Aliases & Classifications for Learning Disability

MalaCards integrated aliases for Learning Disability:

Name: Learning Disability 12 14
Learning Disorders 51 40 41 69
Learning Disabilities 50 28 69
Academic Skill Disorder 12
Learning Disorder 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:8927
ICD10 32 F81.9
MeSH 41 D007859
NCIt 46 C89334

Summaries for Learning Disability

MedlinePlus : 40 Learning disorders affect how a person understands, remembers and responds to new information. People with learning disorders may have problems Listening or paying attention Speaking Reading or writing Doing math Although learning disorders occur in very young children, they are usually not recognized until the child reaches school age. About one-third of children who have learning disabilities also have ADHD, which makes it hard to focus. Evaluation and testing by a trained professional can help identify a learning disorder. The next step is special education, which involves helping your child in the areas where he or she needs the most help. Sometimes tutors or speech or language therapists also work with the children. Learning disorders do not go away, but strategies to work around them can make them less of a problem. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

MalaCards based summary : Learning Disability, also known as learning disorders, is related to dyslexia and reading disorder. An important gene associated with Learning Disability is CDH8 (Cadherin 8), and among its related pathways/superpathways is Neuroscience. The drugs Dopamine and Vigabatrin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, testes and bone, and related phenotypes are behavior/neurological and cellular

Disease Ontology : 12 A specific developmental disorder that involves difficulty in scholastic skills such as reading, writing, spelling, reasoning, recalling and/or organizing information resulting from the brain's inability to receive and process information.

NINDS : 50 Learning disabilities are disorders that affect the ability to understand or use spoken or written language, do mathematical calculations, coordinate movements, or direct attention. Although learning disabilities occur in very young children, the disorders are usually not recognized until the child reaches school age. Research shows that 8 to 10 percent of American children under 18 years of age have some type of learning disability.

Wikipedia : 72 Learning disability is a classification that includes several areas of functioning in which a person has... more...

Related Diseases for Learning Disability

Diseases related to Learning Disability via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 192)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 dyslexia 30.3 DNAAF4 KIAA0319 SLITRK2
2 reading disorder 30.0 DNAAF4 KIAA0319 SLITRK2
3 alacrima, achalasia, and mental retardation syndrome 29.6 FMR1 MECP2 PURA
4 specific developmental disorder 29.1 DNAAF4 FMR1 KIAA0319 MECP2 SLITRK2
5 speech and communication disorders 28.9 KIAA0319 MAPT MECP2
6 epilepsy, x-linked, with variable learning disabilities and behavior disorders 12.3
7 sotos syndrome 1 11.7
8 fragile x syndrome 11.3
9 shprintzen omphalocele syndrome 11.3
10 turner syndrome 11.1
11 dyscalculia 11.1
12 giacheti syndrome 11.0
13 feingold syndrome 1 10.9
14 legius syndrome 10.9
15 dysgraphia 10.9
16 velocardiofacial syndrome 10.9
17 robin sequence with cleft mandible and limb anomalies 10.9
18 osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis 10.9
19 pierpont syndrome 10.9
20 glut1 deficiency syndrome 1 10.9
21 xfe progeroid syndrome 10.9
22 perrault syndrome 3 10.9
23 leukoencephalopathy with ataxia 10.9
24 myopathy with extrapyramidal signs 10.9
25 centralopathic epilepsy 10.7
26 coffin-siris syndrome 1 10.7
27 prader-willi syndrome 10.7
28 silver-russell syndrome 10.7
29 shprintzen-goldberg craniosynostosis syndrome 10.7
30 septooptic dysplasia 10.7
31 neural tube defects 10.7
32 microphthalmia, syndromic 3 10.7
33 bloom syndrome 10.7
34 cerebellar hypoplasia 10.7
35 histidinemia 10.7
36 carbamoyl phosphate synthetase i deficiency, hyperammonemia due to 10.7
37 n-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency 10.7
38 lipoid proteinosis of urbach and wiethe 10.7
39 3mc syndrome 3 10.7
40 mucolipidosis iii alpha/beta 10.7
41 3mc syndrome 1 10.7
42 3mc syndrome 2 10.7
43 glutathione synthetase deficiency 10.7
44 mental retardation, x-linked, syndromic 13 10.7
45 adrenoleukodystrophy 10.7
46 hypomelanosis of ito 10.7
47 anemia, sideroblastic, and spinocerebellar ataxia 10.7
48 branchial arch syndrome, x-linked 10.7
49 neuropathy, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa 10.7
50 grange syndrome 10.7

