MCID: KRN004
MIFTS: 52

Kernicterus malady

Rare diseases, Neuronal diseases, Fetal diseases, Skin diseases, Blood diseases categories
Download this MalaCard

Summaries for Kernicterus

About this section
Sources:
65Wikipedia, 33MalaCards
See all sources

Fully expand this MalaCard
Wikipedia:65 Kernicterus is a bilirubin-induced brain dysfunction. Bilirubin is a highly neurotoxic substance that... more...

MalaCards: Kernicterus, also known as bilirubin encephalopathy, is related to neonatal jaundice and crigler-najjar syndrome. An important gene associated with Kernicterus is G6PD (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), and among its related pathways are Nicotine Pathway, Pharmacokinetics and Transport of vitamins, nucleosides, and related molecules. The compounds propofol and cotinine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, globus pallidus and liver.

Aliases & Classifications for Kernicterus

About this section
Sources:
8Disease Ontology, 43NIH Rare Diseases, 10DISEASES, 45Novoseek, 62UMLS, 58SNOMED-CT, 35MeSH, 40NCIt
See all sources

Classifications:



Aliases & Descriptions:

kernicterus 8 43 10 45 62
bilirubin encephalopathy 8 43
hyperbilirubinemic encephalopathy 43
kernicterus of newborn nos 8
kernicterus of newborn 8


External Ids:

Disease Ontology8 DOID:2382
MeSH35 D007647
NCIt40 C84799

Related Diseases for Kernicterus

About this section
Sources:
17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
See all sources

Diseases in the Kernicterus Due to Isoimmunization family:

kernicterus

Diseases related to Kernicterus via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards/GeneDecks gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 51)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1neonatal jaundice30.8UGT1A1, G6PD, RHD
2crigler-najjar syndrome30.5UGT1A1, UGT1A4
3blood group incompatibility30.5G6PD
4crigler najjar syndrome, type 230.1UGT1A1, UGT1A4
5hereditary spherocytosis29.9UGT1A1, SLC4A1, G6PD, RHD
6hemolytic anemia29.9G6PD, SLC4A1, RHD, UGT1A1
7kernicterus due to isoimmunization10.5
8cerebritis10.2
9brain injury10.2
10gilbert syndrome10.1UGT1A1
11neuronitis10.1
12hepatitis10.1
13sepsis10.1
14cerebral palsy athetoid10.1
15hereditary elliptocytosis10.1SLC4A1
16glucosephosphate dehydrogenase deficiency10.1UGT1A1, G6PD
17alpha thalassemia10.1UGT1A1, G6PD
18cholelithiasis10.1UGT1A1, UGT1A6
19autoimmune hepatitis10.1UGT1A9, UGT1A1
20acute kidney failure10.1ALB, G6PD
21leukopenia10.1UGT1A1, ALB
22autoimmune hemolytic anemia10.0G6PD, RHCE
23galactosemia10.0ALB, UGT1A1
24diarrhea10.0ALB, UGT1A1, UGT1A6
25hepatitis c10.0ALB, UGT1A9, UGT1A7
26bilirubin metabolic disorder10.0ALB, UGT1A7, UGT1A1, G6PD
27beta thalassemia10.0G6PD, RHD, UGT1A1
28hepatocellular carcinoma10.0ALB, UGT1A1, UGT1A9, UGT1A7
29sickle cell disease10.0UGT1A1, G6PD, RHD
30congenital dyserythropoietic anemia10.0RHD, SLC4A1
31hyperhomocysteinemia10.0ALB, RHD
32metabolic acidosis10.0SLC4A1, ALB
33rh isoimmunization10.0RHCE, RHD
34colorectal cancer10.0UGT1A1, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, UGT1A7
35liver cirrhosis10.0UGT1A7, RHD, ALB
36hepatitis b10.0ALB, RHD, UGT1A7
37rheumatic fever10.0
38central pontine myelinolysis10.0
39congenital hypothyroidism10.0
40aphasia10.0
41cerebral palsy10.0
42congenital hemolytic anemia10.0
43hypothyroidism10.0
44viral hepatitis10.0
45athetosis10.0
46lucey-driscoll syndrome10.0
47anoxia10.0
48endotheliitis10.0
49fulminant viral hepatitis10.0
50malaria10.0SLC4A1, G6PD, RHD, ALB

