MCID: LFT009
MIFTS: 43

Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction malady

Categories: Genetic diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction

Aliases & Descriptions for Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction:

Name: Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction 24 29
Hypoplastic Left Heart 24 29
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome 69
Interupted Aortic Arch Type a 24
Coarctation of the Aorta 24
Aortic Valve Disease 2 69
Aortic Valve Stenosis 69
Bicuspid Aortic Valve 24
Aortic Valve Disorder 69
Aortic Valve Disease 24
Aortic Stenosis 24

Classifications:



Summaries for Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction

MalaCards based summary : Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction, also known as hypoplastic left heart, is related to tricuspid valve prolapse and supravalvar aortic stenosis. An important gene associated with Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction is NOTCH1 (Notch 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are MicroRNAs in cancer and Proteoglycans in cancer. The drugs Ethanol and Dopamine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include heart, liver and lung, and related phenotypes are craniofacial and embryo

Related Diseases for Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction

Diseases related to Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 74)
id Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 tricuspid valve prolapse 30.0 EGFR NOTCH1
2 supravalvar aortic stenosis 12.5
3 aortic valve disease 2 12.4
4 aortic valve disease 1 12.4
5 familial bicuspid aortic valve 12.3
6 patent ductus arteriosus and bicuspid aortic valve with hand anomalies 12.2
7 cor triatriatum 11.3
8 aortic valve insufficiency 11.3
9 congenital heart defects, nonsyndromic, 2 11.2
10 mitochondrial complex v deficiency, mitochondrial 1 11.2
11 mitochondrial complex v deficiency, mitochondrial 2 11.2
12 aortic coarctation 11.1
13 congenital heart defects, hamartomas of tongue, and polysyndactyly 11.0
14 mucopolysaccharidosis is 10.9
15 cardiomyopathy 10.9
16 transposition of the great arteries 10.7
17 ventricular septal defect 10.6
18 myocardial infarction 10.5
19 accessory mitral valve tissue 10.4
20 cardiogenic shock 10.4
21 acute myocardial infarction 10.3
22 atrioventricular septal defect 10.3
23 syncope 10.3
24 right aortic arch 10.3
25 ischemia 10.2
26 aneurysm 10.2
27 ovarian cystadenocarcinoma 10.1 EGFR VEGFA
28 spastic paraplegia 1 10.1 EGFR VEGFA
29 spongiotic dermatitis 10.1 EGFR ERBB4
30 heart disease 10.1
31 pheochromocytoma 10.1
32 amyloidosis 10.1
33 tumor of exocrine pancreas 10.1 EGFR VEGFA
34 benign familial neonatal epilepsy 10.1 EGFR VEGFA
35 rheumatic disease 10.1
36 immunodeficiency due to a late component of complement deficiency 10.1 EGFR VEGFA
37 fallopian tube benign neoplasm 10.1 EGFR NOTCH1
38 anaerobic meningitis 10.1 EGFR VEGFA
39 cleft palate cardiac defect ectrodactyly 10.0 EGFR VEGFA
40 hypertensive heart disease 10.0
41 atrioventricular block 10.0
42 sarcoma 10.0
43 multinodular goiter 10.0 EGFR VEGFA
44 harrod syndrome 10.0 ERBB4 NOTCH1
45 traumatic avascular necrosis 10.0 MT-ATP6 MT-ATP8
46 moebius axonal neuropathy hypogonadism 10.0 MT-ATP6 MT-ATP8
47 ocular melanoma 9.9 EGFR NOTCH1 VEGFA
48 interstitial lung disease 9.9 EGFR VEGFA
49 fabry disease 9.9
50 diastolic heart failure 9.9

Comorbidity relations with Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show top 50) (show all 72)


