MCID: LPR001
MIFTS: 53

Lepromatous Leprosy

Categories: Infectious diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Lepromatous Leprosy

MalaCards integrated aliases for Lepromatous Leprosy:

Name: Lepromatous Leprosy 12 14
Leprosy, Lepromatous 41 69
Lepromatous Leprosy [type L] 12
Leprosy Lepromatous 51
Type L Leprosy 12

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:10887
ICD10 32 A30.5
ICD9CM 34 030.0
MeSH 41 D015440
SNOMED-CT 64 21560005
UMLS 69 C0023348

Summaries for Lepromatous Leprosy

Disease Ontology : 12 A leprosy that results in early cutaneous lesions which consist of pale macules that are small, diffuse, and symmetric. This form of leprosy is characterized by hypoesthesia over extensor surfaces of the distal extremities, alopecia affecting lateral aspects of the eyebrows, saddle-nose deformity and oral lepromas.

MalaCards based summary : Lepromatous Leprosy, also known as leprosy, lepromatous, is related to leprosy 3 and tuberculoid leprosy. An important gene associated with Lepromatous Leprosy is TLR2 (Toll Like Receptor 2), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Innate Immune System and PEDF Induced Signaling. The drugs Clofazimine and Anti-Bacterial Agents have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include skin, t cells and monocytes, and related phenotypes are Synthetic lethal with MLN4924 (a NAE inhibitor) and Synthetic lethal with MLN4924 (a NAE inhibitor)

Wikipedia : 72 Lepromatous leprosy is a form of leprosy characterized by pale macules in the... more...

Related Diseases for Lepromatous Leprosy

Diseases related to Lepromatous Leprosy via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 298)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 leprosy 3 31.6 IFNG IL10 IL12RB2 IL2 TLR2 TNF
2 tuberculoid leprosy 30.7 IFNG IL10
3 sporotrichosis 30.6 IFNG IL10
4 tetanus 30.5 IFNG IL10 IL2
5 oral tuberculosis 30.4 IL2 TNF
6 mucocutaneous leishmaniasis 30.4 IL10 TNF
7 aspergillosis 30.1 IFNG IL10 TLR2
8 hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 30.1 IFNG IL10 TNF
9 herpes zoster 30.0 IFNG IL10 IL2
10 hepatitis b 30.0 IFNG TLR2 TNF
11 cutaneous leishmaniasis 29.8 IFNG IL10 TLR2 TNF
12 myasthenia gravis 29.7 IFNG IL10 IL2 TNF
13 systemic lupus erythematosus 29.4 ICAM1 IFNG IL10 IL2 TNF
14 leishmaniasis 29.3 IFNG IFNGR1 IL10 TLR2 TNF
15 rheumatoid arthritis 28.8 ICAM1 IFNG IL10 IL2 TLR2 TNF
16 mycobacterium tuberculosis 1 28.4 IFNG IFNGR1 IL10 IL12RB1 TLR2 TNF
17 pulmonary tuberculosis 27.7 IFNG IFNGR1 IL10 IL12RB1 IL2 TLR2
18 leprosy 1 11.5
19 trench fever 10.5 TLR2 TNF
20 punctate inner choroidopathy 10.5 IL10 TNF
21 staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome 10.5 IFNG TNF
22 tropical endomyocardial fibrosis 10.5 IL10 TNF
23 neurosyphilis 10.5 IL10 TLR2
24 chronic beryllium disease 10.5 IFNG TNF
25 microscopic polyangiitis 10.5 IL10 TNF
26 multifocal choroiditis 10.5 IL10 TNF
27 hyperlucent lung 10.5 IFNG IL10
28 trichosporonosis 10.5 IFNG TNF
29 tungiasis 10.5 IL10 TNF
30 endomyocardial fibrosis 10.5 IL10 TNF
31 haemophilus influenzae 10.5 TLR2 TNF
32 transient hypogammaglobulinemia 10.5 IL10 TNF
33 choroiditis 10.4 IL10 TNF
34 variola major 10.4 IFNG IL2
35 penicilliosis 10.4 TLR2 TNF
36 streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome 10.4 IL2 TNF
37 idiopathic achalasia 10.4 IL10 TNF
38 berylliosis 10.4 IFNG IL2
39 nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease 10.4 TLR2 TNF
40 trichuriasis 10.4 IL10 TNF
41 baylisascariasis 10.4 IFNG IL10
42 farmer's lung 10.4 IL2 TNF
43 myositis fibrosa 10.4 IFNG TLR2
44 chronic graft versus host disease 10.4 IFNG IL10
45 atopic keratoconjunctivitis 10.4 IFNG IL2
46 mycobacterium abscessus 10.4 TLR2 TNF
47 pericardial tuberculosis 10.4 IFNG IL10
48 meconium aspiration syndrome 10.4 IFNG TNF
49 central nervous system vasculitis 10.4 IFNG TNF
50 buruli ulcer 10.4 IFNG IL10

