MCID: LKP003
MIFTS: 46

Leukoplakia malady

Rare diseases category

Summaries for Leukoplakia

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44NIH Rare Diseases, 66Wikipedia, 34MalaCards
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NIH Rare Diseases:44 Leukoplakia is a condition in which thickened, white patches form on the tongue, gums, inside of the cheek, or sometimes on the outer female genitals. although the sores can vary in appearance, they are usually white or gray; thick; and slightly raised with a hard surface. the condition is thought to be caused by irritation, but the cause is not always known. tobacco is considered to be the main cause of its development in the mouth. most patches are benign, but a small percentage show early signs of cancer. removing the source of irritation may cause the condition to go away, but surgery to remove the sore(s) may be necessary in some cases. last updated: 5/21/2012

MalaCards: Leukoplakia is related to oral leukoplakia and lichen planus. An important gene associated with Leukoplakia is KRT4 (keratin 4), and among its related pathways are Glutathione metabolism and Platinum Pathway, Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics. The compounds methylchloride and drugs for treatment of tuberculosis have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include tongue, liver and prostate, and related mouse phenotype homeostasis/metabolism.

Wikipedia:66 Leukoplakia (also termed leucoplakia,leukokeratosis,leukoplasia,idiopathic leukoplakia,idiopathic... more...

Aliases & Classifications for Leukoplakia

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Sources:
44NIH Rare Diseases, 46Novoseek, 63UMLS
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Classifications:

Malacards categories (disease lists): (See all malacards categories)
Global: Rare diseases


Aliases & Descriptions:

leukoplakia 44 46 63


Related Diseases for Leukoplakia

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Sources:
18GeneCards, 19GeneDecks
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Diseases related to Leukoplakia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards/GeneDecks gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 182)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1oral leukoplakia31.7MKI67, TP63, GSTM1, RARB, KRT1
2lichen planus31.0KRT13, KRT1
3oral cancer30.6CYP1A1, TNC, GSTM1, GSTT1, RARB, KRT13
4keratosis30.6KRT1
5papilloma30.4TP63, KRT13
6esophageal cancer30.1RARB, CYP1A1
7leukemia29.9CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1, RARB
8barrett's esophagus29.9MKI67, CYP1A1
9sarcoma29.8MKI67, TP63, GSTM1
10non-hodgkin lymphoma29.8GSTT1, GSTM1, CYP1A1
11acute lymphocytic leukemia29.8GSTT1, GSTM1, CYP1A1
12basal cell carcinoma29.7CYP1A1, MKI67, TP63, GSTM1, GSTT1
13breast cancer29.5CYP1A1, MKI67, TNC, TP63, GSTM1, GSTT1
14oral squamous cell carcinoma10.6
15candidiasis10.5
16oral candidiasis10.4
17oral lichen planus10.4
18oral submucous fibrosis10.4
19erythroplakia10.3
20esophageal leukoplakia10.3
21esophagitis10.3
22uterine cervix leukoplakia10.3
23laryngitis10.3
24leukoplakia of penis10.2
25leukoplakia of vagina10.2
26dyskeratosis congenita10.2
27periodontitis10.1
28blindness10.1
29actinic keratosis10.1TP63
30hereditary mucosal leukokeratosis10.1KRT4, KRT13
31esophageal squamous cell carcinoma10.1GSTM1, RARB
32inverted papilloma10.1MKI67, KRT13
33bowen syndrome10.1KRT1, MKI67
34phyllode tumor10.1TP63, MKI67
35asbestosis10.1GSTM1, GSTT1
36senile cataract10.1GSTT1, GSTM1
37open-angle glaucoma10.1GSTT1, GSTM1
38cholesteatoma10.1RARB, KRT13
39breast fibroadenoma10.1TP63, MKI67
40cervical squamous cell carcinoma10.1MKI67, TP63
41adenoid cystic carcinoma10.0TP63, MKI67
42pneumonia10.0GSTM1, CYP1A1
43laryngeal benign neoplasm10.0MKI67, GSTT1
44aplastic anemia10.0GSTT1, GSTM1
45cleft lip10.0TP63, GSTM1
46neuroendocrine carcinoma10.0TP63, KRT1
47synovial sarcoma10.0MKI67, KRT1, KRT13
48bladder carcinoma10.0GSTT1, GSTM1, MKI67
49papillary carcinoma10.0MKI67, TP63, RARB
50mucoepidermoid carcinoma10.0MKI67, TP63, KRT13

