Aliases & Classifications for Leukoplakia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Leukoplakia:

Name: Leukoplakia 49 51 69

Classifications:



External Ids:

UMLS 69 C0023531

Summaries for Leukoplakia

NIH Rare Diseases : 49 Leukoplakia is a condition in which thickened, white patches form on the tongue, gums, inside of the cheek, or sometimes on the outer female genitals. Although the sores can vary in appearance, they are usually white or gray; thick; and slightly raised with a hard surface. The condition is thought to be caused by irritation, but the cause is not always known. Tobacco is considered to be the main cause of its development in the mouth. Most patches are benign, but a small percentage show early signs of cancer. Removing the source of irritation may cause the condition to go away, but surgery to remove the sore(s) may be necessary in some cases. Last updated: 5/21/2012

MalaCards based summary : Leukoplakia is related to oral leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis. An important gene associated with Leukoplakia is DKC1 (Dyskerin Pseudouridine Synthase 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Keratinization and Acetaminophen Pathway (therapeutic doses), Pharmacokinetics. The drugs Aminolevulinic acid and Dermatologic Agents have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include tongue, bone marrow and bone, and related phenotype is Increased cell death in breast cancer cell lines (MCF10A, MDA-MB-435).

Wikipedia : 72 Leukoplakia generally refers to a firmly attached white patch on a mucous membrane which is associated... more...

Related Diseases for Leukoplakia

Diseases related to Leukoplakia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 134)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 oral leukoplakia 33.4 GSTM1 GSTT1 MKI67 PCNA
2 oral submucous fibrosis 30.6 CYP1A1 GSTM1 GSTT1
3 oral cavity cancer 29.8 CYP1A1 GSTM1 GSTT1
4 oral cancer 29.7 CYP1A1 GSTM1 GSTT1 KRT13 PCNA
5 esophageal cancer 29.6 CYP1A1 GSTM1 GSTT1 KRT4
6 white sponge nevus 1 29.3 KRT1 KRT13 KRT4
7 papilloma 29.1 KRT1 KRT13 KRT8 PCNA
8 basal cell carcinoma 28.5 CYP1A1 GSTM1 GSTT1 KRT8 MKI67
9 oral hairy leukoplakia 12.5
10 proliferative verrucous leukoplakia 12.3
11 oral mucosa leukoplakia 12.2
12 leukoplakia of vagina 12.2
13 uterine cervix leukoplakia 12.1
14 esophageal leukoplakia 12.1
15 leukoplakia of penis 12.1
16 dyskeratosis congenita 11.5
17 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 5 11.1
18 dyskeratosis congenita, x-linked 11.0
19 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 6 11.0
20 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal dominant 6 11.0
21 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 1 11.0
22 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 3 11.0
23 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal dominant 2 11.0
24 revesz syndrome 11.0
25 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal dominant 3 11.0
26 balanitis xerotica obliterans 10.9
27 poikiloderma with neutropenia 10.8
28 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal dominant 1 10.8
29 mouth disease 10.8
30 dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 2 10.8
31 squamous cell carcinoma 10.6
32 oral squamous cell carcinoma 10.6
33 lichen planus 10.4
34 hearing loss, noise-induced 10.4 GSTM1 GSTT1
35 sister chromatid exchange, frequency of 10.4 GSTM1 GSTT1
36 isolated cleft lip 10.4 GSTM1 GSTT1
37 drug-induced hepatitis 10.4 GSTM1 GSTT1
38 mutagen sensitivity 10.3 GSTM1 GSTT1
39 toxic oil syndrome 10.3 CYP1A1 GSTM1
40 arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy 10.3 GSTM1 GSTT1
41 oral lichen planus 10.3
42 oligospermia 10.3 GSTM1 GSTT1
43 senile cataract 10.3 GSTM1 GSTT1
44 diffuse gastric cancer 10.3 GSTM1 GSTT1
45 fibrosis of extraocular muscles, congenital, 1 10.3
46 xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group d 10.3 GSTM1 GSTT1
47 bladder adenocarcinoma 10.3 MKI67 PCNA
48 bowen's disease 10.3 MKI67 PCNA
49 asbestosis 10.3 GSTM1 GSTT1
50 benign meningioma 10.3 MKI67 PCNA

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Leukoplakia:



Diseases related to Leukoplakia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Leukoplakia

