MCID: LRN003
MIFTS: 46

Learning Disability

Categories: Mental diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Learning Disability

MalaCards integrated aliases for Learning Disability:

Name: Learning Disability 12 14
Learning Disorders 52 41 42 69
Learning Disabilities 51 29 69
Academic Skill Disorder 12
Learning Disorder 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:8927
ICD10 33 F81.9
MeSH 42 D007859
NCIt 47 C89334

Summaries for Learning Disability

MedlinePlus : 41 learning disorders affect how a person understands, remembers and responds to new information. people with learning disorders may have problems listening or paying attention speaking reading or writing doing math although learning disorders occur in very young children, they are usually not recognized until the child reaches school age. about one-third of children who have learning disabilities also have adhd, which makes it hard to focus. evaluation and testing by a trained professional can help identify a learning disorder. the next step is special education, which involves helping your child in the areas where he or she needs the most help. sometimes tutors or speech or language therapists also work with the children. learning disorders do not go away, but strategies to work around them can make them less of a problem. nih: national institute of neurological disorders and stroke

MalaCards based summary : Learning Disability, also known as learning disorders, is related to personality disorder and pervasive developmental disorder. An important gene associated with Learning Disability is CDH8 (Cadherin 8). The drugs Topiramate and Dopamine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, testes and breast, and related phenotypes are behavior/neurological and nervous system

Disease Ontology : 12 A specific developmental disorder that involves difficulty in scholastic skills such as reading, writing, spelling, reasoning, recalling and/or organizing information resulting from the brain's inability to receive and process information.

NINDS : 51 Learning disabilities are disorders that affect the ability to understand or use spoken or written language, do mathematical calculations, coordinate movements, or direct attention. Although learning disabilities occur in very young children, the disorders are usually not recognized until the child reaches school age. Research shows that 8 to 10 percent of American children under 18 years of age have some type of learning disability.

Wikipedia : 72 Learning disability is a classification that includes several areas of functioning in which a person has... more...

Related Diseases for Learning Disability

Diseases related to Learning Disability via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 158)
id Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 personality disorder 29.1 FMR1 MAPT MECP2 SLITRK2
2 pervasive developmental disorder 26.1 DCDC2 DNAAF4 FMR1 KIAA0319 MECP2 SLITRK2
3 epilepsy, x-linked, with variable learning disabilities and behavior disorders 12.3
4 sotos syndrome 1 11.4
5 fragile x syndrome 11.2
6 shprintzen omphalocele syndrome 11.1
7 dyslexia 11.0
8 turner syndrome 11.0
9 neurofibromatosis, type 1 11.0
10 dyscalculia 11.0
11 intellectual disability 11.0
12 feingold syndrome 1 10.8
13 legius syndrome 10.8
14 dysgraphia 10.8
15 glut1 deficiency syndrome 1, infantile onset, severe 10.7
16 leukoencephalopathy with ataxia 10.7
17 pierpont syndrome 10.7
18 myopathy with extrapyramidal signs 10.7
19 xfe progeroid syndrome 10.7
20 robin sequence with cleft mandible and limb anomalies 10.7
21 perrault syndrome 3 10.7
22 velocardiofacial syndrome 10.7
23 osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis 10.7
24 shprintzen-goldberg syndrome 10.6
25 neural tube defects 10.6
26 urbach-wiethe disease 10.6
27 grange syndrome 10.6
28 3mc syndrome 2 10.6
29 carbamoylphosphate synthetase i deficiency 10.6
30 septooptic dysplasia 10.6
31 dandy-walker syndrome 10.6
32 microphthalmia, syndromic 3 10.6
33 3mc syndrome 1 10.6
34 bardet-biedl syndrome 12 10.6
35 coffin-siris syndrome 1 10.6
36 silver-russell syndrome 10.6
37 epilepsy, early-onset, vitamin b6-dependent 10.6
38 3mc syndrome 3 10.6
39 bone marrow failure syndrome 2 10.6
40 bardet-biedl syndrome 11 10.6
41 spastic paraplegia 45, autosomal recessive 10.6
42 spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 21 10.6
43 thauvin-robinet-faivre syndrome 10.6
44 lathosterolosis 10.6
45 mucolipidosis iii alpha/beta 10.6
46 feingold syndrome 2 10.6
47 retinal dystrophy, juvenile cataracts, and short stature syndrome 10.6
48 spasticity, childhood-onset, with hyperglycinemia 10.6
49 prader-willi syndrome 10.6
50 bloom syndrome 10.6

