MCID: LRN004
MIFTS: 59

Laron Dwarfism malady

Genetic diseases, Rare diseases, Endocrine diseases categories

Aliases & Classifications for Laron Dwarfism

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Sources:
49OMIM, 10Disease Ontology, 11diseasecard, 45NIH Rare Diseases, 22GeneTests, 23Genetics Home Reference, 47Novoseek, 12DISEASES, 51Orphanet, 24GTR, 65UMLS, 36MeSH, 67UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 59SNOMED-CT, 66UMLS via Orphanet, 28ICD10 via Orphanet, 37MESH via Orphanet, 34MedGen
See all sources

Aliases & Descriptions for Laron Dwarfism:

Name: Laron Dwarfism 49 11 45 23 67
Laron Syndrome 10 45 22 23 47 12 51 65 36 67
Growth Hormone Receptor Deficiency 45 23 51 67
Pituitary Dwarfism Ii 45 22 23 67
Laron-Type Isolated Somatotropin Defect 10 23 24
Growth Hormone Insensitivity Syndrome 45 23 67
Primary Growth Hormone Resistance 45 23 51
Primary Growth Hormone Insensitivity 45 51
Laron Type Pituitary Dwarfism I 45 67
Primary Gh Resistance 23 51
Laron-Type Dwarfism 23 51
 
Short Stature Due to Growth Hormone Resistance 51
Complete Growth Hormone Insensitivity 51
Growth Hormone Receptor Defect 23
Laron-Type Pituitary Dwarfism 23
Primary Gh Insensitivity 51
Laron-Type Short Stature 23
Severe Gh Insensitivity 23
Gh Receptor Deficiency 51
Gh-R Deficiency 23
Lars 67


Classifications:



Characteristics (Orphanet epidemiological data):

51
laron syndrome:
Inheritance: Autosomal recessive; Prevalence: 1-9/1000000 (Europe); Age of onset: Infancy,Neonatal; Age of death: normal life expectancy


External Ids:

OMIM49 262500
Disease Ontology10 DOID:9521
MeSH36 D046150
Orphanet51 633
SNOMED-CT59 38196001
UMLS via Orphanet66 C0271568
ICD10 via Orphanet28 E34.3
MESH via Orphanet37 D046150
MedGen34 C0271568

Summaries for Laron Dwarfism

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OMIM:49 Laron syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by marked short stature that results from failure to... (262500) more...

MalaCards based summary: Laron Dwarfism, also known as laron syndrome, is related to obesity and pituitary carcinoma, and has symptoms including micrognathia, high forehead and delayed eruption of teeth. An important gene associated with Laron Dwarfism is GHR (Growth Hormone Receptor), and among its related pathways are Cardiac Progenitor Differentiation and Cell adhesion_ECM remodeling. Affiliated tissues include pituitary, brain and bone, and related mouse phenotypes are muscle and renal/urinary system.

Genetics Home Reference:23 Laron syndrome is a rare form of short stature that results from the body's inability to use growth hormone, a substance produced by the brain's pituitary gland that helps promote growth. Affected individuals are close to normal size at birth, but they experience slow growth from early childhood that results in very short stature. If the condition is not treated, adult males typically reach a maximum height of about 4.5 feet; adult females may be just over 4 feet tall.

NIH Rare Diseases:45 Laron syndrome is a condition that occurs when the body is unable to utilize growth hormone. it is primarily characterized by short stature. other signs and symptoms vary but may include reduced muscle strength and endurance; hypoglycemia in infancy; delayed puberty; short limbs (arms and legs); and obesity. it is often caused by changes (mutations) in the ghr gene and is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. treatment is focused on improving growth and generally includes injections of insulin-like growth factor 1 (igf-1). last updated: 9/30/2015

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:67 Laron syndrome: A severe form of growth hormone insensitivity characterized by growth impairment, short stature, dysfunctional growth hormone receptor, and failure to generate insulin-like growth factor I in response to growth hormone.