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

25
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Increased cell death in breast cancer cell lines (MCF10A, MDA-MB-435) GR00104-A-0 8.8 DKC1 MKI67 PCNA

Drugs & Therapeutics for Leukoplakia

Drugs for Leukoplakia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 58)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Aminolevulinic acid Approved Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2 106-60-5 137
2 Dermatologic Agents Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2
3 Photosensitizing Agents Phase 3,Phase 1,Phase 2
4
Celecoxib Approved, Investigational Phase 2 169590-42-5 2662
5
Rosiglitazone Approved, Investigational Phase 2 122320-73-4 77999
6
Pioglitazone Approved, Investigational Phase 2 111025-46-8 4829
7
Ketorolac Approved Phase 2 74103-06-3, 66635-83-4 3826
8
Trioxsalen Approved Phase 2 3902-71-4 5585
9
Metformin Approved Phase 2 657-24-9 4091 14219
10
Fenretinide Investigational Phase 2 65646-68-6
11
Maleic acid Experimental Phase 2 110-16-7 444266
12 Analgesics Phase 2,Phase 1
13 Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors Phase 2
14 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 2,Phase 1
15 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 2,Phase 1
16 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 2,Phase 1
17 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 2,Phase 1
18 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 2,Phase 1
19 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 2,Phase 1
20 Ether Phase 2
21 Retinamide Phase 2
22 Hematoporphyrin Derivative Phase 2
23 Hematoporphyrins Phase 2
24 Dihematoporphyrin Ether Phase 2
25 Hypoglycemic Agents Phase 2
26 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 1, Phase 2
27 Ketorolac Tromethamine Phase 2
28 Tea Nutraceutical Phase 2
29
Aspirin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 1 50-78-2 2244
30 Fibrinolytic Agents Phase 1
31 Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors Phase 1
32 Antipyretics Phase 1
33
Heparin Approved, Investigational 9005-49-6 46507594 772
34
Dapsone Approved, Investigational 80-08-0 2955
35
Nicotine Approved 54-11-5 89594 942
36
Sulindac Approved, Investigational 38194-50-2 1548887 5352
37
leucovorin Approved, Nutraceutical 58-05-9 143 6006
38
Folic Acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved 59-30-3 6037
39 Acyclovir
40 calcium heparin
41 Folic Acid Antagonists
42 Coagulants
43 Tolonium Chloride
44 Hemostatics
45 Vitamin B Complex
46 Anti-Bacterial Agents
47 Anti-Infective Agents
48 Antimalarials
49 Antiprotozoal Agents
50 Antiparasitic Agents

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 36)

# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Photodynamic Therapy for Oral Leukoplakia and Erythroleukoplakia Completed NCT00155337 Phase 4
2 Photodynamic Therapy for Oral Precursor Lesions Completed NCT01497951 Phase 3
3 Celecoxib in Preventing Cancer in Patients With Oral Leukoplakia and/or Head and Neck Dysplasia Unknown status NCT00052611 Phase 2 celecoxib
4 Rosiglitazone Maleate in Treating Patients With Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT00369174 Phase 2 rosiglitazone maleate
5 Fenretinide in Treating Patients With Leukoplakia of the Mouth Completed NCT00004161 Phase 2 fenretinide;Placebo
6 Pioglitazone Hydrochloride in Preventing Head and Neck Cancer in Patients With Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT00099021 Phase 2 pioglitazone hydrochloride
7 Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase IIB Trial of Ketorolac Mouth Rinse Evaluating the Effect of Cyclooxygenase Inhibition on Oropharyngeal Leukoplakia: Collaborative Study of the NCI, NIDCD and the NIDCR Completed NCT00001698 Phase 2 Ketorolac Rinse
8 Bowman-Birk Inhibitor Concentrate in Preventing Cancer in Patients With Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT00330382 Phase 2 Bowman-Birk inhibitor concentrate
9 Celecoxib in Preventing Head and Neck Cancer in Patients With Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT00101335 Phase 2 celecoxib
10 Treatment of Oral Premalignant Lesions With 5-ALA PDT Completed NCT00571974 Phase 1, Phase 2 5-Aminolevulinic Acid (Levulan KerastickTM)
11 Photodynamic Therapy With Porfimer Sodium in Treating Patients With Precancerous Lesions, Cancer, or Other Disease of the Aerodigestive Tract Completed NCT00453336 Phase 2 Porfimer Sodium
12 Metformin Hydrochloride in Preventing Oral Cancer in Patients With an Oral Premalignant Lesion Active, not recruiting NCT02581137 Phase 2 Metformin Hydrochloride
13 A Phase II Trial to Assess the Effects of Green Tea in Oral Leukoplakia Terminated NCT00176566 Phase 2 Lozenge Intake
14 Pioglitazone for Oral Premalignant Lesions Terminated NCT00951379 Phase 2 Pioglitazone hydrochloride
15 Aspirin Mouthwash in Treating Patients With Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT01238185 Phase 1 acetylsalicylic acid
16 Photodynamic Therapy Using Aminolevulinic Acid in Treating Patients With Oral Leukoplakia Terminated NCT00571558 Phase 1 aminolevulinic acid hydrochloride;photodynamic therapy
17 Least Invasive Nonlinear Light Microscopy Unknown status NCT00767442
18 Infectious Aetiology of Potentially Malignant Disorders and Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Oral Cavity Unknown status NCT01636544
19 Comparison Between Two Different High Power Ablative Lasers in the Treatment of Oral Leukoplakia Completed NCT03233165
20 Treatment and Suppression of Hairy Leukoplakia in ARC Patients With Oral Acyclovir (ACV) Completed NCT00002026 Acyclovir
21 Biomarkers for Oral Cancer Completed NCT00341497
22 Comparison or Rose Bengal and Toluidine Blue Staining for Lesion Detection Efficacy Completed NCT03031899
23 Natural History of Oro-pharyngeal Cancer Precursors Completed NCT00179361
24 Dapsone 100 Mg Versus 50 as Primary Prophylaxis for Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP) in Patients With AIDS-Related Complex (ARC) Completed NCT00002043 Dapsone
25 A Study of the Association of Sleep Dysfunction and Burning Mouth Syndrome Completed NCT00862576
26 Clinical Research Core Dental Screening Protocol Completed NCT00090818
27 Methylation of p16 CpG Island And Malignant Transformation of Oral Epithelial Dysplasia Completed NCT00835341
28 Salivary and Serum Levels of Chemerin and MMP-9 in Oral Premalignant and Malignant Lesions Completed NCT02323672
29 A Single Center Randomized Controlled Trial Assessing Pain and Quality of Life Following Surgery Recruiting NCT01355926
30 The Oral Microbiome as a Prognostic Tool in Oral Malignant and Premalignant Lesions and in Medication Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw Recruiting NCT03418454
31 Cancer in Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes Recruiting NCT00027274
32 Tobacco Cessation Intervention Study for Oral Diseases Recruiting NCT02737176
33 Clinical Evaluation of the OncAlert RAPID in Subjects Presenting for Evaluation and/or Initial Biopsy; Impact on Decision-Making Recruiting NCT03239834
34 Fluorescence & Reflectance Imaging to Detect Oral Neoplasia Recruiting NCT00542373
35 International Pachyonychia Congenita Research Registry Recruiting NCT02321423
36 A Randomized Study of Sulindac in Oral Premalignant Lesions Active, not recruiting NCT00299195 sulindac;Placebo

Search NIH Clinical Center for Leukoplakia

Genetic Tests for Leukoplakia

Anatomical Context for Leukoplakia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Leukoplakia:

38
Tongue, Bone Marrow, Bone, T Cells, Liver, Prostate, Testes

Publications for Leukoplakia

Articles related to Leukoplakia:

(show top 50) (show all 921)
# Title Authors Year
1
Differences in gene expression profile between vocal cord Leukoplakia and normal larynx mucosa by gene chip. ( 29433566 )
2018
2
Considerations in the diagnosis of oral hairy leukoplakia-an institutional experience. ( 29325854 )
2018
3
Oral leukoplakia, a precancerous lesion of squamous cell carcinoma, in patients with long-term pegylated liposomal doxorubicin treatment. ( 29443777 )
2018
4
Bibliometric analysis of a century of research on oral erythroplakia and leukoplakia. ( 29344996 )
2018
5
Malignant transformation of Taiwanese patients with oral leukoplakia: A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study. ( 29428194 )
2018
6
A clinical diagnosis of oral leukoplakia; A guide for dentists. ( 29274164 )
2018
7
Secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor expression and apoptosis effect in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. ( 29436667 )
2018
8
A Retrospective 20-Year Analysis of Proliferative Verrucous Leukoplakia and Its Progression to Malignancy and Association with High-risk Human Papillomavirus. ( 29427033 )
2018
9
Proliferative leukoplakia: proposed new clinical diagnostic criteria. ( 29337414 )
2018
10
T cells are involved in the induction of macrophage phenotypes in oral leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma-a preliminary report. ( 29108105 )
2018
11
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia of the tongue. ( 28416237 )
2018
12
Treatment outcome of vocal cord leukoplakia by transoral laser microsurgery. ( 27686889 )
2017
13
Evaluation of Genetic Polymorphisms in Glutathione S-Transferase Theta1, Glutathione S-Transferase Mu1, and Glutathione S-Transferase Mu3 in Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Deleterious Habits using Polymerase Chain Reaction. ( 28904918 )
2017
14
Interventions for treating oral leukoplakia to prevent oral cancer. ( 28537153 )
2017
15
Oral leukoplakia and oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. ( 28916027 )
2017
16
Oral hairy leukoplakia arising in a patient with hairy cell leukaemia: the first reported case. ( 28385698 )
2017
17
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: diagnosis, management and current advances. ( 28209441 )
2017
18
Evaluation of Different Laser-Supported Surgical Protocols for the Treatment of Oral Leukoplakia: A Long-Term Follow-Up. ( 28426376 )
2017
19
Chemoprevention of oral cancer in leukoplakia patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. ( 28924285 )
2017
20
Vocal fold leukoplakia: incidence, management, and prevention. ( 28857841 )
2017
21
Widefield Endoscopic Mucosal Resection for Treatment of Proximal Esophageal Leukoplakia. ( 28804029 )
2017
22
Malignant Transformation in Leukoplakia and Its Associated Factors in Southern Iran: A Hospital Based Experience. ( 28894713 )
2017
23
Oral leukoplakia and proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: a review for dental practitioners. ( 29097794 )
2017
24
PTEN allelic loss is an important mechanism in the late stage of development of oral leukoplakia into oral squamous cell carcinoma. ( 28858374 )
2017
25
A plea to provide best evidence in trials under sample-size restrictions: the example of pioglitazone to resolve leukoplakia and erythroplakia in Fanconi anemia patients. ( 28545482 )
2017
26
Quantitative prediction of oral cancer risk in patients with oral leukoplakia. ( 28545021 )
2017
27
Treatment of oral refractory large area mucosal leukoplakia with CO<sub>2</sub>laser combined with photodynamic therapy: Case report. ( 29037909 )
2017
28
Micronucleus Assay: An Early Diagnostic Tool to Assess Genotoxic Changes in Patients with Tobacco Use, Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Submucous Fibrosis. ( 29207828 )
2017
29
Ultrastructural Changes during the Life Cycle of<i>Mycoplasma salivarium</i>in Oral Biopsies from Patients with Oral Leukoplakia. ( 28983467 )
2017
30
Immunohistochemical evaluation of p63 and cyclin D1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma and leukoplakia. ( 29142867 )
2017
31
Type of surgical treatment and recurrence of oral leukoplakia: A retrospective clinical study. ( 28809365 )
2017
32
Limited evidence for interventions to treat oral leukoplakia. ( 29075031 )
2017
33
Association between oral leukoplakia and risk of upper gastrointestinal cancer death: A follow-up study of the Linxian General Population Trial. ( 28929584 )
2017
34
Plasma HPV DNA is detectable in oral leukoplakia patients. ( 28554767 )
2017
35
Leukoplakia of buccal mucosa with transformation into spindle cell carcinoma: A rare case report. ( 28479698 )
2017
36
Management of proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: Justification for a conservative approach. ( 28640498 )
2017
37
In silico analysis of pathways activation landscape in oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral leukoplakia. ( 28580171 )
2017
38
New definition proposed for oral leukoplakia. ( 28928786 )
2017
39
Historical perspective and nomenclature of potentially malignant or potentially premalignant oral epithelial lesions with emphasis on leukoplakia-some suggestions for modifications. ( 29396315 )
2017
40
The Microbiome of Potentially Malignant Oral Leukoplakia Exhibits Enrichment for<i>Fusobacterium, Leptotrichia, Campylobacter</i>, and<i>Rothia</i>Species. ( 29250055 )
2017
41
Comparison of effectiveness of Calendula officinalis extract gel with lycopene gel for treatment of tobacco-induced homogeneous leukoplakia: A randomized clinical trial. ( 28929051 )
2017
42
Different Expression of Aldehyde Dehydrogenases 1A1 and 2 in Oral Leukoplakia With Epithelial Dysplasia and in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. ( 29189260 )
2017
43
Genomic profile of oral squamous cell carcinomas with an adjacent leukoplakia or with an erythroleukoplakia that evolved after the treatment of primary tumor: A report of two cases. ( 28901451 )
2017
44
Malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia in a patient with dyskeratosis congenita. ( 28923296 )
2017
45
Nomogram for risk prediction of malignant transformation in oral leukoplakia patients using combined biomarkers. ( 28797449 )
2017
46
Snail and Axin2 expression predict the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia. ( 28939076 )
2017
47
Cytological study of DNA content and nuclear morphometric analysis for aid in the diagnosis of high-grade dysplasia within oral leukoplakia. ( 28732697 )
2017
48
Factors affecting Clinical Outcomes after Treatment of Oral Leukoplakia with CO2 and Diode Laser. ( 28874640 )
2017
49
Expression of Human Papillomavirus DNA and p53 Polymorphisms through Polymerase Chain Reaction in Normal Mucosa and Oral Leukoplakia Individuals with Deleterious Oral Habits. ( 28584747 )
2017
50
Serum metabolomics in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. ( 28862226 )
2017