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Learning Disability:



Diseases related to Learning Disability

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Learning Disability

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Learning Disability:

44
id Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 9.7 PURA ZIC1 CDH8 CNTF DCDC2 FMR1
2 nervous system MP:0003631 9.4 CDH8 CNTF DCDC2 DNAAF4 FMR1 MAPT

Drugs & Therapeutics for Learning Disability

Drugs for Learning Disability (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 312)
id Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Topiramate Approved Phase 4 97240-79-4 5284627
2
Dopamine Approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
3
Methylphenidate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 113-45-1 4158
4
Acetazolamide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-66-5 1986
5
Carbamazepine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 298-46-4 2554
6
Clobazam Approved, Illicit Phase 4 22316-47-8 2789
7
Clonazepam Approved, Illicit Phase 4 1622-61-3 2802
8
Ethosuximide Approved Phase 4 77-67-8 3291
9
Felbamate Approved Phase 4 25451-15-4 3331
10
Gabapentin Approved, Investigational Phase 4 60142-96-3 3446
11
Lamotrigine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 84057-84-1 3878
12
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 83-43-2 6741
13
Nitrazepam Approved Phase 4 146-22-5 4506
14
Oxcarbazepine Approved Phase 4 28721-07-5 34312
15
Phenobarbital Approved Phase 4 50-06-6 4763
16
Phenytoin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 57-41-0 1775
17
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-24-8 5755
18
Pregabalin Approved, Illicit, Investigational Phase 4 148553-50-8 5486971
19
Tiagabine Approved Phase 4 115103-54-3 60648
20
Valproic Acid Approved, Investigational Phase 4 99-66-1 3121
21
Vigabatrin Approved Phase 4 68506-86-5, 60643-86-9 5665
22
Zonisamide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 68291-97-4 5734
23
Amitriptyline Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 50-48-6 2160
24
Memantine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 2 19982-08-2 4054
25
Aripiprazole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 129722-12-9 60795
26
chloroquine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 54-05-7 2719
27
Hydroxychloroquine Approved Phase 4 118-42-3 3652
28
Leflunomide Approved, Investigational Phase 4 75706-12-6 3899
29
Methotrexate Approved Phase 4 1959-05-2, 59-05-2 126941
30
Desflurane Approved Phase 4 57041-67-5 42113
31
Isoflurane Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 26675-46-7 3763
32
Propofol Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 2078-54-8 4943
33
Naproxen Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 22204-53-1 1302 156391
34
Sumatriptan Approved, Investigational Phase 4 103628-46-2 5358
35
Milnacipran Approved Phase 4 92623-85-3 65833
36
Aspirin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4 50-78-2 2244
37
Donepezil Approved Phase 4,Phase 1 120014-06-4 3152
38
Warfarin Approved Phase 4 81-81-2 6691 54678486
39
Flunarizine Approved Phase 4 52468-60-7 941361
40
Histamine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 75614-87-8, 51-45-6 774
41
Propranolol Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 2 525-66-6 4946
42
Interferon beta-1a Approved, Investigational Phase 4 145258-61-3 6438354
43
Interferon beta-1b Approved Phase 4 145155-23-3
44
Rivastigmine Approved, Investigational Phase 4,Phase 3 123441-03-2 77991
45
Pramipexole Approved, Investigational Phase 4 104632-26-0 59868 119570
46
Rizatriptan Approved Phase 4 145202-66-0, 144034-80-0 5078
47
Zolmitriptan Approved, Investigational Phase 4 139264-17-8 441240 60857
48
Caffeine Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 58-08-2 2519
49
Folic Acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 1 59-30-3 6037
50
leucovorin Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4,Phase 1 58-05-9 143 6006