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Kernicterus:



Diseases related to kernicterus

Symptoms for Kernicterus

About this section

Drugs & Therapeutics for Kernicterus

About this section
Sources:
42NIH Clinical Center, 6ClinicalTrials, 62UMLS, 41NDF-RT
See all sources

Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Kernicterus

Search NIH Clinical Center for Kernicterus

Genetic Tests for Kernicterus

About this section

Anatomical Context for Kernicterus

About this section
Sources:
33MalaCards
See all sources

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Kernicterus:

33
Brain, Globus pallidus, Liver, Breast, Endothelial

Animal Models for Kernicterus or affiliated genes

About this section

Publications for Kernicterus

About this section
Sources:
52PubMed
See all sources

Articles related to Kernicterus:

(show top 50)    (show all 327)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Jaundice and kernicterus in the moderately preterm infant. (24182955)
2013
2
Fatal kernicterus in a girl deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase: a paradigm of synergistic heterozygosity. (19324225)
2009
3
Unbound bilirubin: a better predictor of kernicterus? (18160727)
2008
4
Kernicterus in an adult dog. (17491082)
2007
5
Kernicterus associated with hereditary spherocytosis and UGT1A1 promoter polymorphism. (16735790)
2006
6
Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in children with chronic kernicterus. (22266622)
2006
7
Hyperintense globus pallidus on T1-weighted MR imaging in acute kernicterus: is it common or rare? (15565320)
2005
8
Bronze baby syndrome and the risk of kernicterus. (16188824)
2005
9
Understanding severe hyperbilirubinemia and preventing kernicterus: adjuncts in the interpretation of neonatal serum bilirubin. (15936300)
2005
10
Urgent clinical need for accurate and precise bilirubin measurements in the United States to prevent kernicterus. (14726464)
2004
11
Research on prevention of bilirubin-induced brain injury and kernicterus: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development conference executive summary. 2003. (15231933)
2004
12
Cost-effectiveness of strategies that are intended to prevent kernicterus in newborn infants. (15466085)
2004
13
Kernicterus and G6PD deficiency--a case series from Oman. (12729287)
2003
14
Breast-feeding, neonatal jaundice and kernicterus. (12208098)
2002
15
System-based approach to management of neonatal jaundice and prevention of kernicterus. (12006952)
2002
16
Preterm infants with athetoid cerebral palsy: kernicterus? (11207234)
2001
17
From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Kernicterus in full-term infants--United States, 1994-1998. (11474907)
2001
18
Risk factors for kernicterus in term babies with non-hemolytic jaundice. (11463962)
2001
19
Kernicterus threatens healthy newborns. (11424865)
2001
20
Kernicterus in a full-term infant: the need for increased vigilance. (7724333)
1995
21
Kernicterus in preterm infants; lest we forget (to turn on the lights) (1408550)
1992
22
Assessing the risk of kernicterus using nuclear magnetic resonance. (2369802)
1990
23
Auditory brainstem response in patients with a history of kernicterus. (3272525)
1988
24
Kernicterus in the premature neonate. (3333255)
1987
25
Neonatal bilirubin toxicity. A review of kernicterus and the implications of drug-induced bilirubin displacement. (3304769)
1987
26
Value and limitations of bilirubin binding capacity in predicting the development of kernicterus. (6466218)
1984
27
Kernicterus at low levels of serum bilirubin: the impact of bilirubin albumin-binding capacity. A 10-year retrospective survey. (7199940)
1982
28
Kernicterus: effect on choline acetyltransferase, glutamic acid decarboxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase activities in the brain of the Gunn rat. (6105009)
1980
29
Singapore kernicterus. (262490)
1979
30
The pathochemistry of kernicterus. (43803)
1979
31
Absence of kernicterus in low-birth weight infants from 1971 through 1976: comparison with findings in 1966 and 1967. (714577)
1978
32
Breakdown of blood/brain barrier in kernicterus. (67529)
1977
33
An electron microscopic and radioautographic study on experimental kernicterus. I. Bilirubin transport via astroglia. (5815579)
1969
34
Effect of sodium phenobarbital on bilirubin metabolism in an infant with congenital, nonhemolytic, unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, and kernicterus. (5765026)
1969
35
Serum albumin reserve PSP dye binding capacity in infants with kernicterus. (6067403)
1967
36
Risk of kernicterus in newborn infants with a high level of conjugated bilirubin. (6007580)
1966
37
KERNICTERUS IN NEWBORN RABBITS. (14266216)
1965
38
PREVENTION OF CEREBRAL DAMAGE (KERNICTERUS) FROM FOETO-MATERNAL INCOMPATIBILITY; ANTENATAL ASPECTS. (14062989)
1963
39
Kernicterus in premature infants associated with low concentrations of bilirubin in the plasma. (13553575)
1958
40
Clinical kernicterus and congenital hypothyroidism. (13493800)
1958
41
Congenital hemolytic anemia in the newborn; relationship to kernicterus. (13478296)
1957
42
Experimental studies on the pathogenesis of kernicterus. (13484304)
1957
43
Congenital cirrhosis of the liver with kernicterus; report of two cases in siblings with a discussion of the relationship to so-called neonatal hepatitis and to iso-immunization disease. (13268609)
1955
44
Prevention of death and crippling from kernicterus in hemolytic disease of the newborn. (13221977)
1954
45
Cerebrospinal fluid bilirubin in the neonatal period with special reference to the development of kernicterus; preliminary report. (13217811)
1954
46
The mechanism of production of kernicterus. (13000553)
1952
47
Kernicterus. (14819084)
1951
48
Central nervous system complications associated with kernicterus. (21011225)
1946
49
Pathogenesis of Kernicterus. (17800122)
1946
50
Case of Kernicterus. (19992043)
1939

