4 13
Hypertension, Essential, Salt-Sensitive 54
Hypertension, Salt-Sensitive Essential 54
Hypertension, Essential 3 54
Hypertension, Essential 6 54
Hypertension, Essential 4 54
Hypertension, Essential 2 54
Hypertension, Essential 1 54
Hypertension, Essential 5 54
Idiopathic Hypertension 12
Primary Hypertension 12
Hypertensive Disease 69
Eht 71

Characteristics:

OMIM:

54
Inheritance:
multifactorial

Miscellaneous:
multiple genes influence susceptibility to hypertension. candidate genes include angiotensinogen (agt, ), angiotensin receptor-1 (agtr1, ), and beta-3 subunit of guanine nucleotide-binding protein (gnb3, ). susceptibility loci include hyt1 and hyt2 .


HPO:

32
hypertension, essential:
Inheritance multifactorial inheritance


Classifications:



External Ids:

OMIM 54 145500
Disease Ontology 12 DOID:10825
ICD10 33 I10
ICD9CM 35 401 401.9
NCIt 47 C3478
MedGen 40 C0085580
UMLS 69 C0085580

Summaries for Hypertension, Essential

OMIM : 54
The Pickering school held that blood pressure has a continuous distribution, that multiple genes and multiple environmental factors determine the level of one's blood pressure just as the determination of stature and intelligence is multifactorial, and that 'essential hypertension' is merely the upper end of the distribution (Pickering, 1978). In this view the person with essential hypertension is one who happens to inherit an aggregate of genes determining hypertension (and also is exposed to exogenous factors that favor hypertension). The Platt school took the view that essential hypertension is a simple mendelian dominant trait (Platt, 1963). McDonough et al. (1964) defended the monogenic idea. See McKusick (1960) and Kurtz and Spence (1993) for reviews. Swales (1985) reviewed the Platt-Pickering controversy as an 'episode in recent medical history.' The Pickering point of view appears to be more consistent with the observations. (145500)

MalaCards based summary : Hypertension, Essential, also known as essential hypertension, is related to preeclampsia/eclampsia 1 and myocardial infarction, and has symptoms including elevated systolic blood pressure, elevated mean arterial pressure and elevated diastolic blood pressure. An important gene associated with Hypertension, Essential is PTGIS (Prostaglandin I2 Synthase), and among its related pathways/superpathways are AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications and Corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathway. The drugs Adcirca and Adempas have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include heart, kidney and testes, and related phenotypes are cardiovascular system and adipose tissue

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot : 71 Essential hypertension: A condition in which blood pressure is consistently higher than normal with no identifiable cause.

CDC : 3 High blood pressure is a common and dangerous condition. Having high blood pressure means the pressure of the blood in your blood vessels is higher than it should be. But you can take steps to control your blood pressure and lower your risk of heart disease and stroke.About 1 of 3 U.S. adults—or about 75 million people—have high blood pressure.1Only about half (54%) of these people have their high blood pressure under control.1 This common condition increases the risk for heart disease and stroke, 2 of the leading causes of death for Americans.2Get more quick facts about high blood pressure, or learn more about high blood pressure in the United States.

Disease Ontology : 12 A hypertension with no known cause. It is the most common type of hypertension.

Wikipedia : 72 Essential hypertension (also called primary hypertension or idiopathic hypertension) is the form of... more...

Related Diseases for Hypertension, Essential

Diseases in the Familial Hypertension family:

Hypertension, Essential Hypertension, Essential 7
Hypertension, Essential 8 Malignant Essential Hypertension
Malignant Hypertension Benign Essential Hypertension
Benign Secondary Hypertension Malignant Secondary Hypertension