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Lepromatous Leprosy:



Diseases related to Lepromatous Leprosy

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Lepromatous Leprosy

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Lepromatous Leprosy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

25
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Synthetic lethal with MLN4924 (a NAE inhibitor) GR00250-A-1 9.32 CD2 ICAM1 IL10 IL2 TNF
2 Synthetic lethal with MLN4924 (a NAE inhibitor) GR00250-A-2 9.32 CD2 ICAM1 IL10 IL2 TNF

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Lepromatous Leprosy:

43 (show all 13)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 10.16 IFNG IFNGR1 ICAM1 IL10 IL12RB2 TNF
2 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 10.13 IL10 IFNG IL12RB1 IFNGR1 TLR2 TNF
3 digestive/alimentary MP:0005381 10.13 IFNGR1 IL12RB2 ICAM1 IL10 IFNG TNF
4 endocrine/exocrine gland MP:0005379 10.11 IFNG IFNGR1 IL12RB2 ICAM1 IL10 TNF
5 cellular MP:0005384 10.1 IL10 IFNG IFNGR1 ICAM1 TLR2 TNF
6 hematopoietic system MP:0005397 10.1 IFNG IL12RB1 IFNGR1 ICAM1 IL10 IL12RB2
7 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 10.07 IL10 IFNG IL12RB1 IFNGR1 ICAM1 IL12RB2
8 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.03 IL10 IFNG IL12RB1 ICAM1 TLR2 TNF
9 immune system MP:0005387 10.02 IFNG IL12RB1 IFNGR1 ICAM1 IL10 IL12RB2
10 integument MP:0010771 9.8 IL10 IFNG IFNGR1 ICAM1 TLR2 TNF
11 liver/biliary system MP:0005370 9.7 IL10 IFNG IFNGR1 IL12RB2 TNF IL2
12 muscle MP:0005369 9.43 IL10 IFNG ICAM1 TLR2 TNF VDR
13 neoplasm MP:0002006 9.23 IFNG IFNGR1 IL12RB2 ICAM1 IL10 TNF

Drugs & Therapeutics for Lepromatous Leprosy

Drugs for Lepromatous Leprosy (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 14)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Clofazimine Approved, Investigational Phase 4 2030-63-9 2794
2 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 4
3 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
4 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 4
5 Vitamins Phase 4
6
Acetylcholine Approved 51-84-3 187
7
Nitric Oxide Approved 10102-43-9 145068
8
Nitroprusside Approved, Investigational 15078-28-1 11963622
9 Antihypertensive Agents
10 Cholinergic Agents
11 Neurotransmitter Agents
12 Nitric Oxide Donors
13 Pharmaceutical Solutions
14 Vasodilator Agents

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Effect of Additional Clofazimine on Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL) Reactions in Leprosy Completed NCT01290744 Phase 4 Clofazimine;Placebo
2 Microcirculatory Impairment in Patients With Leprosy Completed NCT02085317 acetylcholine Iontophoresis;sodium nitroprusside Iontophoresis
3 Treatment Protocol for Clofazamine in the Long Term Treatment of Leprosy No longer available NCT00852345 clofazamine