Variations for Kernicterus

About this section

Expression for genes affiliated with Kernicterus

About this section
Sources:
2BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
See all sources
Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Kernicterus

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Kernicterus.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Kernicterus

About this section
Sources:
50PathCards, 51PharmGKB, 38NCBI BioSystems Database, 55Reactome, 53QIAGEN, 60Thomson Reuters, 30KEGG
See all sources

Pathways related to Kernicterus according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 19)
idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
Nicotine metabolism38
9.8UGT1A9, UGT1A4
2
Show member pathways
9.8SLC35A2, ALB
3
Show member pathways
bupropion degradation38
methylglyoxal degradation III38
nicotine degradation III38
nicotine degradation IV38
9.8UGT1A4, UGT1A10
4
Show member pathways
AhR pathway38
9.8UGT1A1, UGT1A6
5
Show member pathways
Codeine and morphine metabolism38
9.7UGT1A1, UGT1A8
69.6UGT1A10, UGT1A8
7
Show member pathways
9.6UGT1A10, UGT1A9, UGT1A1
89.5UGT1A9, UGT1A6, UGT1A1
9
Show member pathways
8.6UGT1A4, UGT1A9, UGT1A6, UGT1A8, UGT1A1
108.6UGT1A4, UGT1A9, UGT1A6, UGT1A8, UGT1A1
118.5UGT1A4, UGT1A10, UGT1A9, UGT1A6, UGT1A8
12
Show member pathways
7.9UGT1A7, UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, UGT1A10
13
Show member pathways
7.6UGT1A7, UGT1A4, UGT1A10, UGT1A9, UGT1A5, UGT1A6
14
Show member pathways
Glucocorticoid andamp; Mineralcorticoid Metabolism38
7.6UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A7, UGT1A4, UGT1A10, UGT1A9
15
Show member pathways
7.6UGT1A7, UGT1A4, UGT1A10, UGT1A9, UGT1A5, UGT1A6
16
Show member pathways
7.6UGT1A7, UGT1A4, UGT1A10, UGT1A9, UGT1A5, UGT1A6
17
Show member pathways
7.6UGT1A10, UGT1A4, UGT1A7, UGT1A9, UGT1A5, UGT1A6
18
Show member pathways
tetrapyrrole biosynthesis38
heme degradation38
Heme Biosynthesis38
heme biosynthesis38
heme biosynthesis from uroporphyrinogen-III I38
7.6UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10
19
Show member pathways
6.6UGT1A7, UGT1A4, UGT1A10, UGT1A9, UGT1A5, UGT1A6