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Leukoplakia:



Diseases related to leukoplakia

Symptoms for Leukoplakia

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Drugs & Therapeutics for Leukoplakia

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Sources:
6CenterWatch, 43NIH Clinical Center, 7ClinicalTrials, 63UMLS, 42NDF-RT
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Approved drugs:

Search CenterWatch for Leukoplakia

Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Leukoplakia

Search NIH Clinical Center for Leukoplakia

Search CenterWatch for Leukoplakia

Genetic Tests for Leukoplakia

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Anatomical Context for Leukoplakia

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34MalaCards
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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Leukoplakia:

34
Tongue, Liver, Prostate, Testes, Bone marrow, Bone, Myeloid, T cells, Endothelial, Salivary gland, Breast

Animal Models for Leukoplakia or affiliated genes

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38MGI
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MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Leukoplakia:

38
idDescriptionMGI Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MP:00053767.2KRT1, GSTT1, GSTM1, TP63, TNC, CYP1A1

Publications for Leukoplakia

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53PubMed
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Articles related to Leukoplakia:

(show top 50)    (show all 701)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Upregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor 4 in oral leukoplakia. (23492901)
2013
2
Candidal infection in oral leukoplakia: a clinicopathologic study of 396 patients from eastern China. (22683201)
2013
3
Comprehensive SNP scan of DNA repair and DNA damage response genes reveal multiple susceptibility loci conferring risk to tobacco associated leukoplakia and oral cancer. (23437280)
2013
4
Expression of Bak and Bak/Mcl-1 ratio can predict photodynamic therapy outcome for oral verrucous hyperplasia and leukoplakia. (22974427)
2013
5
Plasma zinc antioxidant vitamins, glutathione levels and total antioxidant activity in oral leukoplakia. (22623931)
2012
6
Immunohistochemical evaluation of mast cells and vascular endothelial proliferation in oral precancerous lesion-leukoplakia. (23248463)
2012
7
Prognostic value of DNA ploidy status in patients with oral leukoplakia. (21880540)
2011
8
Clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical expression of p53, Ki-67, Mcm-2 and Mcm-5 in proliferative verrucous leukoplakia. (20412398)
2010
9
Glycogenic acanthosis presenting as leukoplakia on the tongue. (22778105)
2010
10
Oral hairy leukoplakia in HIV-negative patients: report of 10 cases. (19033322)
2010
11
Treatment of oral leukoplakia with carbon dioxide and potassium-titanyl-phosphate lasers: a comparison. (20171477)
2010
12
Human papillomavirus in oral leukoplakia is no prognostic indicator of malignant transformation. (19679058)
2009
13
Gene expression analysis by oligonucleotide microarray in oral leukoplakia. (19220711)
2009
14
Genomic instability and tumor-specific DNA alterations in oral leukoplakias. (19583749)
2009
15
Leukoplakia. (18478786)
2008
16
Prevalence of leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, papilloma and its relation with stress among green marbles mine laborers, India. (18978707)
2008
17
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia and its progression to oral carcinoma: report of three cases. (17448142)