Search NIH Clinical Center for Lepromatous Leprosy

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 69 / NDF-RT 47 :


Cochrane evidence based reviews: leprosy, lepromatous

Genetic Tests for Lepromatous Leprosy

Anatomical Context for Lepromatous Leprosy

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Lepromatous Leprosy:

38
Skin, T Cells, Monocytes, Bone, Testes, Lymph Node, Myeloid

Publications for Lepromatous Leprosy

Articles related to Lepromatous Leprosy:

(show top 50) (show all 561)
# Title Authors Year
1
The Armadillo Factor: Lepromatous Leprosy. ( 28623172 )
2017
2
Borderline lepromatous leprosy, Erythema Nodosum Leprosum and a generalized varicella zoster virus infection: a deadly combination. ( 28319279 )
2017
3
Mycobacterium lepromatosis Lepromatous Leprosy in US Citizen Who Traveled to Disease-Endemic Areas. ( 29048278 )
2017
4
Lepromatous leprosy-negative images giving the diagnostic clue. ( 29323094 )
2017
5
Two Cases of Lepromatous Leprosy from Exposure to Armadillos in Florida. ( 29139372 )
2017
6
Cytological Diagnosis of Primary Cutaneous Aspergillosis Masquerading as Lipoma in a Known Case of Lepromatous Leprosy. ( 28658789 )
2017
7
Primary Cutaneous Histoplasmosis Masquerading as Lepromatous Leprosy. ( 28273974 )
2017
8
Infiltration in a child's face due to borderline lepromatous leprosy. ( 29160527 )
2017
9
Th17 Response of Borderline-Lepromatous Leprosy Inhibits Rash Manifestation of Dapsone Hypersensitivity Syndrome: Case Report. ( 28937434 )
2017
10
Lepromatous leprosy simulating rheumatoid arthritis - Report of a neglected disease. ( 29186255 )
2017
11
Lepromatous leprosy in a renal transplant recipient. ( 28449328 )
2017
12
Structural and functional changes in the microcirculation of lepromatous leprosy patients - Observation using orthogonal polarization spectral imaging and laser Doppler flowmetry iontophoresis. ( 28419120 )
2017
13
Lepromatous leprosy with Lucio's phenomenon. ( 28660648 )
2017
14
Association between STR -794 CATT5-8 and SNP -173 G/C polymorphisms in the MIF gene and Lepromatous Leprosy in Mestizo patients of western Mexico. ( 27426952 )
2016
15
A Rare Case of Coexistence of Borderline Lepromatous Leprosy with Tuberculosis Verrucosa Cutis. ( 28003920 )
2016
16
Mycobacterium leprae-Infected Macrophages Preferentially Primed Regulatory T Cell Responses and Was Associated with Lepromatous Leprosy. ( 26751388 )
2016
17
Generalized granulomatous dermatitis following Mycobacterium w (Mw) immunotherapy in lepromatous leprosy. ( 27891733 )
2016
18
Hertoghe sign: a hallmark of lepromatous leprosy. ( 27026695 )
2016
19
Leg ulcer in lepromatous leprosy - Case report. ( 27828650 )
2016
20
Primary oral tuberculosis in a patient with lepromatous leprosy: Diagnostic dilemma. ( 26927999 )
2016
21
Crusted scabies in a patient with lepromatous leprosy. ( 27183357 )
2016
22
Borderline Lepromatous Leprosy: A Case to Remember. ( 26888945 )
2016
23
Role of TEFFECTOR/MEMORY Cells, TBX21 Gene Expression and T-Cell Homing Receptor on Type 1 Reaction in Borderline Lepromatous Leprosy Patients. ( 27764137 )
2016
24