Diseases related to Hypertension, Essential via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 79)
id Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 preeclampsia/eclampsia 1 34.1 AGT AGTR1 NOS3
2 myocardial infarction 30.6 ADD1 AGT AGTR1 GNB3 NOS3 PTGIS
3 pulmonary hypertension 12.3
4 portal hypertension 12.3
5 pulmonary hypertension, familial primary, 1, with or without hht 12.2
6 renovascular hypertension 12.2
7 hypertensive heart disease 12.2
8 hypertension and brachydactyly syndrome 12.2
9 hypertensive encephalopathy 12.1
10 intracranial hypertension, idiopathic 12.1
11 hypertension, early-onset, autosomal dominant, with exacerbation in pregnancy 12.1
12 portal hypertension, noncirrhotic 12.1
13 ocular hypertension 12.1
14 hypertensive retinopathy 12.0
15 chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension 12.0
16 pulmonary hypertension, primary, 4 12.0
17 heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension 12.0
18 hypertension, essential 8 12.0
19 hypertension, essential 7 12.0
20 hyperuricemia, pulmonary hypertension, renal failure, and alkalosis 12.0
21 pulmonary hypertension, primary, 3 11.9
22 intracranial hypertension 11.9
23 pulmonary hypertension, primary, 2 11.9
24 malignant hypertension 11.9
25 renal hypertension 11.9
26 pulmonary hypertension, neonatal 11.9
27 hypertension, diastolic 11.8
28 hypertensive nephropathy 11.8
29 renal failure, progressive, with hypertension 11.8
30 malignant essential hypertension 11.8
31 benign essential hypertension 11.8
32 malignant secondary hypertension 11.8
33 malignant renovascular hypertension 11.8
34 neurogenic hypertension 11.8
35 pediatric hypertension 11.7
36 malignant hypertensive renal disease 11.7
37 familial hypertension 11.7
38 renoprival hypertension 11.7
39 pre-eclampsia 11.7
40 pseudohypoaldosteronism, type iie 11.7
41 idiopathic and/or familial pulmonary arterial hypertension 11.7
42 benign hypertensive renal disease 11.7
43 diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent, with acanthosis nigricans and hypertension 11.7
44 pulmonary hypertension, chronic thromboembolic, without deep vein thrombosis 11.7
45 vater-like defects with pulmonary hypertension, laryngeal webs, and growth deficiency 11.6
46 aortopulmonary window 11.2 AGT AGTR1 GNB3 NOS3
47 mental retardation cataracts calcified pinnae myopathy 11.2 ADD1 AGT AGTR1
48 trichinosis 11.1 AGT AGTR1 NOS3
49 exocrine pancreatic insufficiency 11.1 AGT AGTR1 COL4A5 PKD1
50 joint disorders 11.1 AGT AGTR1 NOS3

Comorbidity relations with Hypertension, Essential via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show top 50) (show all 296)


Abducens Nerve Disease Achilles Bursitis
Acquired Polycythemia Active Peptic Ulcer Disease
Acute Closed-Angle Glaucoma Acute Conjunctivitis
Acute Cystitis Acute Ethmoiditis
Acute Kidney Failure Acute Maxillary Sinusitis
Acute Myocardial Infarction Acute Pancreatitis
Acute Stress Disorder Adjustment Disorder
Adrenal Gland Disease Alcohol Abuse
Allergic Rhinitis Allergic Urticaria
Alopecia, Neurologic Defects, and Endocrinopathy Syndrome Anxiety Disorder
Aortic Aneurysm Aortic Atherosclerosis
Asthma Susceptibility, Phf11-Related Atrioventricular Block
Atrophic Gastritis Atypical Depressive Disorder
Auditory System Disease Autonomic Nervous System Disease
Basilar Artery Insufficiency Benign Paroxysmal Positional Nystagmus
Bipolar Disorder Bleeding Disorder, Platelet-Type, 11
Blepharitis Borderline Glaucoma
Borderline Personality Disorder Brain Cancer
Brain Compression Brain Edema
Brain Small Vessel Disease with or Without Ocular Anomalies Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion
Bronchitis Buerger Disease
Campylobacteriosis Cardiac Arrest
Cardiomyopathy, Familial Hypertrophic Central Nervous System Origin Vertigo
Central Retinal Artery Occlusion Central Retinal Vein Occlusion
Cerebral Arteritis Cerebral Atherosclerosis

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Hypertension, Essential:



Diseases related to Hypertension, Essential

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Hypertension, Essential

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

54

Cardiovascular- Vascular:
elevated systolic blood pressure
elevated mean arterial pressure
elevated diastolic blood pressure


Clinical features from OMIM:

145500

Human phenotypes related to Hypertension, Essential:

32
id Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 elevated systolic blood pressure 32 HP:0004421
2 elevated mean arterial pressure 32 HP:0004972
3 elevated diastolic blood pressure 32 HP:0005117

UMLS symptoms related to Hypertension, Essential:


angina pectoris, chest pain, edema, syncope, tremor, equilibration disorder

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Hypertension, Essential:

44
id Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 9.85 AGT AGTR1 COL4A5 ECE1 MEN1 NOS2
2 adipose tissue MP:0005375 9.73 AGT AGTR1 COL4A5 NOS2 NOS3 PKD1
3 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 9.73 ADD1 AGT AGTR1 COL4A5 ECE1 F12
4 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.23 AGTR1 COL4A5 NOS2 NOS3 PKD1 PKD2

Drugs & Therapeutics for Hypertension, Essential

FDA approved drugs:

(show all 6)
id Drug Name Active Ingredient(s) 17 Company Approval Date
1
Adcirca 17 TADALAFIL Eli Lilly May 2009
2
Adempas 17 RIOCIGUAT Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals October 2013
3
Covera-HS 17 VERAPAMIL HYDROCHLORIDE GD Searle, Alza January 1996
4
Letairis 17 AMBRISENTAN Gilead June 2007
5
Opsumit 17 MACITENTAN Actelion Pharmaceuticals October 2013
6
Remodulin 17 TREPROSTINIL United Therapeutics May 2002

Drugs for Hypertension, Essential (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 270)
id Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Ramipril Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 87333-19-5 5362129
2
Nifedipine Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 21829-25-4 4485
3
Candesartan Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 139481-59-7 2541
4
Bisoprolol Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 66722-44-9 2405
5
Amiloride Approved Phase 4 2016-88-8, 2609-46-3 16231
6
Amlodipine Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Early Phase 1 88150-42-9 2162
7
Simvastatin Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 79902-63-9 54454
8
Telmisartan Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 144701-48-4 65999
9
Felodipine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3 72509-76-3 3333
10
Irbesartan Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2 138402-11-6 3749
11
Metoprolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2 37350-58-6, 51384-51-1 4171
12
Enalapril Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 75847-73-3 5362032 40466924
13
Enalaprilat Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 76420-72-9 6917719
14
Hydrochlorothiazide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Early Phase 1 58-93-5 3639
15
Losartan Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Early Phase 1 114798-26-4 3961
16
Valsartan Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2 137862-53-4 60846
17
Lisinopril Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 83915-83-7, 76547-98-3 5362119
18
Metformin Approved Phase 4 657-24-9 14219 4091
19
Olmesartan Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2 144689-24-7, 144689-63-4 158781 130881
20
Carvedilol Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 72956-09-3 2585
21
Spironolactone Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Early Phase 1 1952-01-7, 52-01-7 5833
22
Benzocaine Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337
23
Nitric Oxide Approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 1 10102-43-9 145068
24
Eprosartan Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 133040-01-4 5281037
25
Lercanidipine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2 100427-26-7 65866
26
Atenolol Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Early Phase 1 29122-68-7 2249
27 Lacidipine Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 103890-78-4
28
Doxazosin Approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3 74191-85-8 3157
29
Nebivolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2 152520-56-4, 99200-09-6, 118457-14-0 71301
30
Aspirin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-78-2 2244
31
Iloprost Approved, Investigational Phase 4 78919-13-8 6443959
32
Eplerenone Approved Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2 107724-20-9 150310 443872
33
Hydralazine Approved Phase 4,Early Phase 1 86-54-4 3637
34 Benidipine Approved Phase 4 105979-17-7
35
Indapamide Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 26807-65-8 3702
36
Quinapril Approved, Investigational Phase 4 85441-61-8 54892
37
Spirapril Approved Phase 4 83647-97-6 5311447
38
Chlorthalidone Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 77-36-1 2732
39
Allopurinol Approved Phase 4,Phase 2 315-30-0 2094
40 Arotinolol Approved Phase 4 68377-92-4
41 Manidipine Approved Phase 4 89226-50-6
42
Folic Acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3,Phase 1 59-30-3 6037
43
leucovorin Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3 58-05-9 143 6006
44 tannic acid Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4,Phase 3
45
Niacin Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 59-67-6 938
46
Nicotinamide Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1 98-92-0 936
47 Tomato Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4
48
Angiotensin II Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2,Phase 1,Early Phase 1 68521-88-0, 4474-91-3, 11128-99-7 172198 65143
49
Maleic acid Experimental Phase 4 110-16-7 444266
50
Uric Acid Experimental, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3 69-93-2 1175