Interventional clinical trials:

(show top 50) (show all 555)

id Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Topiramate Treatment for Patients With Epilepsy and Learning Disability : A Prospective Observational Study Unknown status NCT00956696 Phase 4 topiramate
2 Methylphenidate in Healthy Young Adults Unknown status NCT00815841 Phase 4 METHYLPHENIDATE
3 Ketogenic Diet vs.Antiepileptic Drug Treatment in Drug Resistant Epilepsy Unknown status NCT00552526 Phase 4 Antiepileptic drug (AED)
4 Eyegaze Systems for Spinal Cord Injury: A Feasibility Study Unknown status NCT01943656 Phase 4
5 Aripiprazole and Prolactin Study Completed NCT01085383 Phase 4 Aripiprazole
6 MRI and Neurodevelopment in Preterm Infants Following Administration of High-Dose Caffeine Completed NCT00809055 Phase 4 Caffeine citrate
7 Effects of Sensomotoric Training on Neck/Scapular Pain in People With Visual Disability Completed NCT01361906 Phase 4
8 Comparison of Combination Disease Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs With Methotrexate Therapy in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Completed NCT02644499 Phase 4 Methotrexate;Leflunomide;Hydroxychloroquine;Prednisolone;Folic Acid
9 Mindfulness Meditation for Chronic Low Back Pain in Older Adults Completed NCT00494845 Phase 4
10 Primary Care Intervention Strategy for Anxiety Disorders Completed NCT00347269 Phase 4 Psychotropic medication optimization
11 Comparison of Neuroprotection by Propofol and Desflurane for POCD Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Surgery Completed NCT02987218 Phase 4 Propofol;Desflurane
12 Use of Sustained Release Antiepileptic Medication (Depakote® ER) for Pediatric Epilepsy in a Mental Retardation/Developmental Disorder Population Completed NCT00207935 Phase 4
13 Chronic Shoulder Pain Treatment: High Intensity Laser or Ultrasound Completed NCT02793401 Phase 4
14 Trial of Comprehensive Migraine Intervention Completed NCT01071317 Phase 4 Naproxen;Sumatriptan
15 Drug and Talk Therapy for Fibromyalgia Completed NCT01038323 Phase 4 Educational with milnacipran
16 Impact of Anticoagulation Therapy on the Cognitive Decline and Dementia in Patients With Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation Recruiting NCT03061006 Phase 4 Dabigatran Etexilate;Warfarin
17 Neurologic Signatures of Chronic Pain Disorders Recruiting NCT02747940 Phase 4 flunarizine and/or pregabalin
18 Plegridy Satisfaction Study in Participants Active, not recruiting NCT02587065 Phase 4 peginterferon beta-1a
19 Quality Improvement and Practice Based Research in Neurology Using the EMR Enrolling by invitation NCT02670161 Phase 4 Listed for each disorder below, up to three drugs per disorder (too many characters to list in this field; see Intervention Description)
20 Improving Health Outcomes of Migraine Patients Who Present to the Emergency Department Not yet recruiting NCT02945839 Phase 4 Preventative Medication (PM)
21 CARES Lumbar Artificial Disc Registry Terminated NCT02139527 Phase 4
22 Enhancing Self-Understanding and Social Integration of Middle School Students With Learning Disabilities Unknown status NCT00246792 Phase 2, Phase 3