Compounds for genes affiliated with Kernicterus

About this section
Sources:
45Novoseek, 51PharmGKB, 11DrugBank, 24HMDB, 29IUPHAR
See all sources

Compounds related to Kernicterus according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show top 50)    (show all 167)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1propofol45 51 1110.3UGT1A10, UGT1A4, UGT1A9, UGT1A6, UGT1A8, ALB
2cotinine45 249.2UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT1A4
3Cortolone-3-glucuronide248.1UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT1A4, UGT1A7
4Estriol-16-Glucuronide248.1UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10
5Estriol-17-glucuronide248.1UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10
6Cotinineglucuronide248.1UGT1A7, UGT1A4, UGT1A10, UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6
7Estrone glucuronide248.1UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT1A4
8Etiocholanolone glucuronide248.1UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10
9Estriol-3-glucuronide248.1UGT1A7, UGT1A4, UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5
10Benzoyl glucuronide (Benzoic acid)248.1UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT1A4
11Bilirubin glucuronide248.0UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10
12Cholestane-3,7,12,25-tetrol-3-glucuronide248.0UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10
13Cholesterol glucuronide248.0UGT1A7, UGT1A4, UGT1A10, UGT1A9, UGT1A1, UGT1A8
14Cholic acid glucuronide248.0UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10
15Testosterone glucuronide248.0UGT1A4, UGT1A7, UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5
16Tetrahydroaldosterone-3-glucuronide248.0UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT1A4, UGT1A7, UGT1A5, UGT1A6
17Thyroxine glucuronide248.0UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10
18Testosterone sulfate248.0UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10
19Triiodothyronine glucuronide248.0UGT1A10, UGT1A4, UGT1A7, UGT1A9, UGT1A5, UGT1A6
20Tyramine glucuronide248.0UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10
21trans-3-Hydroxycotinine glucuronide248.0UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10
22Inodxyl glucuronide248.0UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT1A4, UGT1A7
23Isovalerylglucuronide248.0UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10
24Glycochenodeoxycholic acid 3-glucuronide248.0UGT1A7, UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9
25Retinyl beta-glucuronide248.0UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT1A4, UGT1A7, UGT1A6
26Retinoyl b-glucuronide248.0UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10
27etiocholanolone45 249.0UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT1A4, UGT1A7, UGT1A1
28bilirubin diglucuronide45 249.0UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT1A4
29(23S)-23,25-dihdroxy-24-oxovitamine D3 23-(beta-glucuronide)248.0UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10
30aldosterone 18-glucuronide45 249.0UGT1A7, UGT1A4, UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5
311-Salicylate glucuronide248.0UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT1A4, UGT1A7
3211-beta-hydroxyandrosterone-3-glucuronide248.0UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10
331-(alpha-Methyl-4-(2-methylpropyl)benzeneacetate)-beta-D-Glucopyranuronic acid247.9UGT1A7, UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9
34codeine45 29 51 24 1111.9UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10
35androsterone glucuronide45 248.9UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10
363-alpha-androstanediol glucuronide45 248.9UGT1A7, UGT1A4, UGT1A10, UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6
372-Phenylethanol glucuronide247.9UGT1A7, UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9
3825-Hydroxyvitamin D2-25-glucuronide247.9UGT1A10, UGT1A4, UGT1A7, UGT1A9, UGT1A5, UGT1A6
393,17-Androstanediol glucuronide247.8UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10
4025-Hydroxyvitamin D2 25-(beta-glucuronide)247.8UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10
413-alpha,20-alpha-dihydroxy-5-beta-pregnane 3-glucuronide247.8UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10
42Bilirubin247.8UGT1A4, UGT1A7, UGT1A10, UGT1A9, UGT1A5, ALB
433-alpha-hydroxy-5-alpha-androstane-17-one 3-D-glucuronide247.8UGT1A4, UGT1A7, UGT1A10, UGT1A9, UGT1A5, UGT1A1
44Androsterone247.7UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10
4517-hydroxyandrostane-3-glucuronide247.7UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT1A4, UGT1A7, UGT1A6
46estrone45 29 24 1110.7ALB, UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9
472-Methoxy-estradiol-17b 3-glucuronide247.6UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10
482-Methoxyestrone247.6UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10
4911-Hydroxyprogesterone 11-glucuronide247.5UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9, UGT1A10
502-Methoxyestrone 3-glucuronide247.3UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT1A4, UGT1A7, UGT1A5, UGT1A6