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 580)

id Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Safety and Efficacy of Ramipril in the Treatment of Essential Hypertension Unknown status NCT00366119 Phase 4 Ramipril
2 A Study of Nifecardia SRFC and Adalat OROS in the Treatment of Patients With Essential Hypertension Unknown status NCT00173667 Phase 4 Nifedipine 30 mg GITS
3 GRK4 Polymorphisms Blood Pressure Response to Candesartan Unknown status NCT01629225 Phase 4 Candesartan
4 BRAVE Study With Uncontrolled Essential Hypertension (BRAVE Study) Unknown status NCT02398929 Phase 4 Bisoprolol 2.5 mg;Placebo
5 Effects of Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker Compared With Diuretics in High-risk Hypertensive Patients Unknown status NCT01011660 Phase 4 Amlodipine, Telmisartan, Amiloride Compound , Simvastatin
6 Combined Antihypertensive Therapy and Sexual Dysfunction Unknown status NCT01238705 Phase 4 Felodipine add Irbesartan;Felodipine add Metoprolol
7 Home Blood Pressure in Hypertension Management Unknown status NCT00841308 Phase 4
8 Treatment of HYpertension: Morning Versus Evening Unknown status NCT02214498 Phase 4 Enalapril/hydrochlorothiazide;Placebo
9 Valsartan and Amlodipine Compared to Losartan and Amlodipine in Hypertensive Patients Unknown status NCT00716950 Phase 4 valsartan/amlodpine;losartan/amlodpine
10 Efficacy Study of Nifedipine Controlled-Release Tablets (Xin Ran) to Treat Early Morning Blood Pressure and Central Arterial Pressure Unknown status NCT02357615 Phase 4 nifedipine CR tablets (Xin Ran);Adalat
11 Monotherapy Versus Dual Therapy for Initial Treatment for Hypertension Unknown status NCT00994617 Phase 4 Losartan and hydrochlorothiazide;Hydrochlorothiazide switched over with Losartan at 8 weeks
12 Danshen Dropping Pill for Coronary Heart Disease Heart and Artery Structure and Function Unknown status NCT01825759 Phase 4 danshen dripping pill
13 Dose Titration of Lisinopril in Children Aged 1 to 18 Years With Primary or Secondary Hypertension Unknown status NCT02184858 Phase 4 lisinopril, ACE-inhibitor
14 Losartan and Simvastatin in Hypertensive Obeses With Liver Steatosis Unknown status NCT00669435 Phase 4 Losartan + Simvastatin;Amlodipine + Simvastatin
15 Effects of Valsartan and Aliskiren on Hemostatic Indices in Hypertensive Diabetics Unknown status NCT01095822 Phase 4 Aliskiren + Valsartan
16 Efficacy and Safety of Levamlodipine Besylate Compared to Amlodipine Maleate in Patients With Essential Hypertension Completed NCT01131546 Phase 4 Levamlodipine besylate;Amlodipine maleate
17 The Effect of Eprosartan on Hormones and Kidney Function in Patients With Essential Hypertension Completed NCT00438945 Phase 4 Eprosartan
18 Efficacy Study of Nifedipine Controlled-Release Tablets (Xin Ran) to Treat Mild to Moderate Essential Hypertension Completed NCT02031861 Phase 4 nifedipine CR tablets (Xin Ran);nifedipine CR tablets (Adalat)
19 Canrenone as Add-on in Patients With Essential Hypertension Completed NCT02687178 Phase 4 Canrenone 50 vs canrenone 100 mg
20 A Study to Explore the Effects of Azilsartan Compared to Telmisartan on Insulin Resistance of Patients With Essential Hypertension on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus by HOMA-R Completed NCT02079805 Phase 4 Azilsartan;Telmisartan
21 Intensive Vasodilator Therapy in Patients With Essential Hypertension Completed NCT01180413 Phase 4 Amlodipine;Ramipril;Lercanidipine;Losartan
22 Azilsartan Medoxomil in the Treatment of Essential Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes in Asia Completed NCT02517866 Phase 4 Azilsartan Medoxomil
23 Efficacy and Safety of Olmesartan Medoxomil in Stage 1 and 2 Essential Hypertension Completed NCT00890591 Phase 4 olmesartan medoxomil + hydrochlorothiazide, if necessary + amlodipine, if necessary
24 Effects of Bisoprolol and Atenolol on Sympathetic Nervous Activity and Central Aortic Pressure in Patients With Essential Hypertension Completed NCT01762436 Phase 4 bisoprolol;atenolol
25 Lacidipine In Mild To Moderate Essential Hypertension Patients With Type 2 Diabetes In Korea Completed NCT00328965 Phase 4 Lacidipine
26 Efficacy and Safety of Once Daily Dosing of Aliskiren (300 mg (qd) Once a Day) to Twice Daily Dosing of Aliskiren (150 mg (Bid) Twice a Day) in Treating Moderate Hypertension. Completed NCT00654875 Phase 4 Aliskiren;Placebo to Aliskiren
