MCID: LKP003
MIFTS: 45

Leukoplakia malady

Summaries for Leukoplakia

Sources:
43NIH Rare Diseases, 64Wikipedia, 33MalaCards
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NIH Rare Diseases:43 Leukoplakia is a condition in which thickened, white patches form on the tongue, gums, inside of the cheek, or sometimes on the outer female genitals. although the sores can vary in appearance, they are usually white or gray; thick; and slightly raised with a hard surface. the condition is thought to be caused by irritation, but the cause is not always known. tobacco is considered to be the main cause of its development in the mouth. most patches are benign, but a small percentage show early signs of cancer. removing the source of irritation may cause the condition to go away, but surgery to remove the sore(s) may be necessary in some cases. last updated: 5/21/2012

MalaCards: Leukoplakia is related to oral leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma. An important gene associated with Leukoplakia is DKC1 (dyskeratosis congenita 1, dyskerin), and among its related pathways are Platinum Pathway, Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics and Aflatoxin B1 metabolism. The compounds estrogen and chi 2 have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include liver, tongue and bone marrow.

Wikipedia:64 Leukoplakia (also termed leucoplakia,leukokeratosis,leukoplasia,idiopathic leukoplakia,idiopathic... more...

Aliases & Classifications for Leukoplakia

Sources:
43NIH Rare Diseases, 45Novoseek, 61UMLS
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Aliases & Descriptions:

leukoplakia 43 45 61


Related Diseases for Leukoplakia

Sources:
17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
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Diseases related to Leukoplakia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards/GeneDecks gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 193)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1oral leukoplakia31.8TGFA, GSTM1, TP63, KRT1, RARB, PCNA
2squamous cell carcinoma31.1MKI67, MGMT, TNC, S100A7, IFI27, PCNA
3oral cancer31.0PCNA, CDK2AP1, MGMT, TNC, IFI27, GSTT1
4lichen planus30.9KRT1
5basal cell carcinoma30.0S100A7, MKI67, CYP1A1, TP63, GSTM3, GSTM1
6oral squamous cell carcinoma10.7
7oral lichen planus10.6
8oral mucosa leukoplakia10.5
9oral submucous fibrosis10.4
10verrucous carcinoma10.4
11oral candidiasis10.4
12esophageal leukoplakia10.4
13erythroplakia10.3
14anal squamous cell carcinoma10.3
15dyskeratosis congenita10.2
16uterine cervix leukoplakia10.2
17squamous cell papilloma10.2
18leukoplakia of penis10.2
19leukoplakia of vagina10.2
20hairy tongue10.2
21verrucous papilloma10.1
22methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria type cblf10.0
23acute leukemia10.0
24dyskeratosis congenita x-linked10.0
25cervical intraepithelial neoplasia10.0IFI27, MKI67
26keratosis10.0KRT1
27galactosemia10.0PCNA
28cholesteatoma10.0TGFA, RARB
29laryngeal carcinoma10.0IFI27, MKI67, PCNA, GSTT1
30gastritis10.0TGFA, PCNA
31pituitary tumors10.0TGFA, IFI27
32sarcoma10.0MKI67, TP63, GSTM1
33thyroid cancer10.0GSTT1, GSTM1, RARB, TNC
34craniopharyngioma10.0RARB
35psoriasis10.0S100A7, KRT1, TGFA
36papilloma10.0IFI27, PCNA, TP63, TGFA
37actinic keratosis10.0TP63, PCNA
38leiomyoma10.0PCNA, MKI67
39medulloblastoma10.0MGMT
40familial adenomatous polyposis10.0RARB, MGMT
41malignant mesothelioma10.0TP63
42pancreatic cancer10.0IFI27, TNC, PCNA, RARB, TGFA
43myeloid leukemia10.0RARB
44skin cancer10.0S100A7, PCNA, CYP1A1
45brain cancer10.0CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1
46leukemia10.0IFI27, MGMT, CYP1A1, RARB, GSTM1, GSTT1
47keratoacanthoma10.0PCNA, MKI67
48inverted papilloma10.0PCNA, MKI67, IFI27
49transitional cell carcinoma10.0IFI27, MKI67, PCNA, TP63, GSTM1, GSTT1
50ductal carcinoma in situ10.0S100A7

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Leukoplakia:



Diseases related to leukoplakia

Clinical Features for Leukoplakia

Drugs & Therapeutics for Leukoplakia

Sources:
5CenterWatch, 42NIH Clinical Center, 6ClinicalTrials, 61UMLS, 41NDF-RT
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Approved drugs:

Search CenterWatch for Leukoplakia

Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Leukoplakia

Search NIH Clinical Center for Leukoplakia

Search CenterWatch for Leukoplakia

Genetic Tests for Leukoplakia

Anatomical Context for Leukoplakia

Sources:
33MalaCards
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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Leukoplakia:

33
Liver, Tongue, Bone marrow, Whole blood, Salivary gland, Breast, Prostate, Myeloid, T cells, Endothelial

Animal Models for Leukoplakia or affiliated genes

Sources:
28inGenious Targeting Laboratory
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Publications for Leukoplakia

Sources:
51PubMed
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Articles related to Leukoplakia:

(show top 50)    (show all 709)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Interactions between cigarette smoking and polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing genes: the risk of oral leukoplakia. (23396292)
2013
2
Genotyping Candida albicans from Candida leukoplakia and non-Candida leukoplakia shows no enrichment of multilocus sequence typing clades but enrichment of ABC genotype C in Candida leukoplakia. (24058485)
2013
3
Expression and significance of p53 and mdm2 in patients with leukoplakia cancer. (23870475)
2013
4
Acquired dyskeratotic leukoplakia of the lip and conjunctiva. (24320197)
2013
5
Immunohistochemical detection of p53 and p63 in oral squamous cell carcinoma, oral leukoplakia, and oral submucous fibrosis. (23776093)
2013
6
Plasma zinc antioxidant vitamins, glutathione levels and total antioxidant activity in oral leukoplakia. (22623931)
2012
7
Increased expression of CK8 and CK18 in leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral squamous cell carcinoma: an immunohistochemistry study. (22677743)
2012
8
The frequency and malignant transformation rate of oral lichen planus and leukoplakia--a retrospective study. (23213931)
2012
9
Salivary lactate dehydrogenase levels in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma: a biochemical and clinicopathological study. (22322730)
2012
10
Histological and immunohistochemical evaluation of new epithelium after removal of oral leukoplakia with Nd:YAG laser treatment. (21687980)
2012
11
Frictional keratoses on the facial attached gingiva are rare clinical findings and do not belong to the category of leukoplakia. (21216078)
2011
12
Human papillomavirus and Epstein Barr virus in oral hairy leukoplakia among HIV positive Venezuelan patients. (21053684)
2010
13
Oral proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: Underdiagnosed oral precursor lesion that requires retrospective clinicopathological correlation. (20492823)
2010
14
Immunohistochemical expression of DNA methyltransferases 1, 3a and 3b in oral leukoplakias and squamous cell carcinomas. (20951977)
2010
15
A multiple primary carcinoma consisting of leukoplakia and SCC: a case report with p53 mutation analysis. (21115940)
2010
16
Human papillomavirus in oral leukoplakia is no prognostic indicator of malignant transformation. (19679058)
2009
17
Molecular alterations in the tumor suppressor gene WWOX in oral leukoplakias. (18061530)
2008
18
A clinicopathologic study of oral leukoplakia and erythroplakia in a Thai population. (17823667)
2007
19
GSTT1 polymorphism and oral leukoplakia. (16475728)
2006
20
Assessment of risk factors for oral leukoplakia in West Virginia. (15642046)