Acquired Thrombocytopenia Active Peptic Ulcer Disease
Acute Cystitis Acute Kidney Failure
Acute Myocardial Infarction Aortic Aneurysm
Aortic Atherosclerosis Aortic Valve Disease 2
Aortic Valve Insufficiency Aplastic Anemia
Atrioventricular Block Basilar Artery Insufficiency
Benign Essential Hypertension Bronchitis
Cardiac Arrest Cardiogenic Shock
Cardiomyopathy, Familial Hypertrophic Cerebral Atherosclerosis
Cerebrovascular Disease Chronic Kidney Failure
Chronic Myocardial Ischemia Congenital Aortic Valve Insufficiency
Decubitus Ulcer Deficiency Anemia
Dental Caries Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
Dressler's Syndrome Epilepsy, Focal, with Speech Disorder and with or Without Mental Retardation
Esophagitis Familial Atrial Fibrillation
First-Degree Atrioventricular Block Generalized Atherosclerosis
Gout Heart Conduction Disease
Heart Disease Hemopericardium
Hypertension, Essential Hyperuricemia, Pulmonary Hypertension, Renal Failure, and Alkalosis
Hypothyroidism Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia
Intermediate Coronary Syndrome Intracranial Embolism
Intracranial Thrombosis Iron Deficiency Anemia
Ischemic Heart Disease Kidney Disease
Left Bundle Branch Hemiblock Malignant Essential Hypertension
Marfan Syndrome Mesenteric Artery Ischemia

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction:



Diseases related to Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction:

44
id Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 craniofacial MP:0005382 9.46 EGFR ERBB4 NOTCH1 VEGFA
2 embryo MP:0005380 9.35 EGFR ERBB4 NOTCH1 TAB2 VEGFA
3 integument MP:0010771 9.02 EGFR ERBB4 NOTCH1 TAB2 VEGFA

Drugs & Therapeutics for Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction

Drugs for Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 20)
id Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Ethanol Approved 64-17-5 702
2
Dopamine Approved 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
3
Bupropion Approved 34841-39-9, 34911-55-2 444
4
Caffeine Approved, Nutraceutical 58-08-2 2519
5 Neurotransmitter Agents
6 Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors
7 Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 Inhibitors
8 Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors
9 Dopamine Agents
10 Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors
11 Vitamins
12 Antidepressive Agents
13 Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation
14 Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic
15 Psychotropic Drugs
16 diuretics
17 Tin Fluorides
18 Immunoglobulins
19 Antibodies
20 Kava Nutraceutical 9000-38-8

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 14)
id Name Status NCT ID Phase
1 Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Symptom Release by BX1514M Completed NCT02590809 Phase 2
2 A Phase 2 Open-label Pilot Study Evaluating MYK-461 in Subjects With Symptomatic Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction Recruiting NCT02842242 Phase 2
3 NHLBI DIR LAMPOON Study: Intentional Laceration of the Anterior Mitral Leaflet to Prevent Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction During Transcatheter Mitral Valve Implantation Not yet recruiting NCT03015194 Phase 2
4 Water- and Salt-homeostasis in Healthy Humans, and in Patients With Heart- or Lung Disease Unknown status NCT00830726
5 Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Study Completed NCT01294839
6 Long-Term Results of DDD Pacing in Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Completed NCT00001530
7 Bupropion & Cardio Birth Defect (Slone) Completed NCT01597661
8 Stress Echo 2020 - The International Stress Echo Study Recruiting NCT03049995
9 Triple Chamber Pacing in Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy (HOCM) Patients - TRICHAMPION STUDY Recruiting NCT01614717
10 Multi Modal Cardiac Imaging Prior Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Recruiting NCT01805739
11 Comparison Between Standard and Ultrasound Integrated Approach for Risk Stratification of Syncope in the Emergency Department Recruiting NCT02781207
12 Pilot Trial: Comparison of Flow Patterns Recruiting NCT02288871
13 Evaluation of Panel Reactive Antibody in Children Following Stage I Palliation for Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Active, not recruiting NCT01135485
14 Cardiac Rehabilitation in Patients With HCM Without LV Outflow Tract Obstruction With Preserved EF - Pilot Study Not yet recruiting NCT03178357