Related Diseases for Laron Dwarfism

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Diseases related to Laron Dwarfism via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 353)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1obesity29.9GH1, GHR, IGF1, IGF2, IGFBP3
2pituitary carcinoma29.7GH1, IGF1
3dwarfism10.9
4acromegaly10.7
5nervous system cancer10.6
6pituitary gland disease10.5
7hypothalamic disease10.5
8hyperpituitarism10.5
9neuroendocrine tumor10.5
10growth hormone insensitivity with immunodeficiency10.5
11carcinoid syndrome10.5
12neuroendocrine carcinoma10.5
13apudoma10.5
14goblet cell carcinoid10.5
15ewing sarcoma10.4
16neuroectodermal tumor10.4
17medulloepithelioma10.4
18adenoma10.4
19embryonal cancer10.4
20germ cell and embryonal cancer10.4
21germ cell cancer10.4
22central nervous system cancer10.4
23pituitary tumors10.4
24gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumor10.4
25hypothalamic neoplasm10.4
26adenocarcinoma10.4
27brain cancer10.4
28gastrointestinal carcinoma10.4
29growth hormone deficiency10.3
30laron syndrome with immunodeficiency10.3
31endocrine gland cancer10.3
32gastrointestinal adenoma10.3
33bone cancer10.3
34pituitary adenoma10.3
35isolated growth hormone deficiency10.3
36pancreatic cancer10.2
37diarrhea10.2
38gastrointestinal system cancer10.2
39syringomyelia10.2
40neurofibromatosis10.2
41chiari malformation10.2
42mucolipidosis ii alpha/beta10.2
43pancreatic cancer 210.2
44pancreas adenocarcinoma10.2
45insulin-like growth factor i10.2
46thyroid cancer10.2
47thyroiditis10.2
48gigantism10.2
49bell's palsy10.2
50short stature due to partial ghr deficiency10.2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Laron Dwarfism:



Diseases related to laron dwarfism

Symptoms for Laron Dwarfism

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Symptoms by clinical synopsis from OMIM:

262500

Clinical features from OMIM:

262500

Symptoms:

 51 (show all 31)
  • high forehead
  • facial dysmorphism
  • micrognathia/retrognathia/micrognathism/retrognathism
  • nasal atrophy/hypoplasia/arhinia/rudimentary nose
  • complete/partial microdontia
  • anodontia/oligodontia/hypodontia
  • delayed dentition/eruption of teeth/lack of eruption of teeth
  • anomalies of the endocrine glands
  • delayed bone age
  • autosomal recessive inheritance
  • truncal obesity
  • short stature/dwarfism/nanism
  • flat supraorbital ridge
  • elbow anomalies(excluding luxation)
  • short hand/brachydactyly
  • short foot/brachydactyly of toes
  • micropenis/small penis/agenesis
  • hypoglycemia
  • late puberty/hypogonadism/hypogenitalism
  • motor deficit/trouble
  • muscle hypotrophy/atrophy/dystrophy/agenesis/amyotrophy
  • skull/cranial anomalies
  • blue sclerae
  • flattened nose
  • hypohidrosis/decreased sweating/thermoregulation disorder/heat intolerance
  • hairy patch
  • abnormal cry/voice/phonation disorder/nasal speech
  • intellectual deficit/mental/psychomotor retardation/learning disability
  • osteoarthritis
  • hyperlipidemia/hypercholesterolemia/hypertriglyceridemia
  • premature ageing

HPO human phenotypes related to Laron Dwarfism:

(show all 50)
id Description Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 micrognathia hallmark (90%) HP:0000347
2 high forehead hallmark (90%) HP:0000348
3 delayed eruption of teeth hallmark (90%) HP:0000684
4 microdontia hallmark (90%) HP:0000691
5 truncal obesity hallmark (90%) HP:0001956
6 abnormal facial shape hallmark (90%) HP:0001999
7 delayed skeletal maturation hallmark (90%) HP:0002750
8 reduced number of teeth hallmark (90%) HP:0009804
9 aplasia/hypoplasia involving the nose hallmark (90%) HP:0009924
10 everted lower lip vermilion hallmark (90%) HP:0000232
11 microcephaly hallmark (90%) HP:0000252
12 insulin resistance hallmark (90%) HP:0000855
13 abnormality of lipid metabolism hallmark (90%) HP:0003119
14 short stature hallmark (90%) HP:0004322
15 brachydactyly syndrome typical (50%) HP:0001156
16 short toe typical (50%) HP:0001831
17 hypoglycemia typical (50%) HP:0001943
18 skeletal muscle atrophy typical (50%) HP:0003202
19 hypoplasia of penis typical (50%) HP:0008736
20 abnormality of the elbow typical (50%) HP:0009811
21 underdeveloped supraorbital ridges typical (50%) HP:0009891
22 delayed eruption of teeth typical (50%) HP:0000684
23 fine hair typical (50%) HP:0002213
24 delayed skeletal maturation typical (50%) HP:0002750
25 type ii diabetes mellitus typical (50%) HP:0005978
26 depressed nasal ridge occasional (7.5%) HP:0000457
27 blue sclerae occasional (7.5%) HP:0000592
28 hypohidrosis occasional (7.5%) HP:0000966
29 hypertrichosis occasional (7.5%) HP:0000998
30 abnormality of the voice occasional (7.5%) HP:0001608
31 osteoarthritis occasional (7.5%) HP:0002758
32 abnormality of lipid metabolism occasional (7.5%) HP:0003119
33 prematurely aged appearance occasional (7.5%) HP:0007495
34 cognitive impairment occasional (7.5%) HP:0100543
35 abnormality of the fontanelles or cranial sutures occasional (7.5%) HP:0000235
36 hearing impairment occasional (7.5%) HP:0000365
37 diabetes insipidus occasional (7.5%) HP:0000873
38 abnormality of the nail occasional (7.5%) HP:0001597
39 truncal obesity occasional (7.5%) HP:0001956
40 abnormality of immune system physiology occasional (7.5%) HP:0010978
41 autosomal recessive inheritance HP:0000007
42 small face HP:0000274
43 blue sclerae HP:0000592
44 abnormal joint morphology HP:0001367
45 high pitched voice HP:0001620
46 abnormality of metabolism/homeostasis HP:0001939
47 delayed skeletal maturation HP:0002750
48 short long bone HP:0003026
49 severe short stature HP:0003510
50 delayed menarche HP:0012569

Drugs & Therapeutics for Laron Dwarfism

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Drugs for Laron Dwarfism (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

idNameStatusPhaseClinical TrialsCas NumberPubChem Id
1Insulin, Globin ZincPhase 2, Phase 34069
2insulinPhase 2, Phase 34069

Interventional clinical trials:

idNameStatusNCT IDPhase
1IGF-I/IGFBP-3 Therapy in Children and Adolescents With Growth Hormone Insenitivity Syndrome (GHIS) Such as Laron SyndromeCompletedNCT00368173Phase 2, Phase 3
2Long-Term Treatment With rhIGF-1 in GHISCompletedNCT00571727Phase 2, Phase 3
3Role of Growth Hormone Antagonism in Modulating Insulin Sensitivity in Subjects With Pre-diabetesActive, not recruitingNCT02023918Phase 2

Search NIH Clinical Center for Laron Dwarfism


Cochrane evidence based reviews: Laron Syndrome

Genetic Tests for Laron Dwarfism

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Genetic tests related to Laron Dwarfism:

id Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Pituitary Dwarfism Ii22 GHR
2 Laron-Type Isolated Somatotropin Defect24

Anatomical Context for Laron Dwarfism

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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Laron Dwarfism:

33
Pituitary, Brain, Bone, Skeletal muscle, Thyroid

Animal Models for Laron Dwarfism or affiliated genes

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MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Laron Dwarfism:

38
idDescriptionMGI Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MP:00053698.7GHR, IGF1, IGF2, IGFBP3
2MP:00053678.4GHR, IGF1, IGF2, STAT5B
3MP:00053758.0GH1, GHR, IGF1, IGFBP3, STAT5B
4MP:00053707.8GH1, GHR, IGF2, IGFBP3, STAT5B
5MP:00053897.3GH1, GHR, IGF1, IGF2, STAT5B
6MP:00053787.2GH1, GHR, IGF1, IGF2, IGFBP3, STAT5B
7MP:00053797.1GH1, GHR, IGF1, IGF2, IGFBP3, STAT5B
8MP:00053767.0GH1, GHR, IGF1, IGF2, IGFBP3, STAT5B

Publications for Laron Dwarfism

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Articles related to Laron Dwarfism:

(show all 21)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Laron dwarfism and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the Hnf-1alpha knockout mouse. (9566924)
1998
2
Growth hormone insensitivity syndrome (Laron dwarfism). (9554471)
1998
3
Radiographic abnormalities in Laron dwarfism. (7800446)
1994
4
Laron dwarfism in the Arabian Gulf: a report of a sibship. (7505559)
1993
5
Lack of hormone binding in COS-7 cells expressing a mutated growth hormone receptor found in Laron dwarfism. (8450064)
1993
6
Laron dwarfism. (1670793)
1991
7
Molecular basis of Laron dwarfism. (18411163)
1991
8
Recurrent nonsense mutations in the growth hormone receptor from patients with Laron dwarfism. (1999489)
1991
9
Effects of the infusion of insulin-like growth factor I in a child with growth hormone insensitivity syndrome (Laron dwarfism). (2023608)
1991
10
Correction and withdrawal of conclusion--a child with phenotypic Laron dwarfism and normal somatomedin levels. (2288600)
1990
11
Growth hormone-receptor gene in Laron dwarfism. (2308623)
1990
12
A child with phenotypic Laron dwarfism and normal somatomedin levels. (2913494)
1989
13
Laron dwarfism and mutations of the growth hormone-receptor gene. (2779634)
1989
14
A child with phenotypic Laron dwarfism and normal somatomedin levels. (2725626)
1989
15
The molecular biology of Laron dwarfism and medullary thyroid cancer. (2571085)
1989
16
Laron dwarfism: cellular unresponsiveness to GH demonstrated on cultured lymphocytes by a cytochemical method. (3169682)
1988
17
Absence of serum growth hormone binding protein in patients with growth hormone receptor deficiency (Laron dwarfism). (3474620)
1987
18
Pathogenesis of Laron dwarfism. (7453788)
1981
19
Peripheral unresponsiveness to human growth hormone in Laron dwarfism. (6106895)
1980
20
Laron dwarfism: growth and immunoreactive insulin following treatment with human growth hormone. (1107504)
1976
21
Fractionation studies on plasma of normals and patients with Laron dwarfism and hypopituitary gigantism. (4762432)
1973

Variations for Laron Dwarfism

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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot genetic disease variations for Laron Dwarfism:

67 (show all 18)
id Symbol AA change Variation ID SNP ID
1GHRp.Arg89LysVAR_002709
2GHRp.Phe114SerVAR_002710
3GHRp.Val143AlaVAR_002711
4GHRp.Val162AspVAR_002712
5GHRp.Asp170HisVAR_002713
6GHRp.Arg179CysVAR_002714rs121909362
7GHRp.Arg229GlyVAR_002715
8GHRp.Cys440PheVAR_013939rs6182
9GHRp.Cys56SerVAR_018426
10GHRp.Ser58LeuVAR_018427
11GHRp.Trp68ArgVAR_018428
12GHRp.Pro149GlnVAR_018429
13GHRp.Ile171ThrVAR_018431
14GHRp.Gln172ProVAR_018432
15GHRp.Val173GlyVAR_018433
16GHRp.Tyr226CysVAR_018434
17GHRp.Ser244IleVAR_018435
18GHRp.Asp262AsnVAR_018436

