MCID: LKM062
MIFTS: 58

Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic malady

Genetic diseases, Rare diseases, Cancer diseases, Blood diseases, Immune diseases categories

Aliases & Classifications for Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic

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Sources:
46OMIM, 30LifeMap Discovery®, 8Disease Ontology, 9diseasecard, 42NIH Rare Diseases, 44Novoseek, 48Orphanet, 32MedlinePlus, 61UMLS, 56SNOMED-CT, 27ICD9CM, 39NCIt, 34MESH via Orphanet, 26ICD10 via Orphanet, 62UMLS via Orphanet, 25ICD10
See all sources

Aliases & Descriptions for Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic:

Name: Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic 46 9 30
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia 30 8 42 32 61
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia 30 8 42
Acute Monoblastic Leukemia 42 48 61
Acute Monocytic Leukemia 42 48 61
Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Type 5 42 48
Aml-M5 42 48
Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic, Susceptibility to 9
 
Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia Lymphoma 61
T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Somatic 46
M5b Acute Differentiated Monocytic Leukemia 61
Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic, Somatic 46
Lymphoblastic Leukemia Acute 44
Leukemia, Acute Lymphocytic 46
All 42


Classifications:



Characteristics (Orphanet epidemiological data):

48
acute monoblastic leukemia:
Prevalence: 1-9/1000000 (Europe); Age of onset: Childhood


External Ids:

OMIM46 613065
Disease Ontology8 DOID:9952
ICD9CM27 204.0
NCIt39 C3167
Orphanet48 514
MESH via Orphanet34 D007948
ICD10 via Orphanet26 C92.7
UMLS via Orphanet62 C0457334, C1318544
ICD1025 C91.0

Summaries for Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic

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MedlinePlus:32 Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. white blood cells help your body fight infection. your blood cells form in your bone marrow. in leukemia, however, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. these cells crowd out the healthy blood cells, making it hard for blood to do its work. in acute lymphocytic leukemia (all), also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia, there are too many of specific types of white blood cells called lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. all is the most common type of cancer in children. possible risk factors for all include being male, being white, previous chemotherapy treatment, exposure to radiation, and for adults, being older than 70. symptoms of all include: weakness or feeling tired fever easy bruising or bleeding bleeding under the skin shortness of breath weight loss or loss of appetite pain in the bones or stomach pain or a feeling of fullness below the ribs painless lumps in the neck, underarm, stomach, or groin tests that examine the blood and bone marrow diagnose all. treatments include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplants, and targeted therapy. targeted therapy uses substances that attack cancer cells without harming normal cells. once the leukemia is in remission, you need additional treatment to make sure that it does not come back. nih: national cancer institute

MalaCards based summary: Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic, also known as acute lymphocytic leukemia, is related to precursor b-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and burkitt lymphoma, and has symptoms including acute lymphatic leukemiaand polygenic inheritance. An important gene associated with Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic is BAX (BCL2-associated X protein), and among its related pathways are Sorafenib Pharmacodynamics and Id Signaling Pathway. The drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide and the compounds homoharringtonine and ponatinib have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include bone marrow, bone and monocytes, and related mouse phenotypes are hearing/vestibular/ear and hematopoietic system.

Disease Ontology:8 A lymphoblastic leukemia that is characterized by over production of lymphoblasts.

OMIM:46 Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), also known as acute lymphocytic leukemia, is a subtype of acute leukemia, a cancer... (613065) more...

Related Diseases for Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic

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Diseases in the Lymphoblastic Leukemia family:

leukemia, acute lymphoblastic Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic 3