2007
18
DNA cytometry of oral leukoplakia and oral lichen planus. (16505806)
2006
19
GSTM1 polymorphism and oral leukoplakia. (16519766)
2006
20
DNA cytometry of oral leukoplakia and oral lichen planus. (15800471)
2005
21
Oral lycopene--an efficacious treatment for oral leukoplakia? (15789046)
2005
22
The results of CO2 laser surgery in patients with oral leukoplakia: a 25 year follow up. (15598583)
2005
23
Dysplastic leukoplakia. (15215492)
2004
24
Polymorphism in CYP1A1 and CYP2E1 genes and susceptibility to leukoplakia in Indian tobacco users. (12767509)
2003
25
Influence of cigarette filters on the risk of developing oral leukoplakia in a Kenyan population. (11355433)
2001
26
Accumulative increase of loss of heterozygosity from leukoplakia to foci of early cancerization in leukoplakia of the oral cavity. (11745290)
2001
27
Plasma HIV-1 RNA and route of transmission in oral candidiasis and oral hairy leukoplakia. (10822365)
2000
28
Oral hairy leukoplakia and oral candidiasis as predictors of HIV viral load. (10546876)
1999
29
Oral leukoplakia status six weeks after cessation of smokeless tobacco use. (10422398)
1999
30
Cytomorphometric analysis of squames obtained from normal oral mucosa and lesions of oral leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma. (9526735)
1998
31
Oral hairy leukoplakia in HIV-positive patients. (9486697)
1998
32
Flow cytometric analysis of nuclear DNA content in oral leukoplakia. (9597283)
1998
33
Mutated and wild-type p53 expression and HPV integration in proliferative verrucous leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. (9127380)
1997
34
Transforming growth factor-alpha overexpression in proliferative verrucous leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma: an immunohistochemical study. (8843456)
1996
35
Use of computer-assisted image analysis for noninvasive evaluation of oral lichenoid reactions and oral leukoplakia. (7614184)
1995
36
Time from HIV seroconversion to oral candidiasis or hairy leukoplakia among homosexual and bisexual men enrolled in three prospective cohorts. (8011239)
1994
37
A clinical trial of antioxidant supplements in the treatment of oral leukoplakia. (7800378)
1994
38
Regression of oral leukoplakia with alpha-tocopherol: a community clinical oncology program chemoprevention study. (8416256)
1993
39
Chemoprevention of oral leukoplakia and chronic esophagitis in an area of high incidence of oral and esophageal cancer. (8275193)
1993
40
Evaluation of Langerhans cells and T cell subsets in oral lichen planus, in comparison with oral leukoplakia. (3267121)
1988
41
Epidemiologic study of the association between alcohol habits and oral leukoplakia. (6583042)
1984
42
Leukoplakia of the prepuce with epidermolytic hyperkeratosis: a case report. (6198860)
1983
43
Oral leukoplakia and cryotherapy. (6578814)
1983
44
Scanning electron microscopic study of oral leukoplakia. (6776248)
1980
45
Oral lichen planus, leukoplakia and erythroplakia: some observations on diagnosis and clinical management. (6934472)
1980
46
Esophageal cancer, hyperkeratosis, and oral leukoplakia: follow-up family study. (135097)
1976
47
Comparative cytologic and histologic studies in oral leukoplakia. (1066934)
1976
48
Oral leukoplakia. (4744419)
1973
49
Clinical and histologic study of oral leukoplakia in relation to habits. A five-year follow-up. (5257182)
1969
50
Dyskeratosis congenita with pigmentation, dystrophia unguium, and leukoplakia oris; a follow-up report of two brothers. (13544605)
1958