27 A Study on Molecular Genetics of Drug Responsiveness in Essential Hypertension Completed NCT03276598 Phase 4 Amlodipine;Bisoprolol;Hydrochlorothiazide;Losartan;Placebo
28 A Randomized Controlled Study to Assess the Effects of Bisoprolol and Atenolol on Resting Heart Rate and Sympathetic Nervous System's Activity in Subjects With Essential Hypertension Completed NCT01251146 Phase 4 Bisoprolol;Atenolol
29 A Study Evaluating the Gastrointestinal (GI) Safety and Tolerability of Aliskiren Compared to Ramipril in Essential Hypertension Completed NCT00631917 Phase 4 Aliskiren;Ramipril
30 The Efficacy and Safety of OROSARTAN® Versus CODIOVAN® in Patients With Essential Hypertension Uncontrolled With Monotherapy Completed NCT02433119 Phase 4 OROSARTAN® 5/160mg;CODIOVAN® 160/12.5mg
31 Effects of Combination Therapy With Alpha-1 Blocker (Bunazosin or Doxazosin) in the Treatment of Patients With Mild to Moderate Essential Hypertension Completed NCT00130156 Phase 4 Bunazosin;Doxazosin;Valsartin
32 Micardis® in Patients With Essential Hypertension Completed NCT02187705 Phase 4 Telmisartan tablets
33 Comparison of Awakening Versus Bedtime Dosing of Ramipril in Subjects With Essential Hypertension Completed NCT00473174 Phase 4 Ramipril
34 Diuretics In the Management of Essential Hypertension (DIME) Study Completed NCT00131846 Phase 4 Thiazide diuretics;No diuretics
35 A Study to Compare the Efficacy, Safety and Tolerability of Selomax With Its Individual Components Completed NCT00819104 Phase 4 Metoprolol XL 50mg + Amlodipine 5mg;Metoprolol XL 25 mg + Amlodipine 2.5mg;Metoprolol XL 50mg;Metoprolol XL 25 mg;Amlodipine 5mg
36 Efficacy and Safety of Metoprolol Succinate Prolonged-Release Tablet in Patients With Mild to Moderate Hypertension Completed NCT00861016 Phase 4 metoprolol succinate prolonged-release tablet and felodipine
37 A Study of Safety and Efficacy in MK-0954A Combination in Participants With Hypertension (MK-0954A-373 AM3) Completed NCT01431508 Phase 4 Losartan 50 mg / HCTZ 12.5 mg
38 Controlled Release Nifedipine and Valsartan Combination Therapy in Patients With Essential Hypertension Completed NCT01518855 Phase 4 Nifedipine (Adalat, BAYA1040);Amlodipine (Norvasc);Diovan
39 Study of Efficacy and Safety of CVAA489 in Hypertensive Patients Completed NCT02062645 Phase 4 amlodipine/valsartan
40 Effect of the Fixed Dose Combination Amlodipine/Valsartan on Central Aortic Blood Pressure in Uncontrolled Essential Hypertension With Amlodipine 5 mg Completed NCT00687973 Phase 4 Valsartan/amlodipine 80/5 mg tablets;Amlodipine 5 mg capsules;Amlodipine 10 mg capsules;Atenolol 50 mg tablets;Atenolol 100 mg tablets
41 Effectiveness of MICARDIS® (Telmisartan) on Blood Pressure Control and Quality of Live in Patients With Essential Hypertension Completed NCT02242370 Phase 4 Low dose of telmisartan;High dose of telmisartan
42 Efficacy and Tolerability of an Aliskiren-based Treatment Algorithm in Patients With Mild to Moderate Hypertension Completed NCT00765947 Phase 4 Aliskiren;Hydrochlorothiazide;Amlodipine
43 Efficacy of Aliskiren Compared to Ramipril in the Treatment of Moderate Systolic Hypertensive Patients Completed NCT01042392 Phase 4 Aliskiren;Ramipril;Matching placebo to Aliskiren;Matching placebo to Ramipril
44 Hydrochlorothiazide (+) Losartan Potassium vs. Amlodipine Comparative Study (0954A-314) Completed NCT00157963 Phase 4 MK0954A; hydrochlorothiazide (+) losartan potassium / Duration of Treatment: 12 weeks
45 PMS Study of Amlodipine/Valsartan for the Treatment of Hypertension Completed NCT02058446 Phase 4 Amlodipine/Valsartan
46 China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial Completed NCT00794885 Phase 4 Enalapril/folic acid;Enalapril maleate
47 Hybrid Blood Pressure Monitor Validation Completed NCT01120990 Phase 4
48 Calcium Channel Blockers (CCBs) or Diuretics as an Add-on to Olmesartan Medoxomil in Hypertension Completed NCT00858702 Phase 4 olmesartan medoxomil and a CCB;olmesartan medoxomil and a diuretic
49 Low-dose Nifedipine-Valsartan Combination Compared to Up-titrated Valsartan Monotherapy in Essential Hypertension Completed NCT00993109 Phase 4 Adalat (Nifedipine, BAYA1040);Diovan (Valsartan)
50 The Efficacy and Safety Study of Anti-hypertension Combination Drug in Patients Uncontrolled With Monotherapy. Completed NCT01828359 Phase 4 Amosartan® tab;Cozaar® plus pro tab