23 Efficacy of RAD001/Everolimus in Autism and NeuroPsychological Deficits in Children With Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Unknown status NCT01730209 Phase 2, Phase 3 Everolimus;Placebo
24 Pediatric Chronic Headache Trial Unknown status NCT00389038 Phase 3 Amitriptyline
25 African American Depression Intervention Trial (AADI) Unknown status NCT01342536 Phase 3
26 Randomized Clinical Trial of Phonological Interventions Unknown status NCT00818428 Phase 2, Phase 3
27 Benefits and Costs of Home-based Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Unknown status NCT01423227 Phase 3
28 EMPART - Exercise and Manual Physiotherapy Arthritis Research Trial Unknown status NCT00709566 Phase 3
29 Study to Improve Outcomes for Survivors of Traumatic Brain Injury in Latin America Unknown status NCT01068522 Phase 3
30 The LIFE Study - Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Completed NCT01072500 Phase 3
31 Coping Skills Training for Adolescents With Fibromyalgia Completed NCT00086047 Phase 3
32 A Study Investigating an Exercise and Education Programme for Individuals With Ankylosing Spondylitis Completed NCT00764686 Phase 3
33 Randomized Controlled Trial of Routine Screening for IPV Completed NCT00526994 Phase 2, Phase 3
34 Enhancing Indoor, Community, and Advanced Wheelchair Skills in Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Completed NCT00434018 Phase 2, Phase 3
35 University Health Network Whiplash Intervention Trial Completed NCT00546806 Phase 3
36 Secondary Prevention of Osteoporotic Fractures in Residents of Long-Term Care Facilities Completed NCT00280943 Phase 2, Phase 3
37 Workplace Based Rehabilitation for Low Back Disorders Completed NCT00316342 Phase 3
38 Effectiveness of Amantadine Hydrochloride for Treatment of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Completed NCT00970944 Phase 2, Phase 3 Amantadine Hydrochloride;Placebo
39 Supporting the Well Being of Families of Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders Completed NCT01021384 Phase 3
40 Advanced eHealth for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in Colorado Completed NCT01044927 Phase 3
41 Facilitating Caregiver Adaptation to Patient Institutionalization Completed NCT01194128 Phase 3
42 Biofeedback-Based Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Temporomandibular Disorders Completed NCT00769561 Phase 2, Phase 3
43 Study of Pexacerfont (BMS-562086) in the Treatment of Outpatients With Generalized Anxiety Disorder Completed NCT00481325 Phase 2, Phase 3 pexacerfont;escitalopram;placebo
44 Supporting Caregivers of Persons With Dementia: A Pilot Study Completed NCT00908492 Phase 2, Phase 3
45 Chiropractic and Exercise for Low Back Pain in Adolescents Completed NCT01096628 Phase 2, Phase 3
46 Effectiveness of D-Cycloserine as an Aid to Enhance Learning for Individuals With OCD Receiving Behavior Therapy Completed NCT00182000 Phase 3 seromycin
47 Cognitive Rehabilitation for Gulf War Illness Recruiting NCT02161133 Phase 3
48 Management Strategies for Patients With Low Back Pain and Sciatica Recruiting NCT02391350 Phase 3
49 Chronic Low Back Pain Randomized Controlled Trial Recruiting NCT02286232 Phase 3
50 Minocycline and Celecoxib as Adjunctive Treatments of Bipolar Depression Recruiting NCT02703363 Phase 3 Minocycline;Celecoxib;Placebo