Search NIH Clinical Center for Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 69 / NDF-RT 48 :


Genetic Tests for Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction

Genetic tests related to Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction:

id Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction (lvoto) 29 24 NOTCH1
2 Hypoplastic Left Heart 29

Anatomical Context for Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction:

39
Heart, Liver, Lung, Testes

Publications for Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction

Articles related to Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction:

(show top 50) (show all 483)
id Title Authors Year
1
Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction-be prepared! ( 28072930 )
2017
2
Excision of anomalous muscle bundles as an important addition to extended septal myectomy for treatment of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. ( 27033027 )
2016
3
Intentional Laceration of the Anterior Mitral Valve Leaflet to Prevent Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction During Transcatheter MitralA Valve Replacement: Pre-Clinical Findings. ( 27609260 )
2016
4
Dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in recovery process of stress cardiomyopathy. ( 27064643 )
2016
5
Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction After Transcatheter Mitral Valve-in-Ring Implantation: A Word of Caution. ( 27847064 )
2016
6
Esmolol for Patients with Takotsubo Syndrome and Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction. ( 27101106 )
2016
7
Fixed versus dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction: Res ipsa loquitur. ( 26682620 )
2016
8
Evaluation of Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction With Four-Dimensional Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy-A Pilot Study. ( 27529682 )
2016
9
Severe left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. ( 27261208 )
2016
10
Percutaneous alcohol septal ablation to acutely reduce left ventricular outflow tract obstruction induced by transcatheter mitral valve replacement. ( 27377756 )
2016
11
Surgery for Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction with a Relatively Thin Interventricular Septum. ( 26757211 )
2016
12
Summary of Clinical Experience of Modified Double Root Translocation in the Management of Complete Transposition of Great Arteries With Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction. ( 27396558 )
2016
13
Intracardiac tumor causing left-ventricular outflow-tract obstruction in a newborn. ( 27358535 )
2016
14
Technique to avoid left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. ( 26993109 )
2016
15
Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in ICU patients. ( 27054628 )
2016
16
Refractory Hypotension after Liver Allograft Reperfusion: A Case of Dynamic Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction. ( 26909349 )
2016
17
Late Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction Following the Rastelli Operation: Expectations Out to 20 Years. ( 27587496 )
2016
18
Influence of apical position on the left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in congenitally corrected transposition. ( 27842759 )
2016
19
TCT-813 Alcohol Septal Ablation in patients with Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction after Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement for Mitral Annular Calcification (TMVR in MAC). ( 27970202 )
2016
20
Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction: Coarctation of the Aorta, Interrupted Aortic Arch, and Borderline Left Ventricle. ( 27490616 )
2016
21
Cardiogenic Shock Following Amplatzer Device Embolization Due to Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction. ( 26748636 )
2016
22
Manifestation of Latent Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction in the Acute Phase of Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy. ( 27904102 )
2016
23
Fixed left ventricular outflow tract obstruction mimicking hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy: pitfalls in diagnosis. ( 27613242 )
2016
24
Long mitral valve leaflets determine left ventricular outflow tract obstruction during exercise in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. ( 27031819 )
2016
25
Current mid-term outcome with an integrated surgical strategy for correction of d-transposition of the great arteries with ventricular septal defect and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. ( 27009103 )
2016
26
Hemodynamic Effects, Safety, and Feasibility of Intravenous Esmolol Infusion During Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy With Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction: Results From A Multicenter Registry. ( 26946520 )
2016
27
Pannus of Mitral Valve Prosthesis Causing Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction. ( 27826376 )
2016
28
Latent Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction Due to Accessory Mitral Valve in a 12-Year-Old Boy. ( 27471367 )
2016
29
Pregnancy in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy with Severe Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction. ( 27358709 )
2016
30
A Small Molecule Inhibitor of Sarcomere Contractility Acutely Relieves Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction in Feline Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. ( 27973580 )
2016
31
Case of Ebstein Anomaly Complicated by Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction Secondary to Deformed Basal Septum Attributable to Atrialized Right Ventricle. ( 26811277 )
2016
32
Hybrid stenting for left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries. ( 27938457 )
2016
33
TCT-642 Intentional Laceration of the Anterior Mitral valve leaflet to Prevent left ventricular Outflow tract ObstructioN (LAMPOON) during transcatheter mitral valve implantation: preclinical findings. ( 27970020 )
2016
34
All Shock States Are Not the Same. Systolic Anterior Motion of Mitral Valve Causing Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction in Septic Shock. ( 27726435 )
2016
35
Son of SAM: Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction with coexistent mitral stenosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. ( 26790355 )
2016
36
Subacute left ventricular outflow tract obstruction after transapical closure of a mitral paravalvular leak in the region of the aortomitral curtain. ( 27576330 )
2016
37
Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction in Aortic Arch Anomalies With Ventricular Septal Defect. ( 26952292 )
2016
38
Echocardiographic Predictors of Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction following Repair of Atrioventricular Septal Defect. ( 27834986 )
2016
39
Factors influencing left ventricular outflow tract obstruction following a mitral valve-in-valve or valve-in-ring procedure, part 1. ( 26386239 )
2015
40
Provocation of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction using nitrate inhalation in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Relation to electromechanical delay. ( 26779503 )
2015
41
Clinical impact of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in takotsubo cardiomyopathy. ( 25739572 )
2015
42
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. ( 25739937 )
2015
43
Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and Takotsubo syndrome: A heretofore unsettled pathophysiologic association. ( 25889328 )
2015
44
Effect of Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction on Left Atrial Mechanics in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. ( 26788503 )
2015
45
Selective management strategy of interrupted aortic arch mitigates left ventricular outflow tract obstruction risk. ( 26520007 )
2015
46
Dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction secondary to hypovolemia in a German Shepard dog with splenic hemangiosarcoma. ( 25924797 )
2015
47
Primary cardiac synovial sarcoma originating from the mitral valve causing left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. ( 26115156 )
2015
48
Dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction causing myocardial ischemia. ( 25438213 )
2015
49
Emergency echocardiography to guide therapy in a patient with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy complicated with dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. ( 26521838 )
2015
50
Ventricular tachycardia and syncope: a complication of an echinococcal cyst caused by left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. ( 25550268 )
2015

