MCID: KWS001
MIFTS: 43

Kwashiorkor

Categories: Metabolic diseases, Skin diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Kwashiorkor

MalaCards integrated aliases for Kwashiorkor:

Name: Kwashiorkor 12 72 41 14 69
Nutritional Oedema with Dyspigmentation of Skin and/or Hair 12
Nutritional Edema with Dyspigmentation of Skin and Hair 12
Kwashiokor 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:13579
ICD10 32 E40
ICD9CM 34 260
MeSH 41 D007732
UMLS 69 C0022806

Summaries for Kwashiorkor

MalaCards based summary : Kwashiorkor, also known as nutritional oedema with dyspigmentation of skin and/or hair, is related to marasmus and ariboflavinosis. An important gene associated with Kwashiorkor is ALB (Albumin), and among its related pathways/superpathways is FOXA2 and FOXA3 transcription factor networks. The drugs Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include skin, liver and testes.

Wikipedia : 72 Kwashiorkor is a form of severe protein–energy malnutrition characterized by edema, irritability,... more...

Related Diseases for Kwashiorkor

Diseases related to Kwashiorkor via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 164)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 marasmus 31.6 ALB SHBG TF TTR
2 ariboflavinosis 29.7 ALB TF
3 pulmonary embolism 29.7 ALB F2
4 hepatitis 29.7 F2 GPT SLC17A5
5 peritonitis 29.6 ALB F2
6 keratomalacia 29.6 TF TTR
7 pure red-cell aplasia 29.5 ALB TF
8 protein-energy malnutrition 29.2 ALB GPT TF TTR
9 liver disease 28.2 ALB F2 GPT SLC17A5 TF
10 antipyrine metabolism 10.4 ALB F2
11 non-a-e hepatitis 10.4 ALB F2
12 fournier gangrene 10.4 ALB F2
13 abdominal tuberculosis 10.4 ALB F2
14 splenic disease 10.4 ALB F2
15 hepatoportal sclerosis 10.4 F2 GPT
16 esophageal varix 10.4 ALB F2
17 ascending cholangitis 10.3 ALB F2
18 familial lcat deficiency 10.3 ALB LCAT
19 hypersplenism 10.3 ALB F2
20 hepatitis d 10.3 F2 GPT
21 hepatorenal syndrome 10.3 ALB F2
22 hepatic vascular disease 10.3 ALB F2
23 dysfibrinogenemia 10.3 ALB F2
24 paramyloidosis 10.3 ALB TTR
25 vein disease 10.3 ALB F2
26 salmonellosis 10.3 ALB GPT
27 intermittent claudication 10.3 ALB F2
28 burns 10.3 ALB TTR
29 decubitus ulcer 10.3 ALB TTR
30 biliary tract disease 10.3 ALB F2
31 cholelithiasis 10.3 ALB GPT
32 aleutian mink disease 10.3 ALB TTR
33 dengue hemorrhagic fever 10.3 ALB F2
34 chronic ulcer of skin 10.3 ALB TTR
35 arcus corneae 10.3 ALB LCAT
36 hyperthyroxinemia 10.3 ALB TTR
37 fetal erythroblastosis 10.3 ALB SHBG
38 autonomic nervous system disease 10.3 ALB TTR
39 homocysteinemia 10.2 ALB F2
40 endocarditis 10.2 ALB F2
41 biliary atresia 10.2 ALB GPT
42 lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency 10.2 ALB LCAT
43 demyelinating polyneuropathy 10.2 ALB TTR
44 paraquat poisoning 10.2 GPT SLC17A5
45 pyridoxine deficiency 10.2 GPT SLC17A5
46 amyloidosis aa 10.2 LCAT TTR
47 tangier disease 10.2 ALB LCAT
48 schistosomiasis 10.2 ALB F2
49 legionnaires' disease 10.2 ALB SLC17A5
50 thrombophilia due to activated protein c resistance 10.2 F2 SHBG

Comorbidity relations with Kwashiorkor via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show all 14)


Active Peptic Ulcer Disease Acute Cystitis
Acute Kidney Failure Chronic Kidney Failure
Decubitus Ulcer Deficiency Anemia
Familial Atrial Fibrillation Heart Disease
Iron Deficiency Anemia Paralytic Ileus
Protein-Energy Malnutrition Respiratory Failure
Schizophreniform Disorder Swallowing Disorders

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Kwashiorkor:



Diseases related to Kwashiorkor

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Kwashiorkor

Drugs & Therapeutics for Kwashiorkor

Drugs for Kwashiorkor (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 44)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Sulfamethoxazole Approved Phase 3 723-46-6 5329
2
Trimethoprim Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 738-70-5 5578
3
Lactulose Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 4618-18-2 11333
4
Rifaximin Approved, Investigational Phase 2, Phase 3 80621-81-4 6436173
5 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 3,Phase 2
6 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 3
7 Antimalarials Phase 3
8 Antiparasitic Agents Phase 3
9 Antiprotozoal Agents Phase 3
10 Renal Agents Phase 3
11 Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination Phase 3
12 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 2, Phase 3
13 diuretics Phase 2, Phase 3
14 Hormone Antagonists Phase 2, Phase 3
15 Hormones Phase 2, Phase 3
16 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 2, Phase 3
17 Liver Extracts Phase 2, Phase 3
18
Lamivudine Approved, Investigational 134678-17-4 60825
19
Nevirapine Approved 129618-40-2 4463
20
Zidovudine Approved 30516-87-1 35370
21
Amoxicillin Approved, Vet_approved 26787-78-0 33613 2171
22
Cefdinir Approved 91832-40-5 6915944
23
Hydrocortisone Approved, Vet_approved 50-23-7 657311 5754
24
Menthol Approved 2216-51-5 16666
25 Antioxidants
26 Anti-HIV Agents
27 Antimetabolites
28 Anti-Retroviral Agents
29 Antiviral Agents
30 Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers
31 Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
32 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
33 Micronutrients
34 Trace Elements
35 Cortisol succinate
36 Hydrocortisone 17-butyrate 21-propionate
37 Hydrocortisone acetate
38 Anesthetics
39 Vitamins
40 Whey Protein Nutraceutical
41 alanine Nutraceutical
42 cysteine Nutraceutical
43 leucine Nutraceutical
44 Soy Bean Nutraceutical

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 28)

# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Reformulated F75 Milk to Treat Severe Acute Malnutrition Completed NCT02246296 Phase 2, Phase 3
2 Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis in Severely Malnourished Children Completed NCT00934492 Phase 3 Cotrimoxazole dispersible tablet;Placebo dispersible tablet
3 Growth Hormone Therapy in Liver Cirrhosis Recruiting NCT03420144 Phase 2, Phase 3 Standard Medical Therapy;Growth Hormone
4 Intra Hemodialytic Oral Protein and Exercise (IHOPE) Unknown status NCT01234441
5 Aromatic Amino Acid Metabolism in the Pathogenesis of Kwashiorkor Completed NCT00429351 Early Phase 1
6 Study of Antioxidants and Oxidants in Malnourished Children Completed NCT00069134
7 Effect of Protein Supplementation After Bariatric Surgery Completed NCT02001636 Resource Instant Protein 88;Resource Maltodextrin
8 Developmental Adaptation to an Obesogenic Environment Completed NCT02257593
9 Safety and Metabolic Study of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in Malnourished Children With HIV Completed NCT01529125 zidovudine, lamivudine, nevirapine
10 Pilot Study of PUFA-optimized RUTF for Severe Acute Malnutrition Completed NCT02053857 Amoxicillin
11 Effectiveness of Oral Antibiotics in the Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition Completed NCT01000298 Placebo;Amoxicillin;Cefdinir
12 Increase Protein Intake of Older Meal Service Clients With Readymade Protein-rich Meals and Foods Completed NCT03032237
13 Mothers Understand And Can do it - Mid Upper Arm Circumference Screening for Malnutrition Performed by Mothers Completed NCT01790815
14 Laparoscopic Revision From Biliopancreatic Diversion to Gastric Bypass Completed NCT01041456
15 Effect of a Complementary Food Supplement on Growth and Morbidity of Ghanaian Infants Completed NCT03181178
16 Characterizing the Gut Microbiota Alteration Associated With Severe Acute Malnutrition Completed NCT02413905
17 Laparoscopic Revision of Jejunoileal Bypass to Gastric Bypass Completed NCT01040533
18 Formative Research Study to Address Protein Intake in Children and Analysis of Breast Milk Nutrient Content in Mothers Recruiting NCT03140696
19 Protein Supplementation Impact On Body Muscle Mass And Fat Mass In Qataris Post Bariatric Surgery, Randomized Controlled Trials (Rct) Recruiting NCT03147456
20 Testing the Developmental Origins Hypothesis Recruiting NCT01545492
21 Single Anastomosis Duodeno-ileal Bypass With Sleeve Gastrectomy (SADI-S): A Prospective Cohort Study Recruiting NCT02792166
22 Nutritional Rehabilitation in Senegalese HIV-infected Children and Adolescents Active, not recruiting NCT03101852
23 Use of Low-level Laser Therapy on Children Aged One to Five Years With Energy-protein Malnutrition Enrolling by invitation NCT03355313
24 Sarcopenia Prevention With a Targeted Exercise and Protein Supplementation Program Not yet recruiting NCT03417531
25 Loop Duodenal Switch Surgery in Morbidly Obese Patients Terminated NCT02671331
26 Bariatric Surgery for ESRD Patients vs Control Terminated NCT00580762
27 Effectiveness of Supplementary Feeding During Infection Among Moderately Malnourished Children Terminated NCT00890695
28 Effectiveness of Oral Albendazole in the Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition Withdrawn NCT01395381 Placebo;Albendazole