Diseases related to Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 409)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1precursor b-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia31.4BCR, PAX5, FLT3
2burkitt lymphoma30.9PAX5, BCR, BAX
3chronic lymphocytic leukemia30.9PAX5, BCR, BAX
4chronic myelomonocytic leukemia30.9BCR, FLT3
5hodgkin lymphoma30.8BCR, PAX5, FLT3
6acute lymphoblastic leukemia, childhood30.6FLT3, IKZF1, BCR, BAX
7precursor t-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia30.4BAX, BCR, IKZF1, PAX5, FLT3, PICALM
8follicular lymphoma30.4BAX, BCR, PAX5
9acute leukemia30.3BCR, PAX5, FLT3
10myeloma30.2PAX5, BCR, BAX
11leukemia, chronic myeloid30.1FLT3, IKZF1, BCR
12leukemia30.0PICALM, FLT3, PAX5, TCF3, IKZF1, BCR
13b-cell lymphomas30.0FLT3, PAX5, IKZF1, BCR, BAX
14myeloid leukemia29.9PICALM, FLT3, BCR, BAX
15adult acute lymphocytic leukemia11.0
16lymphoblastic leukemia11.0
17lymphoblastic lymphoma10.9
18hematopoietic stem cell transplantation10.8
19childhood leukemia10.8
20glucocorticoid resistance10.8
21hypercalcemia10.7
22sarcoma10.7
23down syndrome10.7
24endotheliitis10.7
25wilms tumor10.6
26bone marrow necrosis10.6
27hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis10.6
28osteonecrosis10.6
29retinitis10.6
30obesity10.6
31hepatitis10.6
32neutropenia10.6
33eosinophilia10.6
34pancreatitis10.6
35breast cancer10.5
36ataxia-telangiectasia10.5
37hypertriglyceridemia10.5
38fusariosis10.5
39cerebritis10.5
40ataxia10.5
41histiocytic sarcoma10.5
42myelodysplastic syndrome10.5
43arthritis10.5
44hyperphosphatemia10.5
45influenza10.5
46meningitis10.5
47neuropathy10.5
48familial acute lymphocytic leukemia10.5
49myelofibrosis10.5
50severe congenital neutropenia10.5

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic:



Diseases related to leukemia, acute lymphoblastic

Symptoms for Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic

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Clinical features from OMIM:

613065

HPO human phenotypes related to Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic:

id Description Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 acute lymphatic leukemia HP:0006721
2 polygenic inheritance HP:0010982

Drugs & Therapeutics for Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic

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FDA approved drugs:

(show all 7)
id Drug Name Active Ingredient(s)13 Pharmaceutical Company Approval Date
1
Arranon13 38 NELARABINE GlaxoSmithKline Approved October 2005
FDA Label: Arranon
Malady that Drug Treats: Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Indications and Usage:13 ARRANON is a nucleoside metabolic inhibitor indicated for the treatment of; patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and T-cell lymphoblastic; lymphoma whose disease has not responded to or has relapsed following; treatment with at least two chemotherapy regimens. This use is based on the; induction of complete responses. Randomized trials demonstrating increased; survival or other clinical benefit have not been conducted. (1)
DrugBank Targets:11 DNA
Mechanism of Action:13 
Target: DNA synthesis
Action: disruptor --> apoptosis
FDA: Nelarabine is a pro-drug of the deoxyguanosine analogue 9-²-D-arabinofuranosylguanine; 266 (ara-G), a nucleoside metabolic inhibitor. Nelarabine is demethylated by adenosine deaminase; 267 (ADA) to ara-G, mono-phosphorylated by deoxyguanosine kinase and deoxycytidine kinase, and; 268 subsequently converted to the active 5 -triphosphate, ara-GTP. Accumulation of ara-GTP in; 269 leukemic blasts allows for incorporation into deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), leading to inhibition; 270 of DNA synthesis and cell death. Other mechanisms may contribute to the cytotoxic and; 271 systemic toxicity of nelarabine.
2
Blincyto13 38 BLINATUMOMAB Amgen Approved December 2014
FDA Label: Blincyto
Malady that Drug Treats: Philadelphia chromosome-negative relapsed /refractory B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Indications and Usage:13 BLINCYTO is a bispecific CD19-directed CD3 T-cell engager indicated for; the treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-negative relapsed or refractory Bcell; precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This indication is; approved under accelerated approval. Continued approval for this indication; may be contingent upon verification of clinical benefit in subsequent trials. (1)
DrugBank Targets:11 1. B-lymphocyte antigen CD19; 2. T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 delta chain
Mechanism of Action:13 
Target: CD19-directed CD3 T-cell
Action: engager
FDA: Blinatumomab is a bispecific CD19-directed CD3 T-cell engager that binds to CD19 expressed on the; surface of cells of B-lineage origin and CD3 expressed on the surface of T cells. It activates endogenous; T cells by connecting CD3 in the T-cell receptor (TCR) complex with CD19 on benign and malignant B; cells. Blinatumomab mediates the formation of a synapse between the T cell and the tumor cell,; upregulation of cell adhesion molecules, production of cytolytic proteins, release of inflammatory; cytokines, and proliferation of T cells, which result in redirected lysis of CD19+ cells.
3
Clolar13 38 CLOFARABINE Genzyme Approved December, 2004
FDA Label: Clolar
Malady that Drug Treats: Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Indications and Usage:13 Clolar (clofarabine) injection is a purine nucleoside metabolic inhibitor; indicated for the treatment of pediatric patients 1 to 21 years old with relapsed; or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia after at least two prior regimens.; This indication is based upon response rate. There are no trials verifying an; improvement in disease-related symptoms or increased survival with Clolar.; (1)
DrugBank Targets:11 1. DNA polymerase alpha catalytic subunit; 2. Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunit; 3. DNA
Mechanism of Action:13 
Target: ribonucleotide reductase
Action: inhibitor
FDA: Clofarabine is sequentially metabolized intracellularly to the 5 -monophosphate metabolite by; deoxycytidine kinase and mono- and di-phospho-kinases to the active 5 -triphosphate metabolite.; Clofarabine has affinity for the activating phosphorylating enzyme, deoxycytidine kinase, equal; to or greater than that of the natural substrate, deoxycytidine. Clofarabine inhibits DNA synthesis; by decreasing cellular deoxynucleotide triphosphate pools through an inhibitory action on; ribonucleotide reductase, and by terminating DNA chain elongation and inhibiting repair through; incorporation into the DNA chain by competitive inhibition of DNA polymerases. The affinity of; clofarabine triphosphate for these enzymes is similar to or greater than that of deoxyadenosine; triphosphate. In preclinical models, clofarabine has demonstrated the ability to inhibit DNA; repair by incorporation into the DNA chain during the repair process. Clofarabine 5 -; triphosphate also disrupts the integrity of mitochondrial membrane, leading to the release of the; pro-apoptotic mitochondrial proteins, cytochrome C and apoptosis-inducing factor, leading to; programmed cell death.; Clofarabine is cytotoxic to rapidly proliferating and quiescent cancer cell types in vitro.
4
Erwinaze13 38 asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi Eusa Pharma Approved November of 2011
FDA Label: Erwinaze
Malady that Drug Treats: acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Indications and Usage:13 ERWINAZE (asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi) is an asparagine specific; enzyme indicated as a component of a multi-agent chemotherapeutic regimen; for the treatment of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who; have developed hypersensitivity to E. coli-derived asparaginase. (1)
DrugBank Targets:11 -
Mechanism of Action:13 
Target: deamidation of asparagine to aspartic acid and ammonia
Action: catalyzer
FDA: Asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi catalyzes the deamidation of asparagine to aspartic acid and ammonia, resulting; in a reduction in circulating levels of asparagine. The mechanism of action of ERWINAZE is thought to be based on; the inability of leukemic cells to synthesize asparagine due to lack of asparagine synthetase activity, resulting in; cytotoxicity specific for leukemic cells that depend on an exogenous source of amino acid asparagine for their; protein metabolism and survival.