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Learning Disability:



Diseases related to Learning Disability

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Learning Disability

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Learning Disability:

43
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10 NPAS3 CDH8 PHOX2B CLPP CNTF PSAP
2 cellular MP:0005384 9.85 MEIS2 PHOX2B CLPP CNTF PSAP DNAAF4
3 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 9.73 NPAS3 PHOX2B CLPP PSAP DNAAF4 PURA
4 nervous system MP:0003631 9.4 NPAS3 CDH8 PHOX2B PSAP CNTF DNAAF4

Drugs & Therapeutics for Learning Disability

Drugs for Learning Disability (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 101)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Dopamine Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
2
Vigabatrin Approved Phase 4 68506-86-5, 60643-86-9 5665
3
Tiagabine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 115103-54-3 60648
4
Gabapentin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60142-96-3 3446
5
Lamotrigine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 84057-84-1 3878
6
Phenytoin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 57-41-0 1775
7
Carbamazepine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 298-46-4 2554
8
Levodopa Approved Phase 4 59-92-7 6047
9
Phenobarbital Approved, Investigational Phase 4 50-06-6 4763
10
Valproic Acid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 99-66-1 3121
11
Topiramate Approved Phase 4 97240-79-4 5284627
12
Methylphenidate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 20748-11-2, 113-45-1 4158
13
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-24-8 5755
14
Zonisamide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 68291-97-4 5734
15
Acetazolamide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-66-5 1986
16
Felbamate Approved Phase 4 25451-15-4 3331
17
Clonazepam Approved, Illicit Phase 4 1622-61-3 2802
18
Oxcarbazepine Approved Phase 4 28721-07-5 34312
19
Pregabalin Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 148553-50-8 5486971
20
Ethosuximide Approved Phase 4 77-67-8 3291
21
Clobazam Approved, Illicit Phase 4 22316-47-8 2789
22
Nitrazepam Approved Phase 4 146-22-5 4506
23
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 83-43-2 6741
24
Guanfacine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 29110-47-2 3519
25
Amphetamine Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 300-62-9 3007 5826
26
Aripiprazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 129722-12-9 60795
27
Citric Acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 77-92-9 311
28
Caffeine Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 58-08-2 2519
29 Etiracetam Investigational Phase 4 33996-58-6
30 Prednisolone acetate Phase 4
31 Dopamine agonists Phase 4
32 Methylprednisolone acetate Phase 4
33 Methylprednisolone Hemisuccinate Phase 4
34 Central Nervous System Stimulants Phase 4
35 Neuroprotective Agents Phase 4
36 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
37 Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
38 Dopamine Agents Phase 4,Phase 3
39 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 4
40 Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
41 Anticonvulsants Phase 4
42 Prednisolone hemisuccinate Phase 4
43 Prednisolone phosphate Phase 4
44 Protective Agents Phase 4
45 Anti-Obesity Agents Phase 4
46 Autonomic Agents Phase 4
47 Antiparkinson Agents Phase 4
48 adderall Phase 4
49 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 4,Phase 3
50 Adrenergic Agents Phase 4

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 111)

# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Topiramate Treatment for Patients With Epilepsy and Learning Disability : A Prospective Observational Study Unknown status NCT00956696 Phase 4 topiramate
2 Methylphenidate in Healthy Young Adults Unknown status NCT00815841 Phase 4 METHYLPHENIDATE
3 Ketogenic Diet vs.Antiepileptic Drug Treatment in Drug Resistant Epilepsy Unknown status NCT00552526 Phase 4 Antiepileptic drug (AED)
4 Dopaminergic Enhancement of Learning and Memory in Healthy Adults and Patients With Dyslexia Unknown status NCT00111371 Phase 4 Levodopa
5 Aripiprazole and Prolactin Study Completed NCT01085383 Phase 4 Aripiprazole
6 MRI and Neurodevelopment in Preterm Infants Following Administration of High-Dose Caffeine Completed NCT00809055 Phase 4 Caffeine citrate
7 Interventions for Children With Attention and Reading Disorders Completed NCT01133847 Phase 4 Methylphenidate;Mixed Salt Amphetamine;Atomoxetine;Guanfacine
8 Effects of Atomoxetine on Brain Activation During Attention & Reading Tasks in Participants With ADHD & Comorbid Dyslexia Completed NCT00716274 Phase 4 Atomoxetine;Placebo
9 Treatment of ADHD With Atomoxetine in Children & Adolescents With ADHD & Comorbid Dyslexia Completed NCT00607919 Phase 4 Atomoxetine;Placebo
10 Comparison of Atomoxetine and Placebo in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and/or Reading Disorder (RD) Completed NCT00191906 Phase 4 Atomoxetine Hydrochloride;placebo
11 Treatment With Atomoxetine Hydrochloride in Children and Adolescents With ADHD Completed NCT00191048 Phase 4 Atomoxetine
12 Enhancing Self-Understanding and Social Integration of Middle School Students With Learning Disabilities Unknown status NCT00246792 Phase 2, Phase 3
13 Randomized Clinical Trial of Phonological Interventions Unknown status NCT00818428 Phase 2, Phase 3
14 A Prospective Study of Risperdal (Risperidone) for the Treatment of Behavioral Disorder Following Psychological Therapy for Challenging Behavior in Learning Disabled Children Completed NCT00254930 Phase 3 risperidone
15 Effects of Prismatic Spectacle Lenses on Symptoms of Dizziness, Headache and Anxiety as Caused by Vertical Heterophoria Completed NCT00785135 Phase 3
16 Reading Problems in Children Living in Urban Areas Completed NCT00065832 Phase 3
17 Clinical Trial of Efficacy and Safety of Tenoten for Children in the Treatment of Specific Developmental Disorders of Scholastic Skills in Children Recruiting NCT03159104 Phase 3 Tenoten for children;Placebo
18 Working Memory Training in Adults With Substance Abuse and Executive Function Deficits. Unknown status NCT02068261 Phase 2
19 Placebo Controlled Trial of Dextromethorphan in Rett Syndrome Completed NCT01520363 Phase 2 dextromethorphan;placebo
20 A Study of RG1662 in Adults and Adolescents With Down Syndrome (CLEMATIS) Completed NCT02024789 Phase 2 Placebo;RG1662;RG1662
21 Building Complex Language Completed NCT01337232 Phase 1, Phase 2
22 Implementation of Climb Up Program for Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Dyslexia in a School in India Completed NCT01012778 Phase 1, Phase 2
23 My Scrivener® - Measuring Effectiveness and Dose Response in Children Completed NCT00919906 Phase 1, Phase 2
24 Interventions for Reading Disabilities in NF1 Recruiting NCT02964884 Phase 2 Lovastatin;Placebo Oral Tablet
25 Erythropoetin Neuroprotection for Neonatal Cardiac Surgery Active, not recruiting NCT00513240 Phase 1, Phase 2 Erythropoetin;Normal saline
26 Trial to Evaluate the Safety of Lovastatin in Individuals With Neurofibromatosis Type I (NF1) Completed NCT00352599 Phase 1 Lovastatin;Lovastatin;placebo pill
27 Risk and Resilience Factors in Learning Disabilities Population Unknown status NCT01652651
28 Investigating the Clinical and Cost Effectiveness of Lycra Splinting Unknown status NCT02345512
29 Working Memory Training in College Students With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder/Learning Disabilities Unknown status NCT01154686
30 The Additive Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Treatment (CBT) to Conventional Weight Loss Intervention Program for Young Adults With Intellectual Disabilities Unknown status NCT01032369
31 Memantine and Down's Syndrome Unknown status NCT00240760 Memantine Hydrochloride
32 Epidemiological Study for Psychiatric Disorder Among Children and Adolescents Unknown status NCT02707848
33 Effects of Early Intervention for Preterm Children at School Age Unknown status NCT01952093
34 Identification and Comprehension of Focused Stress in a Sentence Among Adults Who Suffered Traumatic Brain Injury Unknown status NCT02499133
35 Picture-based Computerised Assessment and Training of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Skills Unknown status NCT01652963
36 Skills Group for Children With Emotional Dysregulation and Their Parents Unknown status NCT01299740 Not Applicable
37 Group-based Training for Parents of Children With Dyslexia Unknown status NCT02107534 Not Applicable
38 Effects of Music Education for Children With Reading Difficulties Unknown status NCT01388881 Not Applicable
39 Using fMRI to Evaluate Instructional Programs for Children With Developmental Dyslexia Unknown status NCT00068835 Not Applicable
40 Diabetes Screening & Prevention for People With Learning (Intellectual) Disabilities:STOP Diabetes Study Completed NCT02513277
41 Action Medical Research Completed NCT02227381
42 Assessment of a Drama Workshop Program for Immigrant and Refugee Adolescents Completed NCT01426451
43 Comprehensive Program to Improve Reading and Writing Skills in At-Risk and Dyslexic Children Completed NCT00061412
44 Partial Word Knowledge Growth in Children With LLD Completed NCT00547833
45 Effectiveness of a Training Intervention on Mental Health of Parents for Intellectually Disabled Children in Malawi Completed NCT02827396
46 Developmental Dyslexia and Functional Maturation of Auditory Cortex Completed NCT00245804
47 Morphofunctional Imaging and Developmental Dyslexia Completed NCT00254644
48 Cervix Monitor for Elasticity and Length Measurements Completed NCT03199079
49 Evaluation of Biological Biomarkers Diagnostic of Toxoplasmosis Uveitis Completed NCT02843438 Anti-toxoplasmosis treatment;Anti-inflammatory treatments
50 Body Composition, Bone Mineral Density, Insulin Sensitivity and Echocardiographic Measurements in Klinefelter Syndrome Completed NCT00523835