Search NIH Clinical Center for Kwashiorkor

Cochrane evidence based reviews: kwashiorkor

Genetic Tests for Kwashiorkor

Anatomical Context for Kwashiorkor

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Kwashiorkor:

38
Skin, Liver, Testes, Breast, Bone, Thyroid, Pancreas

Publications for Kwashiorkor

Articles related to Kwashiorkor:

(show top 50) (show all 573)
# Title Authors Year
1
Genome sequence and description of Anaeromassilibacillus senegalensis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the gut of patient with kwashiorkor. ( 28289546 )
2017
2
Genome sequence and description of<i>Mobilicoccus massiliensis</i>sp. nov. isolated from the stool of a Nigerian boy with kwashiorkor. ( 29158905 )
2017
3
From Kwashiorkor to Edematous Malnutrition. ( 28984257 )
2017
4
A child with kwashiorkor misdiagnosed as atopic dermatitis. ( 28537869 )
2017
5
Anaeromassilibacillus senegalensis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the gut of a child with kwashiorkor. ( 27330815 )
2016
6
Iatrogenic kwashiorkor after distal gastric bypass surgery: the consequences of receiving multinational treatment. ( 26908419 )
2016
7
Kwashiorkor: an unexpected complication to anorexia nervosa. ( 27852657 )
2016
8
Letter to the editor. Defence of my hypothesis that the oedema of kwashiorkor is caused by hypoalbuminaemia. ( 25975279 )
2015
9
Effects of induced-kwashiorkor on salivary parameters in Wistar rats. ( 26937525 )
2015
10
Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Kenyan Leafy Green Vegetables, Wild Fruits, and Medicinal Plants with Potential Relevance for Kwashiorkor. ( 26236384 )
2015
11
Depression of neutrophil function followed by severe infection in a child with Marasmic Kwashiorkor. ( 26076789 )
2015
12
Nutritional and other types of oedema, albumin, complex carbohydrates and the interstitium - a response to Malcolm Coulthard's hypothesis: Oedema in kwashiorkor is caused by hypo-albuminaemia. ( 25844980 )
2015
13
A kwashiorkor case due to the use of an exclusive rice milk diet to treat atopic dermatitis. ( 26293684 )
2015
14
Iatrogenic kwashiorkor developing after bypass surgery. ( 23659833 )
2014
15
Dermatitis and dangerous diets: a case of kwashiorkor. ( 24807070 )
2014
16
Flaky paint dermatosis. Kwashiorkor. ( 24285001 )
2014
17
Dermatosis in children with oedematous malnutrition (Kwashiorkor): a review of the literature. ( 24661336 )
2014
18
Secondary Kwashiorkor: A Rare Complication of Gastric Bypass Surgery. ( 25498166 )
2014
19
Diet and kwashiorkor: a prospective study from rural DR Congo. ( 24765584 )
2014
20
Hypothesis: oedema in kwashiorkor is caused by hypoalbuminaemia. ( 25223408 )
2014
21
Acute inpatient presentation of kwashiorkor: not just a diagnosis of the developing world. ( 22471276 )
2013
22
Decreased metabolism of 13C-caffeine via hepatic CYP1A2 in marasmus and kwashiorkor based on breath test. ( 24114907 )
2013
23
Kwashiorkor and the gut microbiota. ( 23635056 )
2013
24
Gut microbiomes of Malawian twin pairs discordant for kwashiorkor. ( 23363771 )
2013
25
Improvised peritoneal dialysis in an 18-month-old child with severe acute malnutrition (kwashiorkor) and acute kidney injury: a case report. ( 23809461 )
2013
26
Kwashiorkor in India. 1955. ( 23045746 )
2012
27
Kwashiorkor and marasmus are both associated with impaired glucose clearance related to pancreatic I^-cell dysfunction. ( 22386944 )
2012
28
Prenatal factors contribute to the emergence of kwashiorkor or marasmus in severe undernutrition: evidence for the predictive adaptation model. ( 22558267 )
2012
29
Kwashiorkor. ( 23045745 )
2012
30
Cutaneous manifestations of kwashiorkor: a case report of an adult man after abdominal surgery. ( 22281907 )
2011
31
Using of WHO guidelines for the management of severe malnutrition to cases of marasmus and kwashiorkor in a Colombia children's hospital. ( 22072341 )
2011
32
Iatrogenic Kwashiorkor in three infants on a diet of rice beverages. ( 22122793 )
2011
33
Kwashiorkor from a severe dietary restriction in an 8-month infant in suburban Detroit, Michigan: case report and review of the literature. ( 20534082 )
2010
34
Hartnup disease masked by kwashiorkor. ( 20824986 )
2010
35
Cutaneous presentation of kwashiorkor due to infantile Crohn's disease. ( 19352699 )
2010
36
Supplementary vitamin E, selenium, cysteine and riboflavin for preventing kwashiorkor in preschool children in developing countries. ( 20393967 )
2010
37
INCAP studies of kwashiorkor and marasmus. ( 20461902 )
2010
38
Cranial magnetic resonance imaging findings in kwashiorkor. ( 20128668 )
2010
39
Hypo-phosphataemia in children under five years with kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor. ( 20499782 )
2009
40
Reduced production of sulfated glycosaminoglycans occurs in Zambian children with kwashiorkor but not marasmus. ( 19116330 )
2009
41
Kwashiorkor: more hypothesis testing is needed to understand the aetiology of oedema. ( 20345018 )
2009
42
75 years of Kwashiorkor in Africa. ( 20345016 )
2009
43
Kwashiorkor and severe acute malnutrition in childhood. ( 18502289 )
2008
44
Kwashiorkor and severe acute malnutrition in childhood. ( 18502290 )
2008
45
Kwashiorkor and an acrodermatitis enteropathica-like eruption after a distal gastric bypass surgical procedure. ( 17599860 )
2007
46
Kwashiorkor--is it a dying disease? ( 17378286 )
2007
47
A prospective assessment of food and nutrient intake in a population of Malawian children at risk for kwashiorkor. ( 17414147 )
2007
48
From kwashiorkor to nephrotic edema. ( 17198923 )
2007
49
Achalasia cardia presenting with Marasmic Kwashiorkor. ( 16741337 )
2006
50
Lipid kinetic differences between children with kwashiorkor and those with marasmus. ( 16762938 )
2006