Variations for Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction

ClinVar genetic disease variations for Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction:

6
id Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1 NOTCH1 NM_017617.4(NOTCH1): c.3319C> T (p.Arg1107Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs41309764 GRCh37 Chromosome 9, 139402690: 139402690
2 NOTCH1 NM_017617.4(NOTCH1): c.4512delC (p.Cys1505Valfs) deletion Pathogenic rs41309766 GRCh38 Chromosome 9, 136505384: 136505384
3 GJA1 NM_000165.4(GJA1): c.1127G> A (p.Arg376Gln) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs104893965 GRCh37 Chromosome 6, 121769120: 121769120
4 NOTCH1 NM_017617.4(NOTCH1): c.3765C> A (p.Cys1255Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs1057515423 GRCh37 Chromosome 9, 139401304: 139401304
5 NOTCH1 NM_017617.4(NOTCH1): c.2439C> G (p.Tyr813Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs1057515422 GRCh37 Chromosome 9, 139407501: 139407501
6 DSP NM_004415.3(DSP): c.2528C> A (p.Ser843Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs1057518920 GRCh37 Chromosome 6, 7575619: 7575619
7 NOTCH1 NM_017617.4(NOTCH1): c.6348C> G (p.Tyr2116Ter) single nucleotide variant Pathogenic rs1057518661 GRCh38 Chromosome 9, 136497391: 136497391

Expression for Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction.