Search NIH Clinical Center for Learning Disability

Cochrane evidence based reviews: learning disorders

Genetic Tests for Learning Disability

Genetic tests related to Learning Disability:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Learning Disabilities 28

Anatomical Context for Learning Disability

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Learning Disability:

38
Brain, Testes, Bone, Eye, Cervix, Cortex, Heart

Publications for Learning Disability

Articles related to Learning Disability:

(show top 50) (show all 645)
# Title Authors Year
1
Specific learning disability in mathematics: a comprehensive review. ( 29441282 )
2018
2
Consensus Statement of the Indian Academy of Pediatrics on Evaluation and Management of Learning Disability. ( 28368273 )
2017
3
Learning Disability Nursing in Secure Settings: working with complexity. ( 28052517 )
2017
4
Efficacy of vision therapy in children with learning disability and associated binocular vision anomalies. ( 28599912 )
2017
5
The underlying structure of visuospatial working memory in children with mathematical learning disability. ( 28833308 )
2017
6
Learning disability nurse numbers heading in the wrong direction. ( 28421932 )
2017
7
Learning disability nurse named RCN Northern Ireland Nurse of the Year. ( 28610512 )
2017
8
Heritage and Stigma. Co-producing and communicating the histories of mental health and learning disability. ( 28559366 )
2017
9
Challenges and pitfalls of antipsychotic prescribing in people with learning disability. ( 28751349 )
2017
10
Agreement Among Traditional and RTI-based Definitions of Reading-Related Learning Disability with Preschool Children. ( 28670102 )
2017
11
Communities in action: developing a dental ambassador training programme for adults with learning disability. ( 28573835 )
2017
12
Learning disability in a son and premature ovarian failure as clinical pointers to identify a premutation on the X chromosome in a female with long-standing tremor. ( 28641937 )
2017
13
Hospital care for people with learning disability. ( 29019740 )
2017
14
Facilitating pragmatic skills through role-play in learners with language learning disability. ( 28828866 )
2017
15
The implementation of the Care Programme Approach for service users with a learning disability. Building Bridges to the same Old Horizons? ( 28493301 )
2017
16
Decline in degree places for learning disability nursing. ( 28421964 )
2017
17
Learning Disability Practice Award. ( 28443438 )
2017
18
Fluoride exposure and reported learning disability diagnosis among Canadian children: Implications for community water fluoridation. ( 28910243 )
2017
19
Evaluating the impact of dyslexia laws on the identification of specific learning disability and dyslexia. ( 29134483 )
2017
20
CitySCaPE: Moving beyond indifference in education for pre-registration nurses about learning disability. ( 28772114 )
2017
21
Involving the public in mental health and learning disability research: Can we, should we, do we? ( 28556251 )
2017
22
Local and global processing in block design tasks in children with dyslexia or nonverbal learning disability. ( 28380399 )
2017
23
C. F. Goodey, Learning Disability and Inclusion Phobia: Past, Present, Future (Oxon, and New York: Routledge, 2016), pp. viii, 178, AL79.00, hardback, AL25.49 kindle, ISBN: 978-0-415-82200-8 (hbk) and 978-0-203-55665-8 (ebk). ( 27998342 )
2017
24
Care farms as a space of wellbeing for people with a learning disability in the United Kingdom. ( 29073482 )
2017
25
Half of patients with learning disability miss out on annual GP health check. ( 28389424 )
2017
26
Identifying people with a learning disability: an advanced search for general practice. ( 29061717 )
2017
27
Learning disability patients 'let down'. ( 26907112 )
2016
28
Learning Disability Identification Consistency: The Impact of Methodology and Student Evaluation Data. ( 27428446 )
2016
29
Exploring the prevalence of learning disabilities in children with cutaneous mastocytosis: A pilot cohort study. ( 27846948 )
2016
30
Patient- and carer-held health records: can they improve annual health checks for patients with learning disability? ( 27033499 )
2016
31
Measurement of adherence in a randomised controlled trial of a complex intervention: supported self-management for adults with learning disability and type 2 diabetes. ( 27716063 )
2016
32
Definition of a Visuospatial Dimension as a Step Forward in the Diagnostic Puzzle of Nonverbal Learning Disability. ( 26986198 )
2016
33
Deleterious mutation in GPR88 is associated with chorea, speech delay, and learning disabilities. ( 27123486 )
2016
34
Nurses' perceptions of personal attributes required when working with people with a learning disability and an offending background: a qualitative study. ( 27439391 )
2016
35
An Independent Investigation of the Utility of the Learning Disability Screening Questionnaire (LDSQ) within a Community Learning Disability Team. ( 27990765 )
2016
36
Resilience and Stress in Children and Adolescents with Specific Learning Disability. ( 27047553 )
2016
37
An audit of the quality of inpatient care for adults with learning disability in the UK. ( 27091821 )
2016
38
Learning Disability Nursing Award. ( 27154131 )
2016
39
Changes in Synaptic Transmission and Long-term Potentiation Induction as a Possible Mechanism for Learning Disability in an Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis. ( 27032554 )
2016
40
Learning disability registers in primary care. ( 27364662 )
2016
41
Using Neuropsychometric Measurements in the Differential Diagnosis of Specific Learning Disability. ( 28360787 )
2016
42
Pitch perception deficits in nonverbal learning disability. ( 27710893 )
2016
43
"Be proud of the UKS advances in learning disability care". ( 27145650 )
2016
44
Reading Comprehension Assessment through Retelling: Performance Profiles of Children with Dyslexia and Language-Based Learning Disability. ( 27313551 )
2016
45
Homozygous FIBP nonsense variant responsible of syndromic overgrowth, with overgrowth, macrocephaly, retinal coloboma and learning disabilities. ( 26660953 )
2016
46
Health-Related Quality of Life for Children and Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment: A Cohort Study by a Learning Disabilities Reference Center. ( 27851795 )
2016
47
New leadership model for learning disability nursing. ( 27380709 )
2016
48
The Interaction of Learning Disability Status and Student Demographic Characteristics on Mathematics Growth. ( 26746313 )
2016
49
What a patient with a learning disability would like you to know. ( 27707693 )
2016
50
Neonatal Sevoflurane Exposure Induces Adulthood Fear-induced Learning Disability and Decreases Glutamatergic Neurons in the Basolateral Amygdala. ( 27820300 )
2016