Search NIH Clinical Center for Learning Disability

Cochrane evidence based reviews: learning disorders

Genetic Tests for Learning Disability

Genetic tests related to Learning Disability:

id Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Learning Disabilities 29

Anatomical Context for Learning Disability

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Learning Disability:

39
Brain, Testes, Breast, Spinal Cord, Heart, Bone, Eye

Publications for Learning Disability

Articles related to Learning Disability:

(show top 50) (show all 639)
id Title Authors Year
1
Efficacy of vision therapy in children with learning disability and associated binocular vision anomalies. ( 28599912 )
2017
2
Fluoride exposure and reported learning disability diagnosis among Canadian children: Implications for community water fluoridation. ( 28910243 )
2017
3
Learning disability nurse numbers heading in the wrong direction. ( 28421932 )
2017
4
Consensus Statement of the Indian Academy of Pediatrics on Evaluation and Management of Learning Disability. ( 28368273 )
2017
5
Learning disability in a son and premature ovarian failure as clinical pointers to identify a premutation on the X chromosome in a female with long-standing tremor. ( 28641937 )
2017
6
C. F. Goodey, Learning Disability and Inclusion Phobia: Past, Present, Future (Oxon, and New York: Routledge, 2016), pp. viii, 178, AL79.00, hardback, AL25.49 kindle, ISBN: 978-0-415-82200-8 (hbk) and 978-0-203-55665-8 (ebk). ( 27998342 )
2017
7
Learning disability nurse named RCN Northern Ireland Nurse of the Year. ( 28610512 )
2017
8
Challenges and pitfalls of antipsychotic prescribing in people with learning disability. ( 28751349 )
2017
9
The implementation of the Care Programme Approach for service users with a learning disability. Building Bridges to the same Old Horizons? ( 28493301 )
2017
10
Involving the public in mental health and learning disability research: Can we, should we, do we? ( 28556251 )
2017
11
Facilitating pragmatic skills through role-play in learners with language learning disability. ( 28828866 )
2017
12
Half of patients with learning disability miss out on annual GP health check. ( 28389424 )
2017
13
CitySCaPE: Moving beyond indifference in education for pre-registration nurses about learning disability. ( 28772114 )
2017
14
Local and global processing in block design tasks in children with dyslexia or nonverbal learning disability. ( 28380399 )
2017
15
Communities in action: developing a dental ambassador training programme for adults with learning disability. ( 28573835 )
2017
16
Learning Disability Nursing in Secure Settings: working with complexity. ( 28052517 )
2017
17
Heritage and Stigma. Co-producing and communicating the histories of mental health and learning disability. ( 28559366 )
2017
18
Learning Disability Practice Award. ( 28443438 )
2017
19
Decline in degree places for learning disability nursing. ( 28421964 )
2017
20
Agreement Among Traditional and RTI-based Definitions of Reading-Related Learning Disability with Preschool Children. ( 28670102 )
2017
21
The underlying structure of visuospatial working memory in children with mathematical learning disability. ( 28833308 )
2017
22
What a patient with a learning disability would like you to know. ( 27707693 )
2016
23
Learning Disability Identification Consistency: The Impact of Methodology and Student Evaluation Data. ( 27428446 )
2016
24
Measurement of adherence in a randomised controlled trial of a complex intervention: supported self-management for adults with learning disability and type 2 diabetes. ( 27716063 )
2016
25
Learning disability registers in primary care. ( 27364662 )
2016
26
Patient- and carer-held health records: can they improve annual health checks for patients with learning disability? ( 27033499 )
2016
27
"Be proud of the UKS advances in learning disability care". ( 27145650 )
2016
28
The Interaction of Learning Disability Status and Student Demographic Characteristics on Mathematics Growth. ( 26746313 )
2016
29
Definition of a Visuospatial Dimension as a Step Forward in the Diagnostic Puzzle of Nonverbal Learning Disability. ( 26986198 )
2016
30
Exploring the prevalence of learning disabilities in children with cutaneous mastocytosis: A pilot cohort study. ( 27846948 )
2016
31
Homozygous FIBP nonsense variant responsible of syndromic overgrowth, with overgrowth, macrocephaly, retinal coloboma and learning disabilities. ( 26660953 )
2016
32
Learning disability patients 'let down'. ( 26907112 )
2016
33
An audit of the quality of inpatient care for adults with learning disability in the UK. ( 27091821 )
2016
34
Resilience and Stress in Children and Adolescents with Specific Learning Disability. ( 27047553 )
2016
35
An Independent Investigation of the Utility of the Learning Disability Screening Questionnaire (LDSQ) within a Community Learning Disability Team. ( 27990765 )
2016
36
Pitch perception deficits in nonverbal learning disability. ( 27710893 )
2016
37
Using Neuropsychometric Measurements in the Differential Diagnosis of Specific Learning Disability. ( 28360787 )
2016
38
Neonatal Sevoflurane Exposure Induces Adulthood Fear-induced Learning Disability and Decreases Glutamatergic Neurons in the Basolateral Amygdala. ( 27820300 )
2016
39
Changes in Synaptic Transmission and Long-term Potentiation Induction as a Possible Mechanism for Learning Disability in an Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis. ( 27032554 )
2016
40
New leadership model for learning disability nursing. ( 27380709 )
2016
41
Health-Related Quality of Life for Children and Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment: A Cohort Study by a Learning Disabilities Reference Center. ( 27851795 )
2016
42
Reading Comprehension Assessment through Retelling: Performance Profiles of Children with Dyslexia and Language-Based Learning Disability. ( 27313551 )
2016
43
Learning Disability Nursing Award. ( 27154131 )
2016
44
Deleterious mutation in GPR88 is associated with chorea, speech delay, and learning disabilities. ( 27123486 )
2016
45
Nurses' perceptions of personal attributes required when working with people with a learning disability and an offending background: a qualitative study. ( 27439391 )
2016
46
Unexplained developmental delay/learning disability: guidelines for best practice protocol for first line assessment and genetic/metabolic/radiological investigations. ( 25894277 )
2015
47
Biological correlates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and specific learning disability, following stroke in a young child. ( 27212833 )
2015
48
Sensitivity to general and specific numerical features in typical achievers and children with mathematics learning disability. ( 25633228 )
2015
49
Learning disability community nursing team. ( 26559109 )
2015
50
Pro Re Nata (PRN) prescription in an Inpatient Low Secure Learning Disability Unit. ( 26417820 )
2015

