KC
MCID: KRT007
MIFTS: 48

Keratoconus (KC) malady

Categories: Genetic diseases, Rare diseases, Eye diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Keratoconus

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Aliases & Descriptions for Keratoconus:

Name: Keratoconus 35 11 48 50 39 13 68
Noninflammatory Corneal Thining 48
 
Conical Cornea 11
Kc 48

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology11 DOID:10126
ICD1030 H18.6, H18.60
ICD9CM32 371.6, 371.60
MeSH39 D007640
NCIt45 C26806

Summaries for Keratoconus

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NIH Rare Diseases:48 Keratoconus is the degeneration of the structure of the cornea, which is the clear tissue covering the front of the eye. in this condition, the shape of the cornea slowly changes from the normal round shape to a cone shape. most people who develop keratoconus start out nearsighted, which tends to become worse over time. the earliest symptom is a slight blurring of vision that cannot be corrected with glasses. over time, there may be eye halos, glare, or other night vision problems.the cause is unknown, but the tendency to develop keratoconus is probably present from birth. keratoconus is thought to involve a defect in collagen, the tissue that makes up most of the cornea. some researchers believe that allergy and eye rubbing may play a role. treatment for keratoconus depends on the severity of your condition and how quickly the condition is progressing. mild to moderate keratoconus can be treated with eyeglasses or contact lenses. in some people the cornea becomes scarred or wearing contact lenses becomes difficult. in these cases, surgery might be necessary. last updated: 3/23/2016

MalaCards based summary: Keratoconus, also known as noninflammatory corneal thining, is related to leber congenital amaurosis 9 and keratoconus 1. An important gene associated with Keratoconus is VSX1 (Visual System Homeobox 1), and among its related pathways are Immune response_Oncostatin M signaling via JAK-Stat in human cells and Regulation of Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF) transport and uptake by Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins (IGFBPs). Affiliated tissues include eye, endothelial and testes, and related mouse phenotype vision/eye.

Disease Ontology:11 A corneal disease characterized by structural changes within the cornea causing it to thin and change, leading to a protruding conical shape.

Wikipedia:71 Keratoconus (KC) is a disorder of the eye which results in progressive thinning of the cornea. This may... more...

Related Diseases for Keratoconus

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Diseases in the Keratoconus family:

Keratoconus 4 Keratoconus 3
Keratoconus 5 Keratoconus 6
Keratoconus 7 Keratoconus 8
Keratoconus 2 Keratoconus 1

Diseases related to Keratoconus via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 159)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1leber congenital amaurosis 931.0AIPL1, CRB1, GUCY2D, RPE65
2keratoconus 112.2
3keratoconus 512.1
4keratoconus 612.1
5keratoconus 712.0
6keratoconus 812.0
7keratoconus posticus circumscriptus11.9
8mental retardation, keratoconus, febrile seizures, and sinoatrial block11.8
9keratoconus 411.8
10keratoconus 311.8
11keratoconus 211.8
12acute hydrops keratoconus11.8
13stable condition keratoconus11.8
14pellucid marginal degeneration11.0
15edict syndrome11.0
16leber congenital amaurosis11.0
17retinitis pigmentosa11.0
18leber congenital amaurosis 210.8
19leber congenital amaurosis 810.8
20brittle cornea syndrome 210.8
21leber congenital amaurosis 1110.8
22leber congenital amaurosis 610.8
23brittle cornea syndrome 110.8
24leber congenital amaurosis 410.8
25leber congenital amaurosis 110.8
26leber congenital amaurosis 710.8
27leber congenital amaurosis 1210.6
28corneal fleck dystrophy10.6
29leber congenital amaurosis 1610.6
30leber congenital amaurosis 1410.6
31leber congenital amaurosis 1510.6
32retinitis pigmentosa 7 and digenic10.6
33leber congenital amaurosis 510.6
34leber congenital amaurosis 1710.6
35leber congenital amaurosis 1010.6
36leber congenital amaurosis 1310.6
37leber congenital amaurosis 310.6
38arterial tortuosity syndrome10.6
39craniofacial anomalies and anterior segment dysgenesis syndrome10.3VSX1, ZNF469
40astigmatism10.2
41cataracts, growth hormone deficiency, sensory neuropathy, sensorineural hearing loss, and skeletal dysplasia10.2GUCY2D, RPE65
42ichthyosis, congenital, autosomal recessive 310.2AIPL1, RPE65
43bartholin's duct cyst10.2CRB1, GUCY2D
44kleptomania10.2MMP1, MMP2
45fountain syndrome10.2AIPL1, RPE65
46anophthalmia-esophageal atresia-genital abnormalities syndrome10.2AIPL1, GUCY2D, RPE65
47noonan syndrome 410.2MMP1, MMP2
48rpl5-related diamond-blackfan anemia10.2AIPL1, GUCY2D, RPE65
49endotheliitis10.2
50corneal ectasia10.2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Keratoconus:



Diseases related to keratoconus

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Keratoconus

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MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Keratoconus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

41
idDescriptionMGI Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MP:00053918.7AIPL1, CRB1, GUCY2D, KERA, MMP2, RPE65

Drugs & Therapeutics for Keratoconus

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Drugs for Keratoconus (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50)    (show all 145)
idNameStatusPhaseClinical TrialsCas NumberPubChem Id
1
RanibizumabapprovedPhase 4486347396-82-1459903
Synonyms:
347396-82-1
D05697
Lucentis
Lucentis (TN)
 