Search NIH Clinical Center for Hypertension, Essential

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 69 / NDF-RT 48 :


Cochrane evidence based reviews: hypertension, essential

Genetic Tests for Hypertension, Essential

Genetic tests related to Hypertension, Essential:

id Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Essential Hypertension 29
2 Hypertension 29
3 Susceptibility to Salt-Sensitive Essential Hypertension 24 CYP3A5

Anatomical Context for Hypertension, Essential

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Hypertension, Essential:

39
Heart, Kidney, Testes, Smooth Muscle, Liver, Endothelial, Lung

Publications for Hypertension, Essential

Articles related to Hypertension, Essential:

id Title Authors Year
1
Comparison of the twenty-four-hour blood pressure profile in elderly subjects with isolated systolic hypertension, essential hypertension and normotension. ( 1818900 )
1991

Variations for Hypertension, Essential

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Hypertension, Essential:

6
id Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1 F12 NM_000505.3(F12): c.983C> G (p.Thr328Arg) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs118204456 GRCh37 Chromosome 5, 176831232: 176831232
2 PTGIS PTGIS, IVS9, T-C, +2 single nucleotide variant Pathogenic
3 AGT AGT, -6A HAPLOTYPE single nucleotide variant Pathogenic,risk factor
4 COL4A5 NM_000495.4(COL4A5): c.1871G> A (p.Gly624Asp) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs104886142 GRCh37 Chromosome X, 107842023: 107842023
5 PKD2 NM_000297.3(PKD2): c.357_364delCCCGGGCAinsTAGGACG (p.Pro120Argfs) indel Pathogenic rs1057518797 GRCh38 Chromosome 4, 88008090: 88008097
6 MEN1 NM_000244.3(MEN1): c.669+1delG deletion Pathogenic rs1057518903 GRCh37 Chromosome 11, 64575362: 64575362
7 PKD1 NM_000296.3(PKD1): c.8311G> A (p.Glu2771Lys) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs1057518897 GRCh37 Chromosome 16, 2153747: 2153747
8 PKD1 NM_000296.3(PKD1): c.3520C> T (p.Gln1174Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs1057518899 GRCh37 Chromosome 16, 2161648: 2161648

Copy number variations for Hypertension, Essential from CNVD:

7 (show all 17)
id CNVD ID Chromosom Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 71427 12 69818942 132349534 Copy number Hypertension
2 109399 17 25800000 31800000 Gain Hypertension
3 112710 17 40930407 78774742 Copy number Hypertension
4 137134 2 138750000 144750000 Deletion ARHGAP15 Hypertension
5 137138 2 138750000 144750000 Deletion GTDC1 Hypertension
6 137142 2 138750000 144750000 Deletion HNMT Hypertension
7 137146 2 138750000 144750000 Deletion KYNU Hypertension
8 137150 2 138750000 144750000 Deletion LOC64702 Hypertension
9 137154 2 138750000 144750000 Deletion LRP1B Hypertension
10 137158 2 138750000 144750000 Deletion NXPH2 Hypertension
11 137162 2 138750000 144750000 Deletion SPOPL Hypertension
12 139337 2 179004449 242951149 Copy number Hypertension
13 195355 5 150157836 180857866 Copy number Hypertension
14 195375 5 150183562 180857866 Copy number Hypertension
15 210789 6 31416574 170899992 Copy number Hypertension
16 211339 6 32582950 170899992 Copy number Hypertension
17 211385 6 32609209 170899992 Copy number Hypertension

Expression for Hypertension, Essential

LifeMap Discovery
Genes differentially expressed in tissues of Hypertension, Essential patients vs. healthy controls: 35
id Gene Description Tissue Up/Dn Fold Change (log2) P value
1 LINC01420 long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1420 Blood + 3.27 0.005
Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Hypertension, Essential.