2005
21
Dysplastic leukoplakia. (15215492)
2004
22
Comment on "low prevalance of oral leukoplakia in a representative sample of the US population" Scheifele et al. [Oral Oncology 39 (2003) 619-625]. (14969827)
2004
23
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: unusual locations of oral squamous cell carcinomas, and field cancerization as shown by the appearance of multiple OSCCs. (14969824)
2004
24
Efficacy of oral lycopene in the treatment of oral leukoplakia. (15063387)
2004
25
The expression of apoptosis-associated proteins Bcl-2, Bax in oral leukoplakia and lichen planus]. (15619691)
2004
26
Rapid progression from oral leukoplakia to carcinoma in an immunosuppressed liver transplant recipient. (12457727)
2003
27
Localization of human beta-defensin 3 mRNA in normal oral epithelium, leukoplakia, and lichen planus: an in situ hybridization study. (12825122)
2003
28
Biochemical changes of saliva in tobacco chewers tobacco smokers, alcohol consumers, leukoplakia and oral cancer patients. (12420576)
2002
29
Initial experience in the treatment of oral leukoplakia with high-dose vitamin A and follow-up 5-aminolevulinic acid induced protoporphyrin IX fluorescence. (10993553)
2000
30
Clinical modulation of oral leukoplakia and protease activity by Bowman-Birk inhibitor concentrate in a phase IIa chemoprevention trial. (11156220)
2000
31
Oral hairy leukoplakia and oral candidiasis as predictors of HIV viral load. (10546876)
1999
32
Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia with cutaneous involvement. (10459129)
1999
33
Viadent usage and oral leukoplakia: a spurious association. (10620468)
1999
34
Carbon dioxide laser evaporation of leukoplakia of the lower lip: a retrospective evaluation. (10694949)
1999
35
Leukoplakia: still a gallimaufry or is progress being made?--A review. (9868520)
1998
36
Opportunistic oral infections in the immunosuppressed patient: oral hairy leukoplakia and oral candidiasis. (8934929)
1996
37
Carbon dioxide laser surgical therapy for the management of oral leukoplakia: a case report. (8633283)
1994
38
Chemoprevention of Barrett's esophagus and oral leukoplakia. (1442277)
1992
39
Dermatitis of the face, yellow toe nail changes, hairy leukoplakia and oral candidiasis are clinical indicators of progression to AIDS/opportunistic infection in patients with HIV infection. (2587953)
1989
40
13-cis-retinoic acid in the treatment of oral leukoplakia. (3537787)
1986
41
Yeast organisms associated with human oral leukoplakia. (3459346)
1986
42
Topical bleomycin in the treatment of oral leukoplakia: a pilot study. (2412577)
1985
43
Epidemiologic study of the association between alcohol habits and oral leukoplakia. (6583042)
1984
44
Effect on oral leukoplakia of reducing or ceasing tobacco smoking. (6179345)
1982
45
Esophageal cancer, hyperkeratosis, and oral leukoplakia: follow-up family study. (135097)
1976
46
Occurrence of epithelial dysplasia in oral leukoplakia. Analysis and follow-up study of 12 cases. (1069220)
1976
47
Histochemistry of the keratohyalin granules in human oral leukoplakia. (51923)
1975
48
Epidemiology and histology of oral leukoplakia and leukoedema among Papuans and New Guineans. (5660202)
1968
49
Incidence of oral leukoplakia and "Pan" chewing in Varanasi (India) dental outdoor patients. (5225997)
1966
50
A clinical and histopathologic study of oral leukoplakia. (13750550)
1961