Ranibizumab
Ranibizumab (USAN/INN)
Ranibizumab (genetical recombination)
Ranibizumab (genetical recombination) (JAN)
ranibizumab
rhuFab V2
2
KetorolacapprovedPhase 432374103-06-3, 66635-83-43826
Synonyms:
(+-)-5-Benzoyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizine-1-carboxylic acid
(+-)-Ketorolac
(+-)-isomer
(.+/-.)-2,3-Dihydro-5-benzoyl-1H-pyrrolizine-1-carboxylic acid
1H-Pyrrolizine-1-carboxylic acid, 5-benzoyl-2,3-dihydro
5-(phenylcarbonyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizine-1-carboxylic acid
5-Benzoyl-1,2-dihydro-3H-pyrrolo(1,2a)pyrrole-1-carboxylic acid
5-Benzoyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizine-1-carboxylic acid
66635-83-4
74103-06-3
AB00053682
AC-545
AC1L1GSW
BRD-A40639672-234-05-7
C07062
CHEBI:105080
CHEMBL469
CID3826
D020910
D08104
DB00465
 
I14-2832
Ketoralac
Ketorolac
Ketorolac (INN)
Ketorolac Tromethamine
Ketorolac [INN:BAN]
Ketorolaco
Ketorolaco [Spanish]
Ketorolacum
Ketorolacum [Latin]
Kétorolac
LS-139094
Macril
MolPort-005-933-093
NCGC00185990-01
RS 37619
RS-37619
SBB067312
STL018674
Toradol (TN)
UNII-YZI5105V0L
ketorolac
rac-Ketorolac
3
Gabapentinapproved, investigationalPhase 430360142-96-33446
Synonyms:
1-(Aminomethyl)-cyclohexaneacetic acid
1-(Aminomethyl)cyclohexaneacetic acid
2-[1-(aminomethyl)cyclohexyl]acetic acid
60142-96-3
AC-1485
AC1L1FYE
AC1Q53PH
AKOS000280865
Aclonium
Apo-Gabapentin
Apotex brand of gabapentin
Aventis brand of gabapentin
BB_SC-1512
BIDD:GT0656
BPBio1_000993
BRN 2359739
BSPBio_000901
C040029
C9H17NO2
CAS-60142-96-3
CCRIS 7210
CHEBI:188316
CHEBI:42797
CHEMBL940
CI 945
CI-945
CID3446
D00332
DB00996
DDS-2003
DM-1796
DM-5689
EINECS 262-076-3
EU-0100582
G-154
G0318
G154_SIGMA
GBN
GOE 2450
Gabapen
Gabapentin
Gabapentin (JAN/USAN/INN)
Gabapentin GR
Gabapentin Hexal
Gabapentin Stada
Gabapentin [USAN:INN:BAN]
Gabapentin-ratiopharm
Gabapentina
Gabapentine
Gabapentine [INN-French]
Gabapentino
Gabapentino [INN-Spanish]
Gabapentino [Spanish]
Gabapentinum
 
Gabapentinum [INN-Latin]
Gabapetin
Go 3450
Goe-3450
HMS1570N03
HMS2089J03
HSDB 7364
Hexal brand of gabapentin
I06-0677
L000733
LS-7194
Lopac-G-154
Lopac0_000582
MLS000069358
MolPort-000-883-862
NCGC00015466-01
NCGC00015466-02
NCGC00015466-06
NCGC00015466-09
NCGC00016891-01
NCGC00021545-02
NCGC00021545-04
NCGC00021545-05
NSC742194
Neurontin
Neurontin (TN)
Novo-Gabapentin
Novo-Gabapentine
Novopharm brand of gabapentin
PMS-Gabapentin
Parke Davis brand of gabapentin
Pfizer brand of gabapentin
Pharmascience brand of gabapentin
Prestwick0_000861
Prestwick1_000861
Prestwick2_000861
Prestwick3_000861
Prestwick_151
S2133_Selleck
SMR000058311
SPBio_002822
STK598009
Serada
Stadapharm brand of gabapentin
TL8003814
Tocris-0806
UNII-6CW7F3G59X
Vultin
Warner-Lambert brand of gabapentin
[1-(AMINOMETHYL)CYCLOHEXYL]ACETIC ACID
gabapentin
gabapentin (Neurontin)
gabapentina
gabapentinium
ratiopharm brand of gabapentin
4
Folic Acidapproved, nutraceutical, vet_approvedPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2, Phase 1439259-30-36037
Synonyms:
(2S)-2-[[4-[(2-amino-4-oxo-1H-pteridin-6-yl)methylamino]benzoyl]amino]pentanedioic acid
01769_FLUKA
2d0k
33609-88-0
36653-55-1 (mono-potassium salt)
59-30-3
6484-89-5 (mono-hydrochloride salt)
AC-11682
AC1L1LNX
AI3-26387
AKOS000503224
ARONIS014410
Acfol (Spain)
Acide folique
Acide folique [INN-French]
Acido folico
Acido folico [INN-Spanish]
Acidum folicum
Acidum folicum [INN-Latin]
Acifolic
Antianemia factor
Apo-Folic
BIDD:ER0563
BIDD:GT0641
BIF0608
BPBio1_000654
BSPBio_000594
BSPBio_002338
C00504
C20H20N6O6
CAS-59-30-3
CCRIS 666
CHEBI:27470
CHEMBL1622
CID6037
CPD000471860
Cytofol
D00070
DB00158
DivK1c_000494
Dosfolat B activ
EINECS 200-419-0
F0043
F7876_SIAL
F7876_SIGMA
F8758_SIGMA
F8798_SIAL
F8890_SIGMA
FOL
Facid
Factor U
Folacid
Folacin
Folaemin
Folaemin [Netherlands]
Folan
Folasic (Australia)
Folate
Folbal
Folcidin
Folcidin (VAN)
Folcysteine
Foldine
Foldine [France]
Folettes
Foliamin
Folic
Folic acid
Folic acid (JP15/USP/INN)
Folic acid (TN)
Folic acid [BAN:INN:JAN]
Folic acid [INN:BAN:JAN]
Folic acid dihydrate
Folicet
Folicet (TN)
Folico
Folico (Italy)
Folina
Folina (Italy)
Folipac
Folsaeure
 