Clinvar genetic disease variations for Laron Dwarfism:

5 (show all 21)
id Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1GHRGHR, EX4,6DELdeletionPathogenic
2GHRNM_000163.4(GHR): c.341T> C (p.Phe114Ser)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs121909357GRCh37Chr 5, 42695093: 42695093
3GHRNM_000163.4(GHR): c.181C> T (p.Arg61Ter)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs121909358GRCh37Chr 5, 42689036: 42689036
4GHRNM_000163.4(GHR): c.168C> A (p.Cys56Ter)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs121909359GRCh37Chr 5, 42689023: 42689023
5GHRNM_000163.4(GHR): c.594A> G (p.Glu198=)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs121909360GRCh37Chr 5, 42700080: 42700080
6GHRNM_000163.4(GHR): c.703C> T (p.Arg235Ter)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs121909363GRCh37Chr 5, 42711393: 42711393
7GHRGHR, IVS4DS, G-A, +1single nucleotide variantPathogenic
8GHRGHR, 2-BP DEL, FS51TERdeletionPathogenic
9GHRNM_000163.4(GHR): c.619-1G> Tsingle nucleotide variantPathogenicrs730880281GRCh38Chr 5, 42711206: 42711206
10GHRGHR, 2-BP DEL, FS234TERdeletionPathogenic
11GHRNM_000163.4(GHR): c.515A> C (p.Gln172Pro)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs121909368GRCh37Chr 5, 42700001: 42700001
12GHRNM_000163.4(GHR): c.518T> G (p.Val173Gly)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs121909369GRCh37Chr 5, 42700004: 42700004
13GHRNM_000163.4(GHR): c.508G> C (p.Asp170His)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs121909366GRCh37Chr 5, 42699994: 42699994
14GHRNM_000163.4(GHR): c.512T> C (p.Ile171Thr)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs121909367GRCh37Chr 5, 42699998: 42699998
15GHRGHR, PSEUDOEXON(-1)A-Gsingle nucleotide variantPathogenic
16GHRGHR, 22-BP DELdeletionPathogenic
17GHRNM_000163.4(GHR): c.102G> A (p.Trp34Ter)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs121909370GRCh37Chr 5, 42629171: 42629171
18GHRNM_000163.4(GHR): c.303C> A (p.Cys101Ter)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs121909371GRCh37Chr 5, 42695055: 42695055
19GHRGHR, 1-BP DEL, 1776GdeletionPathogenic
20GHRNM_000163.4(GHR): c.335G> C (p.Cys112Ser)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs121909372GRCh37Chr 5, 42695087: 42695087
21GHRNM_000163.4(GHR): c.504T> G (p.His168Gln)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs121909373GRCh37Chr 5, 42699990: 42699990

Expression for genes affiliated with Laron Dwarfism

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Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Laron Dwarfism.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Laron Dwarfism

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Pathways related to Laron Dwarfism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 16)
idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
19.5IGF1, IGF2
29.5IGF1, IGF2
3
Show member pathways
9.5IGF1, IGF2
49.0GH1, GHR, IGF1
5
Show member pathways
9.0IGF1, IGF2, IGFBP3
69.0IGF1, IGF2, IGFBP3
7
Show member pathways
8.9GH1, IGF1, IGF2
88.6GH1, GHR, STAT5B
9
Show member pathways
8.6GH1, GHR, STAT5B
10
Show member pathways
8.6GH1, GHR, STAT5B
118.6GH1, IGF1, STAT5B
12
Show member pathways
8.5GH1, GHR, IGF1, IGFBP3
13
Show member pathways
8.1GH1, IGF1, IGF2, STAT5B
147.6GH1, GHR, IGF1, IGF2, STAT5B
15
Show member pathways
7.6GH1, GHR, IGF1, IGF2, STAT5B
16
Show member pathways
7.6GH1, GHR, IGF1, IGF2, STAT5B