Variations for Leukoplakia

Copy number variations for Leukoplakia from CNVD:

7 (show all 16)
# CNVD ID Chromosom Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 299983 1 197500000 205300000 Gain CAMSAP1L1 Leukoplakia
2 299999 1 222700000 225100000 Gain PARP1 Leukoplakia
3 300051 1 32200000 34400000 Gain KHDRBS1 Leukoplakia
4 300126 10 103000000 104900000 Gain NPM3 Leukoplakia
5 300490 11 70700000 74900000 Gain CHRDL2 Leukoplakia
6 300847 14 23600000 31800000 Gain GMPR2 Leukoplakia
7 300848 14 23600000 31800000 Gain IRF9 Leukoplakia
8 300849 14 23600000 31800000 Gain REC8 Leukoplakia
9 300904 14 90500000 92800000 Copy number BTBD7 Leukoplakia
10 300905 14 90500000 92800000 Gain BTBD7 Leukoplakia
11 303215 2 64000000 70500000 Gain RAB1A Leukoplakia
12 303505 22 30500000 35900000 Gain FBXO7 Leukoplakia
13 303978 5 135400000 139000000 Gain PAIP2 Leukoplakia
14 303979 5 139000000 143100000 Gain HBEGF Leukoplakia
15 304504 7 43300000 46600000 Gain TBRG4 Leukoplakia
16 304704 8 2200000 6200000 Loss CSMD1 Leukoplakia

Expression for Leukoplakia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Leukoplakia.

Pathways for Leukoplakia

GO Terms for Leukoplakia

Cellular components related to Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 intermediate filament cytoskeleton GO:0045111 9.33 KRT13 KRT4 KRT8
2 intermediate filament GO:0005882 9.26 KRT1 KRT13 KRT4 KRT8
3 keratin filament GO:0045095 8.92 KRT1 KRT13 KRT4 KRT8

Biological processes related to Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cell proliferation GO:0008283 9.46 CYP1A1 DKC1 MKI67 PCNA
2 glutathione metabolic process GO:0006749 9.32 GSTM1 GSTT1
3 glutathione derivative biosynthetic process GO:1901687 9.26 GSTM1 GSTT1
4 keratinization GO:0031424 9.26 KRT1 KRT13 KRT4 KRT8
5 cornification GO:0070268 8.92 KRT1 KRT13 KRT4 KRT8

Molecular functions related to Leukoplakia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 glutathione transferase activity GO:0004364 8.96 GSTM1 GSTT1
2 structural molecule activity GO:0005198 8.92 KRT1 KRT13 KRT4 KRT8

Sources for Leukoplakia

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HGMD
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 MedGen
41 MeSH
42 MESH via Orphanet
43 MGI
45 NCI
46 NCIt
47 NDF-RT
50 NINDS
51 Novoseek
53 OMIM
54 OMIM via Orphanet
58 PubMed
60 QIAGEN
65 SNOMED-CT via HPO
66 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67 TGDB
68 Tocris
69 UMLS
70 UMLS via Orphanet
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