Folsan
Folsaure
Folsav
Folvite
Folvron
Glutamic acid, N-(p-(((2-amino-4-hydroxypyrimido(4,5-b)pyrazin-6-yl)methyl)amino)benzoyl)-, L
HMS1921D20
HMS2092N17
HMS501I16
HSDB 2002
IDI1_000494
InChI=1/C19H19N7O6/c20-19-25-15-14(17(30)26-19)23-11(8-22-15)7-21-10-3-1-9(2-4-10)16(29)24-12(18(31)32)5-6-13(27)28/h1-4,8,12,21H,5-7H2,(H,24,29)(H,27,28)(H,31,32)(H3,20,22,25,26,30)/t12-/m0/s
Incafolic
KBio1_000494
KBio2_001861
KBio2_004429
KBio2_006997
KBio3_001558
KBioGR_002222
KBioSS_001861
Kyselina listova
Kyselina listova [Czech]
LS-2157
Liver Lactobacillus casei factor
MLS001304016
MLS001335861
Millafol
Mission prenatal
Mittafol
MolPort-004-285-551
N-(4-(((2-Amino-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-6-pteridinyl)methyl)amino)benzo- yl)-L-glutamic acid
N-(4-((2-Amino-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-6-pteridinyl)methyl)amino)benzoyl)-L-glutamic acid
N-(4-{[(2-Amino-4-oxo-3,4-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl]amino}benzoyl)-L-glutamic acid
N-(4-{[(2-amino-4-oxo-1,4-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl]amino}benzoyl)-L-glutamic acid
N-(p-(((2-Amino-4-hydroxy-6-pteridinyl)methyl)amino)benzoyl)-L-glutamic acid
N-Pteroyl-L-glutamic acid
N-[(4-{[(2-Amino-4-oxo-1,4-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl]amino}phenyl)carbonyl]-L-glutamic acid
N-[(4-{[(2-amino-4-oxo-1,4-dihydropteridin-6-yl)methyl]amino}phenyl)carbonyl]-L-glutamic acid
N-[4-[[(2-Amino-3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-6-pteridinyl)methyl]amino]benzoyl]-L-glutamic acid
NCGC00016265-01
NCGC00142391-01
NINDS_000494
NSC 3073
Nifolin
Nifolin [Denmark]
Novofolacid
Novofolacid [Canada]
PGA
PGA (VAN)
Prestwick3_000627
Prestwick_230
PteGlu
Pteroyl-L-glutamate
Pteroyl-L-glutamic acid
Pteroyl-L-monoglutamate
Pteroyl-L-monoglutamic acid
Pteroylglutamate
Pteroylglutamic acid
Pteroylmonoglutamate
Pteroylmonoglutamic acid
SAM002264616
SDCCGMLS-0066738.P001
SMP2_000137
SMR000471860
SPBio_001357
SPECTRUM1502020
Serum Folate Level
Spectrum2_001459
Spectrum3_000749
Spectrum4_001751
Spectrum5_000602
Spectrum_001381
UNII-935E97BOY8
Usaf cb-13
Vitamin B11
Vitamin B9
Vitamin Bc
Vitamin Be
Vitamin M
bmse000299
folic acid
nchembio.108-comp10
5
Riboflavinapproved, nutraceutical, vet_approvedPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2, Phase 117483-88-5493570
Synonyms:
(-)-Riboflavin
1-Deoxy-1-(3,4-dihydro-7,8-dimethyl-2,4-dioxobenzo[g]pteridin-10(2H)-yl)-D-ribitol
1-Deoxy-1-(7,8-dimethyl-2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydrobenzo[g]pteridin-10(2H)-yl)pentitol
6,7-Dimethyl-9-D-ribitylisoalloxazine
6,7-Dimethyl-9-ribitylisoalloxazine
7,8-Dimethyl-10-(D-ribo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxypentyl)-Benzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione
7,8-Dimethyl-10-(D-ribo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxypentyl)isoalloxazine
7,8-Dimethyl-10-ribitylisoalloxazine
Beflavin
Beflavine
Benzo[g]pteridine riboflavin deriv.
E 101
E101
Flavaxin
Flavin BB
Flaxain
Food Yellow 15
 