5
Iclusig13 38 PONATINIB HYDROCHLORIDE Ariad Pharmaceuticals Approved December 2012
FDA Label: Iclusig
Malady that Drug Treats: chronic myeloid leukemia and Philadelphia chromosome positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Indications and Usage:13 Iclusig is a kinase inhibitor indicated for the:; Treatment of adult patients with T315I-positive chronic myeloid; leukemia (chronic phase, accelerated phase, or blast phase) or T315Ipositive; Philadelphia chromosome positive acute lymphoblastic; leukemia (Ph+ ALL).; Treatment of adult patients with chronic phase, accelerated phase, or; blast phase chronic myeloid leukemia or Ph+ ALL for whom no other; tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy is indicated. (1); These indications are based upon response rate. There are no trials verifying an; improvement in disease-related symptoms or increased survival with Iclusig.
DrugBank Targets:11 1. Tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1; 2. Breakpoint cluster region protein; 3. Mast/stem cell growth factor receptor Kit; 4. Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase receptor Ret; 5. Angiopoietin-1 receptor; 6. Receptor-type tyrosine-protein kinase FLT3; 7. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1; 8. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2; 9. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3; 10. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4; 11. Tyrosine-protein kinase Lck; 12. Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src; 13. Tyrosine-protein kinase Lyn; 14. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2; 15. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha
Mechanism of Action:13 
Target: tyrosine kinase activity of ABL and T315I mutant ABL
Action: inhibitor
FDA: Ponatinib is a kinase inhibitor. Ponatinib inhibited the in vitro tyrosine kinase activity of ABL and T315I mutant ABL with; IC50 concentrations of 0.4 and 2.0 nM, respectively. Ponatinib inhibited the in vitro activity of additional kinases with IC50; concentrations between 0.1 and 20 nM, including members of the VEGFR, PDGFR, FGFR, EPH receptors and SRC; families of kinases, and KIT, RET, TIE2, and FLT3. Ponatinib inhibited the in vitro viability of cells expressing native or; mutant BCR-ABL, including T315I. In mice, treatment with ponatinib reduced the size of tumors expressing native or; T315I mutant BCR-ABL when compared to controls.
6
Marqibo13 38 VINCRISTINE SULFATE Talon Therapeutics Approved August 2012
FDA Label: Marqibo
Malady that Drug Treats: Ph- acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Indications and Usage:13 Marqibo is a vinca alkaloid indicated for the treatment of adult patients with; Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph-) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL); in second or greater relapse or whose disease has progressed following two or; more anti-leukemia therapies. This indication is based on overall response; rate. Clinical benefit such as improvement in overall survival has not been; verified (1.1).
DrugBank Targets:11 1. Tubulin beta chain; 2. Tubulin alpha-4A chain
Mechanism of Action:13 
Target: tubulin
Action: alters polymerization equilibrium
FDA: Marqibo is a sphingomyelin/cholesterol liposome-encapsulated formulation of vincristine sulfate.; Non-liposomal vincristine sulfate binds to tubulin, altering the tubulin polymerization equilibrium, resulting in; altered microtubule structure and function. Non-liposomal vincristine sulfate stabilizes the spindle apparatus,; preventing chromosome segregation, triggering metaphase arrest and inhibition of mitosis.
7
Sprycel13 38 DASATINIB Bristol-Myers Squibb Approved June 2006
FDA Label: Sprycel
Malady that Drug Treats: Chronic Myeloid Leukemia
Indications and Usage:13 SPRYCEL is a kinase inhibitor indicated for the treatment of; newly diagnosed adults with Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+); chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in chronic phase. (1, 14); adults with chronic, accelerated, or myeloid or lymphoid blast phase Ph+; CML with resistance or intolerance to prior therapy including imatinib. (1,; 14); adults with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic; leukemia (Ph+ ALL) with resistance or intolerance to prior therapy. (1, 14)
DrugBank Targets:11 1. Tyrosine-protein kinase ABL1; 2. Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src; 3. Ephrin type-A receptor 2; 4. Tyrosine-protein kinase Lck; 5. Tyrosine-protein kinase Yes; 6. Mast/stem cell growth factor receptor Kit; 7. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta; 8. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B; 9. Abelson tyrosine-protein kinase 2; 10. Tyrosine-protein kinase Fyn
Mechanism of Action:13 
Target: BCR-ABL, SRC family; (SRC, LCK, YES, FYN), c-KIT, EPHA2, and PDGFR² kinases
Action: inhibitor
FDA: Dasatinib, at nanomolar concentrations, inhibits the following kinases: BCR-ABL, SRC family; (SRC, LCK, YES, FYN), c-KIT, EPHA2, and PDGFR². Based on modeling studies, dasatinib is; predicted to bind to multiple conformations of the ABL kinase.; In vitro, dasatinib was active in leukemic cell lines representing variants of imatinib mesylate; sensitive and resistant disease. Dasatinib inhibited the growth of chronic myeloid leukemia; (CML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell lines overexpressing BCR-ABL. Under the; conditions of the assays, dasatinib was able to overcome imatinib resistance resulting from BCRABL; kinase domain mutations, activation of alternate signaling pathways involving the SRC; family kinases (LYN, HCK), and multi-drug resistance gene overexpression.

Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic

Search NIH Clinical Center for Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic

Inferred drug relations via UMLS61/NDF-RT40:

Cell-based therapeutics:


LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
Read about Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic cell therapies at LifeMap Discovery.

Genetic Tests for Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic

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Anatomical Context for Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic

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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic:

31
Bone marrow, Bone, Monocytes, Skin, Testes, T cells, B cells, Myeloid

LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database

Cells/anatomical compartments in embryo or adult related to Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic:
id TissueAnatomical CompartmentCell Relevance
1 BloodHematopoietic Bone MarrowHematopoietic Stem Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
2 BloodPeripheral BloodMature B-Cells Potential therapeutic candidate, affected by disease
3 BloodHematopoietic Bone MarrowSmall Pre B-Cells Potential therapeutic candidate, affected by disease

Animal Models for Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic or affiliated genes

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MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic:

35
idDescriptionMGI Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MP:00053779.4BAX, BCR, PAX5
2MP:00053977.3BAX, PICALM, FLT3, PAX5, TCF3, IKZF1
3MP:00053877.3PICALM, FLT3, PAX5, TCF3, IKZF1, BCR
4MP:00053847.2PICALM, FLT3, PAX5, TCF3, IKZF1, BCR
5MP:00053787.1PICALM, FLT3, PAX5, TCF3, IKZF1, BCR
6MP:00107686.9PICALM, FLT3, PAX5, TCF3, IKZF1, BCR

Publications for Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic

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Articles related to Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic:

idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Molecular analysis of the CALM/AF10 fusion: identical rearrangements in acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and malignant lymphoma patients. (10637482)
2000
2
Expression of MDR1 gene in acute leukemia cells: association with CD7+ acute myeloblastic leukemia/acute lymphoblastic leukemia. (7694687)
1993

Variations for Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic

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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot genetic disease variations for Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic:

63
id Symbol AA change Variation ID SNP ID
1PAX5p.Gly183SerVAR_070682

Clinvar genetic disease variations for Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic:

5
id Gene Variation Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1FLT3NM_004119.2(FLT3): c.2504A> T (p.Asp835Val)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs121909646GRCh37Chr 13, 28592641: 28592641
2FLT3NM_004119.2(FLT3): c.2503G> T (p.Asp835Tyr)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs121913488GRCh37Chr 13, 28592642: 28592642
3FLT3FLT3, 3-BP DEL, NT1777deletionPathogenic

Expression for genes affiliated with Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic

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Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic

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Pathways related to Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
9.7BAX, FLT3
29.5TCF3, PAX5
39.4FLT3, BCR, BAX
49.1IKZF1, TCF3, PAX5
59.1TCF3, PAX5, FLT3

Compounds for genes affiliated with Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic

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Compounds related to Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1homoharringtonine44 50 1112.0BAX, BCR
2ponatinib50 1110.8FLT3, BCR
32-methoxyestradiol44 60 2411.8BAX, PAX5
4gp 130449.7BCR, FLT3
5rituximab44 50 1111.7PAX5, BCR
6daunorubicin44 50 1111.6BAX, FLT3
7cytarabine44 50 1111.6BAX, BCR, FLT3
8leucine448.6BCR, IKZF1, PICALM

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic

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Biological processes related to Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 7)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1retina development in camera-type eyeGO:00600419.8IKZF1, BAX
2peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylationGO:00181089.7BCR, FLT3
3Peyers patch developmentGO:00485419.7IKZF1, TCF3
4natural killer cell differentiationGO:00017799.6IKZF1, TCF3
5regulation of cell cycleGO:00517269.5BAX, BCR
6B cell differentiationGO:00301839.3IKZF1, TCF3, FLT3
7hemopoiesisGO:00300979.1FLT3, PICALM

Molecular functions related to Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1protein heterodimerization activityGO:00469829.3BAX, IKZF1, TCF3

Sources for Leukemia, Acute Lymphoblastic

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2CDC
12ExPASy
13FDA
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
28IUPHAR
29KEGG
33MeSH
34MESH via Orphanet
35MGI
38NCI
39NCIt
40NDF-RT
43NINDS
44Novoseek
46OMIM
47OMIM via Orphanet
51PubMed
52QIAGEN
57SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
61UMLS
62UMLS via Orphanet