Variations for Kwashiorkor

Expression for Kwashiorkor

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Kwashiorkor.

Pathways for Kwashiorkor

Pathways related to Kwashiorkor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 10.44 ALB F2 TTR

GO Terms for Kwashiorkor

Cellular components related to Kwashiorkor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.63 ALB F2 LCAT SHBG TF TTR
2 endoplasmic reticulum lumen GO:0005788 9.5 ALB F2 TF
3 blood microparticle GO:0072562 9.43 ALB F2 TF
4 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.43 ALB F2 GPT LCAT TF TTR
5 extracellular exosome GO:0070062 9.17 ALB F2 GPT LCAT SHBG TF

Biological processes related to Kwashiorkor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 retina homeostasis GO:0001895 9.16 ALB TF
2 high-density lipoprotein particle remodeling GO:0034375 8.96 ALB LCAT
3 cellular protein metabolic process GO:0044267 8.92 ALB F2 TF TTR

Molecular functions related to Kwashiorkor according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 pyridoxal phosphate binding GO:0030170 8.62 ALB GPT

Sources for Kwashiorkor

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HGMD
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 MedGen
41 MeSH
42 MESH via Orphanet
43 MGI
45 NCI
46 NCIt
47 NDF-RT
50 NINDS
51 Novoseek
53 OMIM
54 OMIM via Orphanet
58 PubMed
60 QIAGEN
65 SNOMED-CT via HPO
66 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67 TGDB
68 Tocris
69 UMLS
70 UMLS via Orphanet
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