Hyre
Lactobene
Lactoflavin
Lactoflavine
Ribipca
Ribocrisina
Riboderm
Riboflavina
Riboflavine
Riboflavinum
Ribosyn
Ribotone
Ribovel
Russupteridine yellow III
San Yellow B
Vitaflavine
Vitamin B2
Vitamin G
Vitasan B2
6Peripheral Nervous System AgentsPhase 4, Phase 2, Phase 323689
7Dermatologic AgentsPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2, Phase 15806
8Pharmaceutical SolutionsPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2, Phase 18192
9MicronutrientsPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2, Phase 16001
10Angiogenesis InhibitorsPhase 44257
11VitaminsPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2, Phase 15282
12Trace ElementsPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2, Phase 16001
13Photosensitizing AgentsPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2, Phase 1492
14Central Nervous System DepressantsPhase 4, Phase 2, Phase 313403
15Vitamin B ComplexPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2, Phase 14337
16Ophthalmic SolutionsPhase 4, Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 11140
17Anti-Inflammatory AgentsPhase 4, Phase 210729
18Antirheumatic AgentsPhase 410956
19Angiogenesis Modulating AgentsPhase 44185
20TetrahydrozolinePhase 4, Phase 2, Phase 3621
21Tranquilizing AgentsPhase 44265
22Calcium, DietaryPhase 45713
23AnticonvulsantsPhase 42695
24Anti-Anxiety AgentsPhase 41885
25Analgesics, Non-NarcoticPhase 46501
26AnalgesicsPhase 411733
27Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-SteroidalPhase 44443
28Excitatory Amino AcidsPhase 41362
29Excitatory Amino Acid AntagonistsPhase 41347
30Cyclooxygenase InhibitorsPhase 42870
31calcium channel blockersPhase 41985
32Antiparkinson AgentsPhase 41574
33Ketorolac TromethaminePhase 4323
34Antimanic AgentsPhase 4814
35Neurotransmitter AgentsPhase 418340
36Psychotropic DrugsPhase 46430
37Vitamin B9NutraceuticalPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2, Phase 14392
38FolateNutraceuticalPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2, Phase 14392
39Vitamin B2NutraceuticalPhase 4, Phase 3, Phase 2, Phase 1174
40
Lidocaineapproved, vet_approvedPhase 2, Phase 31317137-58-63676
Synonyms:
.alpha.-(Diethylamino)-2,6-acetoxylidide
.alpha.-Diethylamino-2,6-dimethylacetanilide
.alpha.-Diethylaminoaceto-2,6-xylidide
.omega.-Diethylamino-2,6-dimethylacetanilide
137-58-6
2-(Diethylamino)-2',6'-acetoxylidide
2-(Diethylamino)-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)acetamide
2-Diethylamino-N-(2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-acetamide
2-Diethylamino-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)acetamide
4-12-00-02538 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)
6108-05-0 (MONOHYDROCHLORIDE MONOHYDRATE))
6108-05-0 (mono-hydrochloride, mono-hydrate)
73-78-9 (mono-hydrochloride)
AB00053581
AC-10282
AC1L1GGQ
AC1Q2Z7J
AKOS001026768
ARONIS23855
After Burn Double Strength Gel
After Burn Double Strength Spray
After Burn Gel
After Burn Spray
Alphacaine
Anestacon
Anestacon Jelly
BIDD:GT0342
BPBio1_000197
BRD-K52662033-001-02-6
BRD-K52662033-003-05-5
BRN 2215784
BSPBio_000179
BSPBio_001359
BSPBio_003004
Bio-0767
Bio1_000379
Bio1_000868
Bio1_001357
Bio2_000079
Bio2_000559
C07073
C14H22N2O
CAS-73-78-9
CDS1_000283
CHEBI:6456
CHEMBL79
CID3676
CPD000058189
Cappicaine
Cito optadren
Cuivasil
D00358
DB00281
Dalcaine
Dentipatch
Dentipatch (TN)
DermaFlex
Diethylaminoaceto-2,6-xylidide
Dilocaine
DivK1c_000174
DivK1c_001323
Duncaine
EINECS 205-302-8
ELA-Max
EMBOLEX
Emla
Emla Cream
Esracaine
FT-0082378
Gravocain
HMS1791D21
HMS1989D21
HMS2051C21
HMS2089E15
HMS548M19
HSDB 3350
I01-2704
IDI1_000174
IDI1_033829
Isicaina
Isicaine
Jetocaine
KBio1_000174
KBio2_000079
KBio2_001598
KBio2_002647
KBio2_004166
KBio2_005215
KBio2_006734
KBio3_000157
KBio3_000158
KBio3_002224
KBioGR_000079
KBioGR_000599
KBioSS_000079
KBioSS_001598
L-Caine
L0156
L1026_SIGMA
L7757_SIGMA
LIDOCAINE (73-58-6 (MONOHYDROCHLORIDE)
LIDOPEN
LQZ
 
LS-805
Lanabiotic
Leostesin
Lida-Mantle
Lidocaina
Lidocaina [INN-Spanish]
Lidocaine (JP15/USP/INN)
Lidocaine (VAN)
Lidocaine Carbonate
Lidocaine Hydrocarbonate
Lidocaine Monohydrochloride
Lidocaine [USAN:INN:JAN]
Lidocainum
Lidocainum [INN-Latin]
Lidocaton
Lidoderm
Lidoject-1
Lidoject-2
Lignocaine
Lignocainum
Lingocaine
Lopac-L-5647
Lopac0_000669
MLS000069724
MLS000758263
MLS001074177
Maricaine
Maybridge1_002571
MolPort-001-783-478
N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-N(2),N(2)-diethylglycinamide
N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-N~2~,N~2~-diethylglycinamide
NCGC00015611-01
NCGC00015611-02
NCGC00015611-03
NCGC00015611-04
NCGC00015611-14
NCGC00022176-05
NCGC00022176-06
NCGC00022176-07
NCGC00022176-08
NCGC00022176-09
NINDS_000174
NSC 40030
NSC40030
Norwood Sunburn Spray
Octocaine
Octocaine-100
Octocaine-50
Prestwick0_000050
Prestwick1_000050
Prestwick2_000050
Prestwick3_000050
Remicaine
Rocephin Kit
Rucaina
S1357_Selleck
SAM001247018
SMR000058189
SPBio_001525
SPBio_002100
STK552033
Solarcaine
Solarcaine aloe extra burn relief cream
Solcain
Spectrum2_001343
Spectrum3_001392
Spectrum4_000070
Spectrum5_001549
Spectrum_001118
UNII-98PI200987
WLN: 2N2 & 1VMR B1 F1
Xilina
Xilocaina
Xilocaina [Italian]
Xllina
Xycaine
Xylestesin
Xylesthesin
Xylocain
Xylocaine
Xylocaine (TN)
Xylocaine 5% Spinal
Xylocaine CO2
Xylocaine Dental Ointment
Xylocaine Endotracheal
Xylocaine Test Dose
Xylocaine Viscous
Xylocaine-MPF
Xylocaine-MPF with Glucose
Xylocaine-Mpf
Xylocaine-Mpf with Glucose
Xylocard
Xylocitin
Xyloneural (free base)
Xylotox
Zilactin-L
Zingo
alfa-Dietilamino-2,6-dimetilacetanilide
alfa-Dietilamino-2,6-dimetilacetanilide [Italian]
alpha-Diethylamino-2,6-dimethylacetanilide
alpha-diethylamino-2,6-dimethylacetanilide
lidocaine
nchembio.65-comp16
α-diethylamino-2,6-dimethylacetanilide
41
DipivefrinapprovedPhase 39752365-63-63105
Synonyms:
( -)-2,2-Dimethylpropansaeure-4-(1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl)-1,2-phenylenester
( -)-4-(1-Hydroxy-2-methylaminoethyl)-o-phenylendipivalat
(+-)-3,4-Dihydroxy-alpha-((methylamino)methyl)benzyl alcohol 3,4-dipivalate
(+-)-4-[1-Hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]-O-phenylene divavalate
(+-)-4-[1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]-o-phenylene divavalate
(RS)-4-(1-Hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl)-1,2-phenylen dipivalat
1-(3',4'-Dipivaloyloxyphenyl)-2-methylamino-1-ethanol
1-(3',4'-dipivaloyloxyphenyl)-2-methylamino-1-ethanol
2,2-Dimethylpropanoic acid 4-[1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]-1,2-phenylene ester
4-(1-Hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl)-1,2-phenylen dipivalat
4-[1-Hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]-O-phenylene divavalate
4-[1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]-o-phenylene divavalate
4-[1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]benzene-1,2-diyl bis(2,2-dimethylpropanoate)
52365-63-6
AB00514686
AC1L1F6K
AKOS003662293
AKPro
BPBio1_000688
BRD-A47494775-003-03-0
BSPBio_000624
C06963
C19H29NO5
CHEBI:4646
CID3105
D02349
DB00449
Dipivalyl Epinephrine
 