Variations for Learning Disability

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Learning Disability:

6
id Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1 FIBP NM_198897.1(FIBP): c.673C> T (p.Gln225Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic/Likely pathogenic rs786204849 GRCh38 Chromosome 11, 65885181: 65885181

Expression for Learning Disability

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Learning Disability.

Pathways for Learning Disability

GO Terms for Learning Disability

Biological processes related to Learning Disability according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 multicellular organism development GO:0007275 9.91 CNTF COLEC11 KIAA0319 MEIS2 PHOX2B ZIC1
2 developmental process GO:0032502 9.4 COLEC11 NPAS3
3 positive regulation of G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle GO:0010971 9.37 MECP2 PHOX2B
4 regulation of respiratory gaseous exchange by neurological system process GO:0002087 9.32 MECP2 PHOX2B
5 complement activation, lectin pathway GO:0001867 9.26 COLEC11 MASP1
6 neuron migration GO:0001764 9.26 DCDC2 DNAAF4 KIAA0319 PHOX2B
7 nervous system development GO:0007399 9.17 CNTF DCDC2 DNAAF4 FMR1 KIAA0319 PURA
8 astrocyte activation GO:0048143 9.16 CNTF MAPT

Molecular functions related to Learning Disability according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 DNA binding GO:0003677 9.56 MAPT MECP2 MEIS2 NPAS3 PHOX2B PURA
2 siRNA binding GO:0035197 8.62 FMR1 MECP2

Sources for Learning Disability

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 MedGen
42 MeSH
43 MESH via Orphanet
44 MGI
46 NCI
47 NCIt
48 NDF-RT
51 NINDS
52 Novoseek
54 OMIM
55 OMIM via Orphanet
59 PubMed
60 QIAGEN
65 SNOMED-CT via HPO
66 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67 TGDB
68 Tocris
69 UMLS
70 UMLS via Orphanet
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