A case of lepromatous leprosy with co-existing tuberculosis verrucosa cutis (TVC). ( 26502689 )
2015
25
Persistent serpentine supravenous hyperpigmented eruption in lepromatous leprosy after minocycline. ( 26502692 )
2015
26
A Lepromatous Leprosy Patient with Permanent Disability. ( 26537774 )
2015
27
Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Lepromatous Leprosy Coinfection. ( 26504603 )
2015
28
Activation and cytokine profile of monocyte derived dendritic cells in leprosy: in vitro stimulation by sonicated Mycobacterium leprae induces decreased level of IL-12p70 in lepromatous leprosy. ( 26222022 )
2015
29
What is your diagnosis? lepromatous leprosy. ( 25671446 )
2015
30
Disseminated cutaneous BCG infection following BCG immunotherapy in patients with lepromatous leprosy. ( 26502690 )
2015
31
Lepromatous leprosy: An Unusual Presentation. ( 26591848 )
2015
32
Lymph node abscess and cardiac involvement in a patient with nodular lepromatous leprosy (LL) with erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL): a rare occurrence. ( 26065155 )
2015
33
Diffuse Lepromatous Leprosy Due to Mycobacterium lepromatosis in Quintana Roo, Mexico. ( 26311856 )
2015
34
Dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome in a lepromatous leprosy patient--A Case Report. ( 26502691 )
2015
35
Borderline Lepromatous Leprosy with Type 1 (Reversal) Reactions in a Chinese Man. ( 26251526 )
2015
36
Borderline Lepromatous Leprosy: Cutaneous Manifestation and Type 1 Reversal Reaction. ( 26439279 )
2015
37
Osteological, biomolecular and geochemical examination of an early anglo-saxon case of lepromatous leprosy. ( 25970602 )
2015
38
A case of secondary syphilis with HIV, resembling borderline lepromatous leprosy. ( 26692613 )
2015
39
Laryngeal involvement causing dysphonia in a 29 year old nursing mother with lepromatous leprosy. ( 26327983 )
2015
40
Differential dermal expression of CCL17 and CCL18 in tuberculoid and lepromatous leprosy. ( 25412496 )
2014
41
A case of lepromatous leprosy complicated by hemophagocytosis misdiagnosed as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. ( 24657272 )
2014
42
Lepromatous leprosy and perianal tuberculosis: a case report and literature review. ( 25180030 )
2014
43
Case of lepromatous leprosy misdiagnosed as systemic sclerosis. ( 24480058 )
2014
44
Increase in TGF-I^ secreting CD4a8_CD25a8_ FOXP3a8_ T regulatory cells in anergic lepromatous leprosy patients. ( 24454972 )
2014
45
Fulminant hepatic failure in a 15 year old boy with borderline lepromatous leprosy and type 2 reaction. ( 24974443 )
2014
46
T-cell regulation in lepromatous leprosy. ( 24722473 )
2014
47
Verrucous lepromatous leprosy: a rare form of presentation--report on two cases. ( 24937824 )
2014
48
Oral manifestation of lepromatous leprosy: diagnosis and management. ( 24848267 )
2014
49
Lepromatous leprosy mimicking systemic lupus erythematosus: a clinical pathology conference held by the division of rheumatology at hospital for special surgery. ( 25264448 )
2014
50
Novel presentation of lepromatous leprosy in an erythema gyratum repens-like pattern. ( 24320626 )
2014