Dipivefrin
Dipivefrin (USAN)
Dipivefrin HCL
Dipivefrin [USAN]
Dipivefrina
Dipivefrina [INN-Spanish]
Dipivefrine
Dipivefrine (INN)
Dipivefrinum
Dipivefrinum [INN-Latin]
Dipivéfrine
K 30081
L000915
LS-121419
NCGC00179499-01
Ophtho-Dipivefrin
Prestwick0_000632
Prestwick1_000632
Prestwick2_000632
Prestwick3_000632
Pro-Epinephrine
Propine
Propine C Cap B.I.D.
SPBio_002843
UNII-8Q1PVL543G
[2-(2,2-dimethylpropanoyloxy)-4-[1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]phenyl] 2,2-dimethylpropanoate
dipivalyl epinephrine
dipivefrin
nchembio747-comp3
42
BenzocaineapprovedPhase 320161994-09-7, 94-09-72337
Synonyms:
(p-(Ethoxycarbonyl)phenylamine
06952_FLUKA
112909_ALDRICH
112909_SIAL
1333-08-0
23239-88-5
23239-88-5 (hydrochloride)
4 Aminobenzoic Acid Ethyl Ester
4-(Ethoxycarbonyl)aniline
4-(Ethoxycarbonyl)phenylamine
4-14-00-01129 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)
4-Aminobenzoate
4-Aminobenzoic acid
4-Aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester
4-Aminobenzoic acid, ethyl ester
4-Carbethoxyaniline
4-amino-benzoic acid ethyl ester
4-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester
71123-91-6
94-09-7
94-09-7 (Parent)
A0271
AB00051923
AC1L1DGC
AC1Q341A
AC1Q64JE
AE-562/40377256
AI3-02081
AKOS000119763
AR-1H9065
Acetate, Benzocaine
Aethoform
Aethylium paraminobenzoicum
Amben ethyl ester
Americaine
Anaesthan-syngala
Anaesthesin
Anaesthesinum
Anaesthin
Anestezin
Anestezin [Russian]
Anesthesin
Anesthesine
Anesthone
BB_SC-0019
BPBio1_001017
BRD-K75466013-001-05-2
BRN 0638434
BSPBio_000923
BSPBio_001908
Baby Anbesol
Bensokain
Benzoak
Benzocaina
Benzocaina [INN-Spanish]
Benzocaine
Benzocaine (USP/INN)
Benzocaine Acetate
Benzocaine Formate
Benzocaine Hydrobromide
Benzocaine Hydrochloride
Benzocaine Methanesulfonate
Benzocaine [INN:BAN]
Benzocainum
Benzocainum [INN-Latin]
Benzoic acid, 4-amino-, ethyl ester
Benzoic acid, 4-amino-, ethyl ester, hydrochloride
Benzoic acid, amino-, ethyl ester
Benzoic acid, p-amino-, ethyl ester
C07527
CAS-94-09-7
CHEBI:116735
CHEMBL278172
CID2337
Caswell No. 430A
Chloraseptic
D001566
D00552
DB01086
Dermoplast
Diet Ayds
DivK1c_000932
E1501_SIGMA
EINECS 202-303-5
EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 097001
ETHYL-P-AMINOBENZOATE
Ethoform
Ethoforme
Ethyl 4-aminobenzoate
Ethyl 4-aminobenzoate hydrochloride
Ethyl 4-aminobenzoic acid
Ethyl Aminobenzoate
Ethyl PABA
 