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Laron Dwarfism

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Cellular components related to Laron Dwarfism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1insulin-like growth factor binding protein complexGO:001694210.2IGF1, IGFBP3
2insulin-like growth factor ternary complexGO:004256710.2IGF1, IGFBP3
3platelet alpha granule lumenGO:003109310.1IGF1, IGF2
4extracellular spaceGO:00056157.9GH1, GHR, IGF1, IGF2, IGFBP3
5extracellular regionGO:00055767.6GH1, GHR, IGF1, IGF2, IGFBP3

Biological processes related to Laron Dwarfism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 33)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathwayGO:004800910.2GHR, IGF1
2positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic processGO:004572510.1IGF1, IGF2
3exocrine pancreas developmentGO:003101710.1IGF1, IGF2
4growth hormone receptor signaling pathwayGO:006039610.0GH1, GHR
5positive regulation of activated T cell proliferationGO:00421049.9IGF1, IGF2
6allantoin metabolic processGO:00002559.9GHR, STAT5B
7creatinine metabolic processGO:00464499.9GHR, STAT5B
8platelet degranulationGO:00025769.9IGF1, IGF2
9taurine metabolic processGO:00195309.9GHR, STAT5B
10isoleucine metabolic processGO:00065499.9GHR, STAT5B
11valine metabolic processGO:00065739.9GHR, STAT5B
12citrate metabolic processGO:00061019.9GHR, STAT5B
13positive regulation of protein kinase B signalingGO:00518979.8IGF1, IGF2
14oxaloacetate metabolic processGO:00061079.8GHR, STAT5B
15succinate metabolic processGO:00061059.8GHR, STAT5B
16positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signalingGO:00140689.8GH1, IGF1
17positive regulation of multicellular organism growthGO:00400189.7GH1, GHR
18positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascadeGO:00464279.7GH1, GHR
192-oxoglutarate metabolic processGO:00061039.7GHR, STAT5B
20positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3 proteinGO:00425179.7GH1, GHR
21creatine metabolic processGO:00066009.6GHR, STAT5B
22fatty acid metabolic processGO:00066319.6GHR, STAT5B
23positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat5 proteinGO:00425239.6GH1, GHR, IGF1
24cellular response to hormone stimulusGO:00328709.5GHR, STAT5B
25positive regulation of mitotic nuclear divisionGO:00458409.5IGF1, IGF2
26positive regulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathwayGO:00435689.5GH1, IGF1, IGFBP3
27positive regulation of MAPK cascadeGO:00434109.4IGF1, IGF2, IGFBP3
28JAK-STAT cascade involved in growth hormone signaling pathwayGO:00603979.2GH1, GHR, STAT5B
29JAK-STAT cascadeGO:00072599.2GH1, GHR, STAT5B
30positive regulation of catalytic activityGO:00430859.1IGF2, IGFBP3
31regulation of multicellular organism growthGO:00400148.9GHR, IGF1, STAT5B
32positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylationGO:00507318.6GH1, GHR, IGF1, IGF2
33response to estradiolGO:00323558.5GH1, GHR, STAT5B

Molecular functions related to Laron Dwarfism according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1insulin-like growth factor receptor bindingGO:00051599.9IGF1, IGF2
2insulin receptor bindingGO:00051589.9IGF1, IGF2
3hormone activityGO:00051798.9GH1, IGF1, IGF2
4growth factor activityGO:00080838.9GH1, IGF1, IGF2

Sources for Laron Dwarfism

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2CDC
14ExPASy
15FDA
16FMA
24GTR
25HGMD
26HMDB
27ICD10
28ICD10 via Orphanet
29ICD9CM
30IUPHAR
31KEGG
34MedGen
36MeSH
37MESH via Orphanet
38MGI
41NCI
42NCIt
43NDF-RT
46NINDS
47Novoseek
49OMIM
50OMIM via Orphanet
54PubMed
55QIAGEN
60SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
64Tumor Gene Family of Databases
65UMLS
66UMLS via Orphanet