Variations for Lepromatous Leprosy

Expression for Lepromatous Leprosy

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Lepromatous Leprosy.

Pathways for Lepromatous Leprosy

Pathways related to Lepromatous Leprosy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 65)
# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
13.95 ICAM1 IFNG IFNGR1 IL10 IL12RB1 IL12RB2
2
Show member pathways
13.6 CD2 IFNG IFNGR1 IL10 IL12RB1 IL12RB2
3
Show member pathways
13.44 CD2 ICAM1 IFNG IFNGR1 IL10 IL12RB1
4
Show member pathways
13.36 CD2 IL10 IL12RB1 IL12RB2 IL2 TLR2
5
Show member pathways
13.28 ICAM1 IFNG IFNGR1 IL10 IL12RB1 IL12RB2
6
Show member pathways
13.25 CD2 IL10 IL12RB1 IL12RB2 IL2 TNF
7
Show member pathways
13.12 IFNG IFNGR1 IL2 TLR2 TNF
8
Show member pathways
12.83 ICAM1 IFNG IL10 IL2 TNF
9 12.82 IFNG IFNGR1 IL12RB1 IL12RB2 IL2
10
Show member pathways
12.77 ICAM1 IFNG IFNGR1 IL2 TLR2 TNF
11
Show member pathways
12.58 IFNG IL10 IL12RB1 IL2 TNF
12
Show member pathways
12.54 ICAM1 IFNGR1 TLR2 TNF
13 12.53 CD2 IFNG IL10 IL2 TLR2 TNF
14
Show member pathways
12.53 IFNG IFNGR1 IL10 IL12RB1 IL12RB2 IL2
15
Show member pathways
12.5 ICAM1 IFNG IFNGR1 IL2 TNF
16
Show member pathways
12.49 IFNG IFNGR1 IL10 IL2 TLR2 TNF
17
Show member pathways
12.42 IFNG IL10 IL2 TNF
18
Show member pathways
12.33 ICAM1 IFNG IL2 TNF
19
Show member pathways
12.26 IFNG IFNGR1 IL10 IL12RB1 IL12RB2 IL2
20
Show member pathways
12.25 IFNG IFNGR1 IL10 TLR2 TNF
21
Show member pathways
12.2 IFNG IFNGR1 TNF
22
Show member pathways
12.19 IFNG IFNGR1 TLR2 TNF
23 12.19 IFNG IFNGR1 TLR2 TNF
24
Show member pathways
12.17 IFNG IL10 IL2 TNF
25
Show member pathways
12.15 IFNG IFNGR1 TNF
26 12.1 IFNG IFNGR1 IL10 TLR2 TNF VDR
27
Show member pathways
12.1 IFNG IFNGR1 IL10 IL12RB1 IL12RB2 IL2
28 12.05 ICAM1 IFNG TNF
29 12.02 ICAM1 IFNG IL2 TNF
30 12.01 IFNG IFNGR1 TNF
31
Show member pathways
11.98 IFNG IL12RB1 IL12RB2 IL2
32 11.95 ICAM1 IL10 TNF
33 11.94 CD2 IFNG IL10 IL2 TNF
34 11.9 IFNG IL10 TLR2 TNF
35 11.87 ICAM1 IFNG TLR2 TNF
36
Show member pathways
11.85 IFNG IL12RB1 TLR2
37 11.8 ICAM1 IFNG IL2
38
Show member pathways
11.77 IFNG IL2 TNF
39 11.77 IFNG IL10 IL2 TNF
40 11.71 ICAM1 IL10 TLR2 TNF
41 11.71 IFNG IFNGR1 IL10 IL12RB1 IL12RB2 IL2
42
Show member pathways
11.68 ICAM1 IFNG IL2 TNF
43
Show member pathways
11.66 IFNG IL2 TNF
44 11.58 IFNG IL2 TNF
45
Show member pathways
11.57 IFNG IFNGR1 TNF
46 11.55 ICAM1 IL10 TNF
47 11.54 IFNG IL2 TNF
48 11.54 IFNG TLR2 TNF
49 11.54 IFNG IL10 IL12RB1 IL12RB2 IL2 TNF
50 11.52 IFNG IL10 IL12RB2 IL2

GO Terms for Lepromatous Leprosy

Cellular components related to Lepromatous Leprosy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 integral component of plasma membrane GO:0005887 9.43 CD2 ICAM1 IFNGR1 IL12RB2 TLR2 TNF
2 external side of plasma membrane GO:0009897 8.92 CD2 ICAM1 IL12RB2 TNF