Ethyl aminobenzoate
Ethyl aminobenzoate (JP15)
Ethyl aminobenzoate (VAN)
Ethyl aminobenzoic acid
Ethyl p-Aminobenzoate
Ethyl p-Aminophenylcarboxylate
Ethyl p-aminobenzenecarboxylate
Ethyl p-aminobenzoate
Ethyl p-aminobenzoic acid
Ethyl p-aminophenylcarboxylate
Ethylester kyseliny p-aminobenzoove
Ethylester kyseliny p-aminobenzoove [Czech]
Ethylis aminobenzoas
Formate, Benzocaine
HMS1570O05
HMS1920G09
HMS2091M11
HMS502O14
HSDB 7225
Hurricaine
Hydrobromide, Benzocaine
Hydrochloride, Benzocaine
I05-0204
IDI1_000932
Identhesin
KBio1_000932
KBio2_000474
KBio2_003042
KBio2_005610
KBio3_001408
KBioGR_000658
KBioSS_000474
Keloform
LS-35847
MLS001331704
MLS002153970
Methanesulfonate, Benzocaine
MolPort-000-871-526
NCGC00016352-01
NCGC00094598-01
NCGC00094598-02
NINDS_000932
NSC 122792
NSC 41531
NSC41531
NSC4688
Norcain
Norcaine
Norcainum
Oprea1_750694
Oprea1_827402
Ora-jel
Orabase-B
Orthesin
Otocain
Outgro
Parathesin
Parathesin (TN)
Parathesine
Prestwick0_000712
Prestwick1_000712
Prestwick2_000712
Prestwick3_000712
Prestwick_991
SMR000059025
SPBio_000134
SPBio_002844
SPECTRUM1500139
STK043620
Slim Mint Gum
Solarcaine
Solu H
Spectrum2_000117
Spectrum3_000314
Spectrum4_000249
Spectrum5_000860
Spectrum_000074
Topcaine
UNII-U3RSY48JW5
WLN: ZR DVO2
ZINC12358719
benzocaine
ethylaminobenzoate-4
h-4-abz-oet
nchembio.182-comp4
p-(Ethoxycarbonyl)aniline
p-Aminobenzoate
p-Aminobenzoic acid
p-Aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester
p-Aminobenzoic acid, ethyl ester
p-Aminobenzoic ethyl ester
p-Carbethoxyaniline
p-Ethoxycarboxylic Aniline
p-Ethoxycarboxylic aniline
43tannic acidapproved, NutraceuticalPhase 32016
44
Flavin MononucleotideexperimentalPhase 2, Phase 36146-17-8643976
Synonyms:
FMN
Flanin
Flavine mononucleotide
Flavol
Riboflavin
Riboflavin 5'-monophosphate
Riboflavin 5'-phosphate
Riboflavin Mononucleotide
Riboflavin monophosphate
 
Riboflavin phosphate
Riboflavin-5'-phosphate na
Riboflavin-5-phosphate
Riboflavine 5'-monophosphate
Riboflavine 5'-phosphate
Riboflavine dihydrogen phosphate
Riboflavine monophosphate
Riboflavine phosphate
Riboflavine-5'-phosphate
Vitamin B2 phosphate
45AnticoagulantsPhase 2, Phase 3, Phase 12623
46Plasma SubstitutesPhase 2, Phase 3, Phase 1240
47Sodium Channel BlockersPhase 2, Phase 31593
48Blood SubstitutesPhase 2, Phase 3, Phase 1253
49Anti-Arrhythmia AgentsPhase 2, Phase 33093
50Anti-Bacterial AgentsPhase 3, Phase 111226

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50)    (show all 153)
idNameStatusNCT IDPhase
1Evaluation of Changes in the Parameters of Optical Coherence Tomography After Intravitreal Injection of LucentisUnknown statusNCT01669447Phase 4
2Effect of CACICOL20 on Corneal Epithelial Healing After Cross-linking in Patients With KeratoconusCompletedNCT02119039Phase 4
3Intrastromal Corneal Ring Segment Implantation in 219 Keratoconic Eyes at Different StagesCompletedNCT01261013Phase 4
4Pain Management in Corneal Collagen Crosslinking for KeratoconusCompletedNCT02867176Phase 4
5Relationship Between Central Corneal Thickness and Intraocular Pressure Measures Instruments.CompletedNCT00347191Phase 4
6Corneal Thickness Changes During Corneal Collagen Cross-linking With Ultraviolet-A Irradiation and RiboflavinCompletedNCT01485211Phase 4
7Intrastromal Corneal Ring for High Astigmatism on PostkeratoplastyCompletedNCT01018797Phase 4
8CXL-04 A Study of Collagen Crosslinking With Ultraviolet-A in Asymmetric CorneasRecruitingNCT01956474Phase 4
9Safety and Effectiveness of Collagen Cross Linking in Progressive Mild and Moderate KeratoconusUnknown statusNCT00815256Phase 3
10Treatment of Keratoconus Using Collagen Cross-LinkingUnknown statusNCT00841386Phase 2, Phase 3
11Comparison of Penetrating Keratoplasty and Deep Lamellar Keratoplasty With the Big Bubble Technique for KeratoconusUnknown statusNCT00371202Phase 3
12Collagen Cross-Linking for Keratoconus/Ectasia With and Without IntacsUnknown statusNCT01081561Phase 2, Phase 3
13Evaluating Collagen Cross-Linking (CCL) Treatment in NorwayUnknown statusNCT00435799Phase 2, Phase 3
14Corneal Cross-Linking Comparing VariablesUnknown statusNCT02095730Phase 3
15Riboflavin Mediated Corneal Crosslinking for Stabilizing Progression of KeratoconusCompletedNCT00626717Phase 2, Phase 3
16Corneal Sensitivity Cross-linking KeratoconusCompletedNCT01743443Phase 2, Phase 3
17Corneal Collagen Cross-linking for Progressive KeratoconusCompletedNCT00647699Phase 3
18Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking for the Treatment of Progressive Keratoconus and Corneal EctasiaCompletedNCT00567671Phase 2, Phase 3
19Safety and Efficacy Study of Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking in Eyes With KeratoconusCompletedNCT01643226Phase 3
20Safety and Efficacy Study of Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking in Eyes With KeratoconusCompletedNCT01344187Phase 3
21Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty (DALK)CompletedNCT00887900Phase 3
22Non-inferiority Trial of Iontophoretic Corneal Collagen Crosslinking (CXL) Compared to Standard Corneal Collagen Crosslinking in Progressive Keratoconus.RecruitingNCT01868620Phase 3
23Collagen Crosslinking for Keratoconus - a Randomized Controlled Clinical TrialRecruitingNCT01604135Phase 3
24Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of the KXL System for Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking in Eyes Having KeratoconusRecruitingNCT02638376Phase 3
25Safety and Effectiveness of Corneal Crosslinking (CXL): Keratoconus and Post-Refractive EctasiaRecruitingNCT03080077Phase 3
26The Effects of Corneal Collagen Cross-linkingRecruitingNCT01708538Phase 3
27Microwave Treatment and Corneal Collagen Crosslinking for KeratoconusActive, not recruitingNCT01672814Phase 3
28Corneal Collagen Crosslinking for Progressive Keratoconus and Ectasia Using Riboflavin/Dextran and Hypotonic RiboflavinActive, not recruitingNCT01152541Phase 3
29Safety and Efficacy of Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking in Eyes With KeratoconusActive, not recruitingNCT01972854Phase 3
30Transepithelial Corneal Collagen Crosslinking for Keratoconus and Corneal EctasiaActive, not recruitingNCT01464268Phase 3
31Corneal Collagen Crosslinking and Intacs for Keratoconus and EctasiaActive, not recruitingNCT01112072Phase 3
32Refractive Treatment of Early KeratoconusNot yet recruitingNCT02613780Phase 3
33Safety Study of the VEGA UV-A System to Treat KeratoconusTerminatedNCT01190306Phase 3
34Safety and Effectiveness Study of the VEGA UV-A System for Cross-linking in Eyes With Keratoconus and EctasiaTerminatedNCT01398852Phase 3
35A Multi-Center, Randomized, Controlled Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of the KXL System With VibeX (Riboflavin Ophthalmic Solution) for Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking in Eyes With Keratoconus or Corneal Ectasia After Refractive SurgeryTerminatedNCT01459679Phase 3
36Corneal Cross Linking and Topography Guided Excimer Laser TreatmentTerminatedNCT01682993Phase 3
37Corneal Crosslinking in Keratoconus and Corneal EctasiaWithdrawnNCT00679666Phase 2, Phase 3
38Myoring Versus Keraring Implantation for KeratoconusUnknown statusNCT01869517Phase 2
39Safety and Effectiveness of the UV-X System for Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking for Compassionate Treatment in Pediatric Patients With Progressive KeratoconusUnknown statusNCT00925327Phase 2
40UVA-Riboflavin Crosslinking Treatment of Corneal EctasiaUnknown statusNCT01325298Phase 2
41Transepithelial Corneal Collagen Cross-linking (CXL) in Treatment of KeratoconusCompletedNCT01181219Phase 2
42Comparison of Partial Removal and Total Removal of the Corneal Epithelium on KeratoconusCompletedNCT01809977Phase 2
43Lamellar Transplant With Lyophilized CorneasCompletedNCT00409955Phase 2
44Investigation of Different Scanning Protocols for 3 Dimensional High-resolution Imaging of the Human Cornea With Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) - A Pilot StudyRecruitingNCT01843101Phase 2
45Immunosuppression During Penetrating Keratoplasty, Using a Subconjunctival Implant Releasing Dexamethasone : Tolerance and Safety Pilot StudyRecruitingNCT02834260Phase 2
46COLLAGEN CROSS-LINKING WITH ULTRAVIOLET-A IN ASYMMETRIC CORNEASRecruitingNCT03029104Phase 2
47Treatment of Keratoconus With Advanced Corneal CrosslinkingActive, not recruitingNCT02425150Phase 2
48Treatment of Keratoconus With Advanced CXL-IIActive, not recruitingNCT02514200Phase 2
49Adapted Fluence Settings for Corneal Collagen Cross-linking in Mild to Moderate Progressive KeratoconusActive, not recruitingNCT02507362Phase 1, Phase 2
50Corneal Crosslinking in Patients With Keratoconus and Post-Refractive EctasiaActive, not recruitingNCT01143389Phase 2