Genetic Variations for Leukoplakia

Expression for genes affiliated with Leukoplakia

Sources:
1BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
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Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Leukoplakia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Leukoplakia.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Leukoplakia

Sources:
50PharmGKB, 38NCBI BioSystems Database, 12EMD Millipore, 54Reactome, 30KEGG, 4Cell Signaling Technology
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Compounds for genes affiliated with Leukoplakia

Sources:
45Novoseek, 50PharmGKB, 11DrugBank, 24HMDB, 29IUPHAR, 2BitterDB, 60Tocris Bioscience
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Compounds related to Leukoplakia according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show top 50)    (show all 101)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1estrogen4510.9S100A7
2chi 24510.8IFI27, MKI67, GSTM1, GSTT1
3p0034510.8TP63, GSTT1, GSTM1, IFI27, MKI67, TNC
4oxaliplatin45 50 1112.8GSTT1, TGFA, MGMT, GSTM1, CYP1A1
58-oxoguanine4510.8MGMT, PCNA, GSTM1, GSTT1
6p0024510.8MGMT, GSTT1, GSTM1, MKI67, IFI27, TNC
7acetone4510.8MKI67, GSTT1, GSTM1, CYP1A1
8cyclophosphamide45 50 1112.8CYP1A1, GSTM3, GSTT1, MGMT, PCNA, MKI67
9formaldehyde45 2411.8GSTT1, TNC, MGMT, TGFA, CYP1A1, PCNA
10betacarotene4510.8RARB, PCNA, IFI27, GSTM1, CYP1A1
11fulvestrant45 50 29 1113.8MKI67, PCNA, TGFA, CYP1A1
12ascorbic acid45 2411.8GSTT1, GSTM1, CYP1A1, PCNA, MKI67, TNC
13bromodeoxyuridine4510.8IFI27, MKI67, PCNA, KRT1, TP63, TGFA
14mspi4510.8GSTM1, MGMT, CYP1A1, GSTT1
15paraffin4510.8PCNA, TNC, TP63, IFI27, MGMT, TGFA
16gsts4510.8GSTM3, GSTT1, CYP1A1, GSTM1
17paclitaxel45 50 1112.8IFI27, TGFA
18doxorubicin45 50 1112.8TGFA, MGMT, IFI27, GSTT1, GSTM1, MKI67
19mitomycin c4510.8TGFA, PCNA, MKI67, TP63, MGMT
20azathioprine45 50 2 1113.8TGFA, MGMT, PCNA, RARB, GSTM1
21cisplatin45 50 60 1113.8IFI27, MGMT, PCNA, CYP1A1, RARB, GSTM3
22thymidylate4510.8GSTM1, PCNA, MGMT, MKI67, IFI27
23epoxide4510.8GSTM1, CYP1A1, GSTT1, GSTM3
24testosterone45 60 11 2413.8IFI27, CYP1A1, RARB, KRT1, TP63, TGFA
25arginine4510.8TGFA, CYP1A1, MKI67, IFI27, TP63, PCNA
26progesterone45 60 29 11 2414.8TP63, TNC, MGMT, MKI67, PCNA, TGFA
27benzo(a)pyrene4510.8RARB, GSTT1, CYP1A1, GSTM1
281-hydroxypyrene4510.8CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1
29lactate4510.8TGFA, GSTM1, CYP1A1, PCNA, MKI67, MGMT
30norcantharidin4510.7IFI27, MKI67, PCNA
31retinoic acid45 2411.7TNC, TGFA, MGMT, TP63, MKI67, KRT1
32folate4510.7MGMT, GSTM1, GSTT1, TGFA, MKI67
33estradiol45 11 2412.7RARB, CYP1A1, MKI67
34thymidine45 2411.7TGFA, TP63, RARB, MKI67, MGMT, IFI27
35vegf4510.7TP63, CYP1A1, PCNA, MGMT, TNC, IFI27
36diethylnitrosamine4510.7MGMT, TGFA, PCNA
37hematoxylin4510.7KRT1, PCNA, MKI67, TP63
38genistein45 29 60 2 11 2415.6CYP1A1, PCNA, RARB, MGMT, IFI27, TGFA
39steroid4510.6TGFA, IFI27, GSTT1, MKI67, RARB, KRT1
40noradrenochrome45 2411.6GSTT1, GSTM3, GSTM1
41methotrexate45 50 1112.6GSTM1, MKI67, TGFA, PCNA, MGMT
42oligonucleotide4510.6IFI27, GSTT1, RARB, MGMT, TGFA, TNC
435fluorouracil4510.6MKI67, MGMT, TGFA, GSTM1, PCNA
44bpde4510.6CYP1A1, GSTT1, GSTM1
45hydrochloric acid45 2411.6GSTM3, GSTT1, GSTM1
46mnng4510.5MGMT, IFI27, PCNA
47adrenochrome45 2411.4GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTM3
48biotin45 11 2412.4MKI67, KRT1, TGFA, PCNA
498-oxo-dg4510.3PCNA, GSTT1, GSTM1
50tamoxifen45 50 29 1113.1TGFA, CYP1A1, PCNA, MKI67, IFI27

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Leukoplakia

Sources:
16Gene Ontology
See all sources

Biological processes related to Leukoplakia according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 8)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1glutathione derivative biosynthetic processGO:190168710.6GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTM3
2cellular detoxification of nitrogen compoundGO:07045810.6GSTM3, GSTM1
3nitrobenzene metabolic processGO:01891610.6GSTM3, GSTM1
4glutathione metabolic processGO:00674910.5GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTM3
5response to drugGO:04249310.4TGFA, GSTT1, CYP1A1, MGMT
6cell proliferationGO:00828310.4DKC1, MKI67, PCNA, CYP1A1, TGFA
7xenobiotic metabolic processGO:00680510.3GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTM3, CYP1A1
8xenobiotic catabolic processGO:04217810.2GSTM3, GSTM1

Molecular functions related to Leukoplakia according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1glutathione bindingGO:04329510.5GSTM1, GSTM3
2glutathione transferase activityGO:00436410.1GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTM3

Products for genes affiliated with Leukoplakia

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Sources for Leukoplakia

3CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
29IUPHAR
30KEGG
35MeSH
36MESH via Orphanet
37MGI
40NCIt
41NDF-RT
44NINDS
45Novoseek
47OMIM
48OMIM via Orphanet
51PubMed
52QIAGEN
58SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
61UMLS
62UMLS via Orphanet