Variations for Learning Disability

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Learning Disability:

6
# Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1 FIBP NM_198897.1(FIBP): c.673C> T (p.Gln225Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic rs786204849 GRCh38 Chromosome 11, 65885181: 65885181

Expression for Learning Disability

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Learning Disability.

Pathways for Learning Disability

Pathways related to Learning Disability according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 11.46 CLPP FMR1 MAPT MECP2

GO Terms for Learning Disability

Biological processes related to Learning Disability according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 multicellular organism development GO:0007275 9.91 CNTF COLEC11 KIAA0319 MEIS2 PHOX2B ZIC1
2 neuron migration GO:0001764 9.5 DNAAF4 KIAA0319 PHOX2B
3 developmental process GO:0032502 9.4 COLEC11 NPAS3
4 positive regulation of G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle GO:0010971 9.37 MECP2 PHOX2B
5 regulation of respiratory gaseous exchange by neurological system process GO:0002087 9.26 MECP2 PHOX2B
6 complement activation, lectin pathway GO:0001867 9.16 COLEC11 MASP1
7 nervous system development GO:0007399 9.1 CNTF DNAAF4 FMR1 KIAA0319 PURA ZIC1
8 astrocyte activation GO:0048143 8.96 CNTF MAPT

Molecular functions related to Learning Disability according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 DNA binding GO:0003677 9.56 MAPT MECP2 MEIS2 NPAS3 PHOX2B PURA
2 siRNA binding GO:0035197 8.62 FMR1 MECP2

Sources for Learning Disability

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HGMD
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 MedGen
41 MeSH
42 MESH via Orphanet
43 MGI
45 NCI
46 NCIt
47 NDF-RT
50 NINDS
51 Novoseek
53 OMIM
54 OMIM via Orphanet
58 PubMed
60 QIAGEN
65 SNOMED-CT via HPO
66 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67 TGDB
68 Tocris
69 UMLS
70 UMLS via Orphanet
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