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Kernicterus

About this section
Sources:
16Gene Ontology
See all sources

Cellular components related to Kernicterus according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1endoplasmic reticulum membraneGO:0057897.3UGT1A1, UGT1A7, UGT1A4, UGT1A10, UGT1A9, UGT1A5
2integral component of membraneGO:0160216.9UGT1A4, UGT1A10, UGT1A9, UGT1A5, UGT1A6, UGT1A8

Biological processes related to Kernicterus according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 13)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1coumarin metabolic processGO:0098049.6UGT1A8, UGT1A7
2negative regulation of fatty acid metabolic processGO:0459229.4UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT1A7
3negative regulation of steroid metabolic processGO:0459399.4UGT1A1, UGT1A8
4negative regulation of cellular glucuronidationGO:20010309.3UGT1A7, UGT1A9, UGT1A8, UGT1A1
5xenobiotic glucuronidationGO:0526979.3UGT1A7, UGT1A9, UGT1A8, UGT1A1
6flavonoid glucuronidationGO:0526969.3UGT1A7, UGT1A9, UGT1A8, UGT1A1
7cellular glucuronidationGO:0526959.3UGT1A4, UGT1A10, UGT1A6, UGT1A1
8retinoic acid metabolic processGO:0425739.2UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT1A7
9drug metabolic processGO:0171449.2UGT1A7, UGT1A9, UGT1A8, UGT1A1
10negative regulation of catalytic activityGO:0430869.1UGT1A7, UGT1A9, UGT1A8, UGT1A1
11flavone metabolic processGO:0515529.0UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT1A10, UGT1A7
12xenobiotic metabolic processGO:0068059.0UGT1A4, UGT1A9, UGT1A6, UGT1A1
13small molecule metabolic processGO:0442818.1UGT1A4, UGT1A9, UGT1A6, UGT1A1, G6PD, ALB

Molecular functions related to Kernicterus according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 11)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1protein kinase C bindingGO:0050809.8UGT1A10, UGT1A7
2fatty acid bindingGO:0055049.6ALB, UGT1A8
3drug bindingGO:0081449.4ALB, UGT1A8, UGT1A7
4steroid bindingGO:0054969.4UGT1A1, UGT1A8
5enzyme inhibitor activityGO:0048579.2UGT1A7, UGT1A9, UGT1A8, UGT1A1
6ammonium transmembrane transporter activityGO:0085199.0RHD, RHCE
7retinoic acid bindingGO:0019728.1UGT1A7, UGT1A4, UGT1A10, UGT1A9, UGT1A6, UGT1A8
8protein heterodimerization activityGO:0469828.1UGT1A7, UGT1A4, UGT1A10, UGT1A9, UGT1A6, UGT1A8
9glucuronosyltransferase activityGO:0150207.9UGT1A1, UGT1A7, UGT1A8, UGT1A6, UGT1A5, UGT1A9
10enzyme bindingGO:0198997.8UGT1A7, UGT1A4, UGT1A10, UGT1A9, UGT1A6, UGT1A8
11protein homodimerization activityGO:0428037.3UGT1A7, UGT1A4, UGT1A10, UGT1A9, UGT1A6, UGT1A8

Products for genes affiliated with Kernicterus

About this section
  • Antibodies
  • Proteins
  • Lysates
  • Antibodies

Sources for Kernicterus

About this section
4CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
29IUPHAR
30KEGG
35MeSH
36MESH via Orphanet
37MGI
40NCIt
41NDF-RT
44NINDS
45Novoseek
47OMIM
48OMIM via Orphanet
52PubMed
53QIAGEN
59SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
62UMLS
63UMLS via Orphanet