Pathways for Hypertension, Essential

Pathways related to Hypertension, Essential according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 11.54 AGTR1 COL4A5 NOS3
2 11.47 ECE1 GNB3 NOS3
3 11.4 AGTR1 GNB3 NOS2 NOS3
4 10.37 NOS2 NOS3
5 10.25 NOS2 NOS3 PTGIS
6 10.06 NOS2 NOS3

GO Terms for Hypertension, Essential

Cellular components related to Hypertension, Essential according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 polycystin complex GO:0002133 8.62 PKD1 PKD2

Biological processes related to Hypertension, Essential according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 29)
id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 regulation of cell proliferation GO:0042127 9.89 AGT AGTR1 NOS2 PKD2
2 regulation of blood pressure GO:0008217 9.76 AGT GNB3 NOS3
3 positive regulation of protein binding GO:0032092 9.73 ADD1 MEN1 PKD1
4 positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration GO:0007204 9.73 AGT AGTR1 PKD1 PKD2
5 regulation of blood vessel size GO:0050880 9.64 AGT NOS3
6 positive regulation of cellular protein metabolic process GO:0032270 9.64 AGT AGTR1
7 positive regulation of macrophage derived foam cell differentiation GO:0010744 9.63 AGT AGTR1
8 detection of mechanical stimulus GO:0050982 9.63 PKD1 PKD2
9 low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling GO:0034374 9.62 AGT AGTR1
10 nitric oxide biosynthetic process GO:0006809 9.62 NOS2 NOS3
11 cytoplasmic sequestering of transcription factor GO:0042994 9.61 PKD1 PKD2
12 placenta blood vessel development GO:0060674 9.61 PKD1 PKD2
13 positive regulation of guanylate cyclase activity GO:0031284 9.6 NOS2 NOS3
14 response to fluid shear stress GO:0034405 9.58 NOS3 PKD1
15 positive regulation of cholesterol esterification GO:0010873 9.57 AGT AGTR1
16 positive regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity involved in G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle GO:0031659 9.55 PKD1 PKD2
17 arginine catabolic process GO:0006527 9.54 NOS2 NOS3
18 mesonephric tubule development GO:0072164 9.52 PKD1 PKD2
19 regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by renin-angiotensin GO:0003081 9.51 AGT AGTR1
20 regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by endothelin GO:0003100 9.49 ECE1 NOS3
21 positive regulation of NAD(P)H oxidase activity GO:0033864 9.48 AGT AGTR1
22 mesonephric duct development GO:0072177 9.46 PKD1 PKD2
23 kidney development GO:0001822 9.46 AGT AGTR1 PKD1 PKD2
24 renin-angiotensin regulation of aldosterone production GO:0002018 9.4 AGT AGTR1
25 regulation of renal sodium excretion GO:0035813 9.37 AGT AGTR1
26 metanephric ascending thin limb development GO:0072218 9.32 PKD1 PKD2
27 regulation of blood vessel diameter by renin-angiotensin GO:0002034 9.26 AGT AGTR1
28 regulation of vasoconstriction GO:0019229 9.13 AGT AGTR1 ECE1
29 nitric oxide mediated signal transduction GO:0007263 8.8 AGT NOS2 NOS3

Molecular functions related to Hypertension, Essential according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 iron ion binding GO:0005506 9.56 CYP3A5 NOS2 NOS3 PTGIS
2 FMN binding GO:0010181 9.4 NOS2 NOS3
3 arginine binding GO:0034618 9.37 NOS2 NOS3
4 NADPH-hemoprotein reductase activity GO:0003958 9.32 NOS2 NOS3
5 heme binding GO:0020037 9.26 CYP3A5 NOS2 NOS3 PTGIS
6 tetrahydrobiopterin binding GO:0034617 9.16