Variations for Leukoplakia

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Expression for genes affiliated with Leukoplakia

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2BioGPS, 16Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
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Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Leukoplakia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Leukoplakia.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Leukoplakia

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Sources:
51PathCards, 31KEGG, 39NCBI BioSystems Database, 56Reactome, 61Thomson Reuters, 52PharmGKB
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Pathways related to Leukoplakia according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
glutathione-mediated detoxification I39
glutathione redox reactions I39
glutathione redox reactions II39
4-hydroxy-2-nonenal detoxification39
Glutathione metabolism61
Glutathione metabolism39
9.6GSTT1, GSTM1
29.6GSTM1, GSTT1
3
Show member pathways
9.5GSTM1, CYP1A1
49.3KRT1, KRT4, KRT13
5
Show member pathways
9.0GSTT1, GSTM1, CYP1A1
6
Show member pathways
9.0GSTT1, GSTM1, CYP1A1
79.0GSTT1, GSTM1, CYP1A1

Compounds for genes affiliated with Leukoplakia

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46Novoseek, 52PharmGKB, 12DrugBank, 25HMDB, 62Tocris Bioscience, 30IUPHAR
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Compounds related to Leukoplakia according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show top 50)    (show all 104)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1methylchloride4610.0GSTT1, GSTM1
2drugs for treatment of tuberculosis5210.0GSTM1, GSTT1
3n-(2-hydroxyethyl)valine4610.0GSTT1, GSTM1
4trans,trans-muconic acid4610.0GSTT1, GSTM1
5ethambutol52 4610.9GSTM1, GSTT1
6s-phenylmercapturic acid469.9GSTM1, GSTT1
7ethylene oxide469.9GSTM1, GSTT1
8styrene oxide469.9GSTT1, GSTM1
92-naphthol469.9GSTM1, GSTT1
10hema469.8GSTM1, GSTT1
11butadiene monoxide469.8GSTT1, GSTM1
12cumene hydroperoxide469.8GSTM1, GSTT1
131,3-butadiene469.8GSTT1, GSTM1
14isotretinoin46 1210.7RARB, MKI67, KRT1
15chi 2469.7GSTM1, MKI67, GSTT1
16vinylchloride469.7GSTT1, GSTM1
17streptomycin52 46 1211.6GSTT1, GSTM1
18diepoxybutane469.6GSTT1, GSTM1
19pyrazinamide46 52 1211.5GSTT1, GSTM1
20hematoxylin469.5MKI67, TP63, KRT1
21betacarotene469.4CYP1A1, GSTM1, RARB
221-hydroxypyrene469.4CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1
23bpde469.4GSTT1, GSTM1, CYP1A1
24hydrocarbons469.4CYP1A1, GSTT1, GSTM1
25mspi469.4GSTT1, CYP1A1, GSTM1
26gsts469.4CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1
27epoxide469.3CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1
28oxaliplatin46 52 1211.3GSTT1, GSTM1, CYP1A1
29arylamine469.3GSTM1, GSTT1
30alpha tocopherol469.2CYP1A1, RARB, GSTM1
31vitamin a46 25 1211.2GSTM1, RARB, KRT4, CYP1A1
32acetone469.1GSTM1, CYP1A1, GSTT1, MKI67
33cyclophosphamide46 52 1211.1MKI67, GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP1A1
34doxorubicin46 52 1211.1GSTM1, MKI67, TP63, GSTT1
35benzo(a)pyrene469.0CYP1A1, RARB, GSTT1, GSTM1
36proline469.0KRT13, KRT1, MKI67, GSTT1
37ethanol46 52 25 1212.0CYP1A1, GSTT1, RARB, MKI67
38valine468.9GSTM1, KRT1, GSTT1, CYP1A1
39p002468.9MKI67, TNC, GSTT1, GSTM1
40steroid468.7MKI67, TP63, GSTT1, KRT1, RARB
41formaldehyde46 259.6MKI67, GSTT1, TNC, CYP1A1
42p003468.4TP63, GSTM1, MKI67, TNC, GSTT1
43paraffin468.4KRT13, MKI67, TNC, TP63, KRT1
44ascorbic acid46 259.3CYP1A1, MKI67, TNC, GSTM1, GSTT1
45testosterone46 62 25 1211.3CYP1A1, TP63, GSTM1, RARB, KRT1, MKI67
46cisplatin46 52 62 1211.2GSTT1, RARB, MKI67, GSTM1, CYP1A1, TP63
47arginine467.8TP63, KRT1, CYP1A1, MKI67, RARB, GSTM1
48progesterone46 30 62 25 1211.5KRT4, TNC, TP63, RARB, KRT1, CYP1A1
49retinoic acid46 258.1CYP1A1, MKI67, TNC, TP63, RARB, KRT1
50estrogen466.6KRT4, CYP1A1, MKI67, TNC, TP63, GSTM1

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Leukoplakia

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Sources:
17Gene Ontology
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Cellular components related to Leukoplakia according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1keratin filamentGO:0450959.3KRT13, KRT4, KRT1

Biological processes related to Leukoplakia according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 7)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1glutathione derivative biosynthetic processGO:19016879.7GSTT1, GSTM1
2glutathione metabolic processGO:0067499.6GSTM1, GSTT1
3response to organic cyclic compoundGO:0140709.2GSTT1, MKI67, CYP1A1
4odontogenesis of dentin-containing toothGO:0424759.1TP63, TNC
5xenobiotic metabolic processGO:0068059.1GSTT1, GSTM1, CYP1A1
6cellular response to retinoic acidGO:0713008.9KRT13, TNC
7response to woundingGO:0096118.9TNC, CYP1A1

Molecular functions related to Leukoplakia according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1glutathione transferase activityGO:0043649.6GSTT1, GSTM1
2structural molecule activityGO:0051989.0KRT13, KRT4, KRT1

Products for genes affiliated with Leukoplakia

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Sources for Leukoplakia

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4CDC
14ExPASy
15FMA
23GTR
24HGMD
25HMDB
26ICD10
27ICD10 via Orphanet
28ICD9CM
30IUPHAR
31KEGG
36MeSH
37MESH via Orphanet
38MGI
41NCIt
42NDF-RT
45NINDS
46Novoseek
48OMIM
49OMIM via Orphanet
53PubMed
54QIAGEN
60SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
63UMLS
64UMLS via Orphanet