Pathways for Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction

GO Terms for Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction

Cellular components related to Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 mitochondrial proton-transporting ATP synthase complex GO:0005753 9.16 MT-ATP6 MT-ATP8
2 proton-transporting ATP synthase complex, coupling factor F(o) GO:0045263 8.96 MT-ATP6 MT-ATP8
3 receptor complex GO:0043235 8.8 EGFR ERBB4 NOTCH1

Biological processes related to Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 30)
id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 multicellular organism development GO:0007275 9.95 EGFR ERBB4 NOTCH1 VEGFA
2 heart development GO:0007507 9.77 ERBB4 NOTCH1 TAB2
3 positive regulation of cell proliferation GO:0008284 9.73 EGFR ERBB4 NOTCH1 VEGFA
4 positive regulation of cell migration GO:0030335 9.7 EGFR NOTCH1 VEGFA
5 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation GO:0001934 9.65 EGFR ERBB4 VEGFA
6 positive regulation of MAP kinase activity GO:0043406 9.64 EGFR VEGFA
7 cell fate commitment GO:0045165 9.64 ERBB4 NOTCH1
8 positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT protein GO:0042531 9.63 ERBB4 VEGFA
9 peptidyl-tyrosine autophosphorylation GO:0038083 9.63 EGFR ERBB4
10 lactation GO:0007595 9.62 ERBB4 VEGFA
11 cellular response to epidermal growth factor stimulus GO:0071364 9.62 EGFR ERBB4
12 ERBB2 signaling pathway GO:0038128 9.61 EGFR ERBB4
13 ATP biosynthetic process GO:0006754 9.61 MT-ATP6 MT-ATP8
14 regulation of cell motility GO:2000145 9.59 EGFR ERBB4
15 branching morphogenesis of an epithelial tube GO:0048754 9.58 NOTCH1 VEGFA
16 ATP synthesis coupled proton transport GO:0015986 9.58 MT-ATP6 MT-ATP8
17 positive regulation of cardiac muscle cell proliferation GO:0060045 9.57 ERBB4 NOTCH1
18 cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factor stimulus GO:0035924 9.56 NOTCH1 VEGFA
19 mitochondrial ATP synthesis coupled proton transport GO:0042776 9.55 MT-ATP6 MT-ATP8
20 positive regulation of neuroblast proliferation GO:0002052 9.54 NOTCH1 VEGFA
21 mammary gland alveolus development GO:0060749 9.51 ERBB4 VEGFA
22 lung development GO:0030324 9.5 EGFR NOTCH1 VEGFA
23 response to hyperoxia GO:0055093 9.49 MT-ATP6 MT-ATP8
24 negative regulation of ERBB signaling pathway GO:1901185 9.46 EGFR ERBB4
25 positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation GO:0050679 9.43 EGFR NOTCH1 VEGFA
26 coronary artery morphogenesis GO:0060982 9.4 NOTCH1 VEGFA
27 tube formation GO:0035148 9.37 NOTCH1 VEGFA
28 positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter in response to hypoxia GO:0061419 9.16 NOTCH1 VEGFA
29 cardiac vascular smooth muscle cell development GO:0060948 8.96 NOTCH1 VEGFA
30 coronary vein morphogenesis GO:0003169 8.62 NOTCH1 VEGFA

Molecular functions related to Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase activity GO:0046934 9.26 EGFR ERBB4
2 transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity GO:0004714 9.16 EGFR ERBB4
3 hydrogen ion transmembrane transporter activity GO:0015078 8.96 MT-ATP6 MT-ATP8
4 signal transducer, downstream of receptor, with protein tyrosine kinase activity GO:0004716 8.62 EGFR ERBB4

Sources for Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 MedGen
42 MeSH
43 MESH via Orphanet
44 MGI
46 NCI
47 NCIt
48 NDF-RT
51 NINDS
52 Novoseek
54 OMIM
55 OMIM via Orphanet
59 PubMed
60 QIAGEN
65 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67 TGDB
68 Tocris
69 UMLS
70 UMLS via Orphanet
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