Search NIH Clinical Center for Keratoconus


Cochrane evidence based reviews: keratoconus

Genetic Tests for Keratoconus

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Anatomical Context for Keratoconus

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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Keratoconus:

36
Eye, Endothelial, Testes

LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database

Cells/anatomical compartments in embryo or adult related to Keratoconus:
id TissueAnatomical CompartmentCell Relevance
1 EyeCorneal StromaKeratocytes Affected by disease

Publications for Keratoconus

About this section

Articles related to Keratoconus:

(show top 50)    (show all 838)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
KTCNlncDB-a first platform to investigate lncRNAs expressed in human keratoconus and non-keratoconus corneas. (28077570)
2017
2
Keratoconus and Bowman Layer Transplantation. (28079692)
2017
3
Keratoconus associated with Williams-Beuren syndrome: a new case report. (28503444)
2017
4
New web-based algorithm to improve rigid gas permeable contact lens fitting in keratoconus. (28057440)
2017
5
Efficacy of Intrastromal Corneal Ring Segments Combined With Flash Collagen Cross-Linking in Keratoconus. (28060059)
2017
6
Corneo-scleral contact lens in a piggyback system for keratoconus: A case report. (28073689)
2017
7
Conventional and Iontophoresis Corneal Cross-Linking for Keratoconus: Efficacy and Assessment by Optical Coherence Tomography and Confocal Microscopy. (28060061)
2017
8
Ocular Surface Disease Parameters After Collagen Cross-Linking for Keratoconus. (28060060)
2017
9
Corneal Imaging Abnormalities in Familial Keratoconus. (28068450)
2017
10
Urea, Uric Acid, Prolactin and fT4 Concentrations in Aqueous Humor of Keratoconus Patients. (28085502)
2017
11
Risk Factors for Keratoconus: Atopy and Eye Rubbing. (27755195)
2017
12
Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking for Keratoconus in Pediatric Patients-Long-Term Results. (28060058)
2017
13
Trends in Corneal Transplantation in Keratoconus. (28060057)
2017
14
Accelerated transepithelial corneal cross-linking for progressive keratoconus: a prospective study of 12a88months. (28057642)
2017
15
Removal and Repositioning of Intracorneal Ring Segments: Improving Corneal Topography and Clinical Outcomes in Keratoconus and Ectasia. (28060075)
2017
16
Pilot Study of Corneal Sensitivity and Its Association in Keratoconus. (28060062)
2017
17
Evaluation of Serum Superoxide Dismutase Activity, Malondialdehyde, and Zinc and Copper Levels in Patients With Keratoconus. (27617869)
2016
18
Very low prevalence of keratoconus in a large series of vernal keratoconjunctivitis patients. (27640005)
2016
19
Outcome of Keratoconus Management: Review of the Past 20 Years' Contemporary Treatment Modalities. (27171132)
2016
20
Accelerated versus conventional corneal collagen cross-linking in patients with keratoconus: an intrapatient comparative study. (28035498)
2016
21
Novel Technique of Transepithelial Corneal Cross-Linking Using Iontophoresis in Progressive Keratoconus. (27597895)
2016
22
Corrigendum to "Expression of HGF and c-Met Proteins in Human Keratoconus Corneas". (27610241)
2016
23
Predictive Ability of Galilei to Distinguish Subclinical Keratoconus and Keratoconus from Normal Corneas. (27195079)
2016
24
One-year Outcomes of Pachymetry and Epithelium Thicknesses after Accelerated (45a88mW/cm(2)) Transepithelial Corneal Collagen Cross-linking for Keratoconus Patients. (27597655)
2016
25
Effect of corneal cross-linking on contact lens tolerance in keratoconus. (27654998)
2016
26
Visual Outcomes of Successful versus Failed Big-Bubble Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty for Keratoconus. (27195082)
2016
27
Visual, Keratometric and Corneal Biomechanical Changes after Intacs SK Implantation for Moderate to Severe Keratoconus. (27195080)
2016
28
Evaluation of the diagnostic ability of vector parameters characterizing the corneal astigmatism and regularity in clinical and subclinical keratoconus. (27931882)
2016
29
Genomic strategies to understand causes of keratoconus. (28032277)
2016
30
Keratoconus in Patients with Macular Stromal Dystrophy. (27455826)
2016
31
The influence of rigid gas permeable lens wear on the concentrations of dinucleotides in tears and the effect on dry eye signs and symptoms in keratoconus. (27209480)
2016
32
Wave Front-Guided Photorefractive Keratectomy Using a High-Resolution Aberrometer After Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking in Keratoconus. (27191671)
2016
33
Effect of Cycloplegia on Keratometric and Biometric Parameters in Keratoconus. (28058115)
2016
34
Development of a Keratoconus-Specific Questionnaire Using Rasch Analysis. (28027275)
2016
35
Higher incidence of steroid-induced ocular hypertension in keratoconus. (26909354)
2016
36
Ocular Surface Temperature During Scleral Lens Wearing in Patients With Keratoconus. (27203795)
2016
37
Bilateral Atypical Granular Corneal Dystrophy Associated with Unilateral Keratoconus in a Male Child. (27555713)
2016
38
Epithelial Thickness Profile Change After Combined Topography-Guided Transepithelial Photorefractive Keratectomy and Corneal Cross-linking in Treatment of Keratoconus. (27598733)
2016
39
Screening for MIR184 Mutations in Iranian Patients with Keratoconus. (27195078)
2016
40
A case of unilateral circumscribed posterior keratoconus evaluated by three different imaging tools: optical coherence tomography, videokeratography, and Scheimpflug corneal tomography. (27177621)
2016
41
Post Filtering Surgery Globe Massage-induced Keratoconus in an Eye with Iridocorneal Endothelial Syndrome: A Case Report and Literature Brief Review. (27621792)
2016
42
Association between Family History and Keratoconus Severity. (27158890)
2016
43
Novel visual system homeobox 1 gene mutations in Turkish patients with keratoconus. (27819732)
2016
44
Effect of a Matrix Therapy Agent on Corneal Epithelial Healing After Standard Collagen Cross-linking in Patients With Keratoconus: A Randomized Clinical Trial. (27584715)
2016
45
Mini-scleral Contact Lens for Management of Poor Visual Outcomes after Intrastromal Corneal Ring Segments Implantation in Keratoconus. (27621780)
2016
46
Evaluation of anterior segment parameters using Scheimpflug technology during the Valsalva maneuver in patients with keratoconus. (28076560)
2016
47
Induction of matrix metalloproteinase-1 by tumor necrosis factor-I+ is mediated by interleukin-6 in cultured fibroblasts of keratoconus. (27207902)
2016
48
Nationwide reduction in the number of corneal transplantations for keratoconus following the implementation of cross-linking. (27213687)
2016
49
Spontaneous Descemet Membrane Detachment 20 Years After Penetrating Keratoplasty for Keratoconus. (27158806)
2016
50
Change in Accommodation and Ocular Aberrations in Keratoconus Patients Fitted With Scleral Lenses. (27607148)
2016

Variations for Keratoconus

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Expression for genes affiliated with Keratoconus

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Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Keratoconus.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Keratoconus

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GO Terms for genes affiliated with Keratoconus

About this section

Cellular components related to Keratoconus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1extracellular matrixGO:00310129.7MMP1, MMP10, MMP2, TIMP1, TNC
2proteinaceous extracellular matrixGO:00055788.9KERA, MMP1, MMP10, MMP2, TIMP1, TNC

Biological processes related to Keratoconus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1collagen catabolic processGO:003057410.3MMP1, MMP10, MMP2
2extracellular matrix disassemblyGO:002261710.1MMP1, MMP10, MMP2, TIMP1
3cellular protein metabolic processGO:004426710.0MMP1, MMP2, TIMP1, TNC
4response to stimulusGO:00508969.9AIPL1, GUCY2D, KERA, RPE65, VSX1
5visual perceptionGO:00076019.3AIPL1, GUCY2D, KERA, RPE65, VSX1

Molecular functions related to Keratoconus according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1metalloendopeptidase activityGO:00042229.7MMP1, MMP10, MMP2

Sources for Keratoconus

About this section
2CDC
6CNVD
10DGIdb
15ExPASy
16FDA
17FMA
27GTR
28HGMD
29HMDB
30ICD10
31ICD10 via Orphanet
32ICD9CM
33IUPHAR
34KEGG
37MedGen
39MeSH
40MESH via Orphanet
41MGI
44NCI
45NCIt
46NDF-RT
49NINDS
50Novoseek
52OMIM
53OMIM via Orphanet
57PubMed
58QIAGEN
63SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67Tumor Gene Family of Databases
68UMLS
69UMLS via Orphanet