Biological processes related to Lepromatous Leprosy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 39)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 regulation of receptor activity GO:0010469 9.93 IFNG IL10 IL2 TNF
2 positive regulation of gene expression GO:0010628 9.88 IFNG TLR2 TNF VDR
3 immune response GO:0006955 9.83 IFNG IL10 IL2 TLR2 TNF
4 positive regulation of protein phosphorylation GO:0001934 9.82 IFNG IL2 TNF
5 positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity GO:0051092 9.79 ICAM1 TLR2 TNF
6 cellular response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0071222 9.78 ICAM1 IL10 TNF
7 response to virus GO:0009615 9.72 IFNG IFNGR1 TNF
8 response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0032496 9.71 ICAM1 IL10 IL12RB2 TLR2
9 interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway GO:0060333 9.69 ICAM1 IFNG IFNGR1
10 positive regulation of cytokine secretion GO:0050715 9.68 IL10 TNF
11 protein import into nucleus, translocation GO:0000060 9.68 IFNG TNF
12 positive regulation of interleukin-8 production GO:0032757 9.67 TLR2 TNF
13 positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation GO:0042104 9.67 IL12RB1 IL2
14 response to insulin GO:0032868 9.67 ICAM1 IL10 TLR2
15 negative regulation of interleukin-6 production GO:0032715 9.66 IL10 TNF
16 positive regulation of interleukin-12 production GO:0032735 9.66 IFNG TLR2
17 positive regulation of protein complex assembly GO:0031334 9.65 IFNG TNF
18 positive regulation of NF-kappaB import into nucleus GO:0042346 9.65 TLR2 TNF
19 positive regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation GO:1904707 9.65 IL10 TNF
20 natural killer cell activation GO:0030101 9.64 CD2 IL2
21 positive regulation of osteoclast differentiation GO:0045672 9.63 IFNG TNF
22 positive regulation of chemokine production GO:0032722 9.62 TLR2 TNF
23 positive regulation of membrane protein ectodomain proteolysis GO:0051044 9.61 IFNG TNF
24 negative regulation of growth of symbiont in host GO:0044130 9.6 IL10 TNF
25 positive regulation of interleukin-8 secretion GO:2000484 9.59 CD2 TLR2
26 regulation of regulatory T cell differentiation GO:0045589 9.58 IFNG IL2
27 regulation of interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway GO:0060334 9.57 IFNG IFNGR1
28 response to molecule of bacterial origin GO:0002237 9.56 IL10 TLR2
29 positive regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion GO:0034116 9.54 IL10 TNF
30 positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process GO:0045429 9.54 ICAM1 IFNG TNF
31 endothelial cell apoptotic process GO:0072577 9.52 IL10 TNF
32 positive regulation of leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelial cell GO:1904996 9.48 ICAM1 TNF
33 negative regulation of cytokine secretion involved in immune response GO:0002740 9.46 IL10 TNF
34 receptor biosynthetic process GO:0032800 9.32 IL10 TNF
35 positive regulation of calcidiol 1-monooxygenase activity GO:0060559 9.26 IFNG TNF
36 interleukin-12-mediated signaling pathway GO:0035722 9.26 IFNG IL10 IL12RB1 IL12RB2
37 positive regulation of vitamin D biosynthetic process GO:0060557 9.16 IFNG TNF
38 positive regulation of interferon-gamma production GO:0032729 8.92 IL12RB1 IL12RB2 IL2 TNF
39 positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II GO:0045944 10.07 IL10 IL2 TLR2 TNF VDR

Molecular functions related to Lepromatous Leprosy according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cytokine activity GO:0005125 8.92 IFNG IL10 IL2 TNF

Sources for Lepromatous Leprosy

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HGMD
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 MedGen
41 MeSH
42 MESH via Orphanet
43 MGI
45 NCI
46 NCIt
47 NDF-RT
50 NINDS
51 Novoseek
53 OMIM
54 OMIM via Orphanet
58 PubMed
60 QIAGEN
65 SNOMED-CT via HPO
66 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67 TGDB
68 Tocris
69 UMLS
70 UMLS via Orphanet
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