MCID: MLR004
MIFTS: 73

Malaria malady

Summaries for Malaria

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8Disease Ontology, 42NIH Rare Diseases, 33MedlinePlus, 3CDC, 63Wikipedia, 46OMIM, 32MalaCards
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MedlinePlus:33 Malaria is a serious disease caused by a parasite. you get it when an infected mosquito bites you. malaria is a major cause of death worldwide, but it is almost wiped out in the united states. the disease is mostly a problem in developing countries with warm climates. if you travel to these countries, you are at risk. there are four different types of malaria caused by four related parasites. the most deadly type occurs in africa south of the sahara desert. malaria symptoms include chills, flu-like symptoms, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and jaundice. a blood test can diagnose it. it can be life-threatening. however, you can treat malaria with drugs. the type of drug depends on which kind of malaria you have and where you were infected. malaria can be prevented. when traveling to malaria-prone regions see your doctor for medicines that protect you wear insect repellent with deet cover up sleep under mosquito netting centers for disease control and prevention

MalaCards: Malaria, also known as induced malaria, is related to plasmodium falciparum malaria and cerebral malaria. An important gene associated with Malaria is NOS2 (nitric oxide synthase 2, inducible), and among its related pathways are Malaria and Tuberculosis. The drugs hydroxychloroquine and hydroxychloroquine sulfate and the compounds nitric oxide and tyrosine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include testes, brain and t cells, and related mouse phenotypes are homeostasis/metabolism and hematopoietic system.

Disease Ontology:8 A parasitic protozoa infectious disease characterized as a vector-borne infectious disease caused by the presence of protozoan parasites of the genus plasmodium in the red blood cells, transmitted from an infected to an uninfected individual by the bite of anopheline mosquitoes, and characterized by periodic attacks of chills and fever that coincide with mass destruction of blood cells and the release of toxic substances by the parasite at the end of each reproductive cycle.

NIH Rare Diseases:42 Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease caused by a parasite that commonly infects a certain type of mosquito which feeds on humans. infection with malaria parasites may result in a wide variety of symptoms, ranging from absent or very mild symptoms to severe disease and even death. people who get malaria are typically very sick with high fevers, shaking chills, and flu-like illness. in general, malaria is a curable disease if diagnosed and treated promptly and correctly. treatment depends on many factors including disease severity, the species of malaria parasite causing the infection and the part of the world in which the infection was acquired. last updated: 5/12/2011

CDC:3 Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by a parasite. People with malaria often experience fever, chills, and flu-like illness. Left untreated, they may develop severe complications and die. In 2010 an estimated 219 million cases of malaria occurred worldwide and 660,000 people died, most (91%) in the African Region.

Wikipedia:63 Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by parasitic... more...

Description from OMIM:46 611162

Aliases & Classifications for Malaria

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8Disease Ontology, 42NIH Rare Diseases, 46OMIM, 10DISEASES, 44Novoseek, 33MedlinePlus, 60UMLS, 56SNOMED-CT, 34MeSH, 27ICD9CM, 39NCIt
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Aliases & Descriptions:

malaria 8 42 46 10 44 33 60
induced malaria 8 60


External Ids:

Disease Ontology8 DOID:12365
MeSH34 D008288
ICD9CM27 084.6, 084
NCIt39 C34797

Related Diseases for Malaria

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Sources:
17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
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Diseases in the Malaria family:

Malaria, Severe

Diseases related to Malaria via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards/GeneDecks gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 329)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1plasmodium falciparum malaria31.9IFNG, ICAM1, G6PD, CR1, CD36, SELE
2cerebral malaria31.7ICAM1, CD36
3plasmodium vivax malaria31.6G6PD, DHFR, DARC
4thrombocytopenia30.7HP, FCGR2B
5schistosomiasis30.6IL10, IFNG
6leishmaniasis30.6IFNG, DHFR, IL10
7hepatitis30.5CR1, HP
8encephalomyelitis30.4NOS2, IL10, CR1, IFNG
9blackwater fever30.4G6PD
10alpha thalassemia30.4G6PD, HBB
11pancytopenia30.2DHFR, HP
12deficiency anemia30.2SLC4A1, DHFR, HP, HBB, MIF, CR1
13tuberculosis30.2HP, CR1, HBB, MIF, IFNG, DHFR
14hemolytic anemia30.2SLC4A1, HP, HBB, CR1, G6PD
15chagas disease30.2DHFR
16retinitis30.2GYPC
17visceral leishmaniasis30.2IL10, IFNG
18sickle cell disease30.1SELE, HP, HBB, G6PD
19glomerulonephritis30.1MIF, NOS2, ICAM1, CR1
20encephalitis30.1GYPC, NOS2, DARC
21hereditary elliptocytosis30.1SLC4A1, GYPC, G6PD
22systemic lupus erythematosus30.0MIF, SELE, FCGR2B, IL10, CR1, IFNG
23burkitt's lymphoma30.0CR1, CISH, HBB, ICAM1, DHFR, IL10
24pneumonia30.0ICAM1, DHFR, GYPA, IL10, CR1
25adult respiratory distress syndrome30.0NOS2, MIF, CR1, SELE
26methemoglobinemia30.0G6PD, HP
27lupus erythematosus30.0FCGR2B
28sarcoma30.0DHFR
29myocarditis30.0NOS2
30melanoma29.9DHFR, CD36, IL10, GYPC, IFNG, ICAM1
31asthma29.9NOS2, IL10, IFNG, ICAM1, CR1, SELE
32pre-eclampsia29.9ICAM1, HBB, HP, IL10, NOS2, SELE
33influenza29.9GYPB, CR1, IFNG
34sickle cell anemia29.9HBB, G6PD, HP
35hemoglobinopathy29.9G6PD, HP, HBB
36viral hepatitis29.9G6PD, CISH
37obesity29.9SELE, CISH
38acute pancreatitis29.9IL10, MIF
39eosinophilia29.9IFNG, IL10
40pancreatitis29.9IL10, ICAM1
41vaccinia29.9DARC
42urticaria29.9SELE
43glucosephosphate dehydrogenase deficiency29.9HP, G6PD
44leukemia29.7HBB, GYPA, HP, CR1, CISH, ICAM1
45multiple sclerosis29.7IFNG, ICAM1, IL10, NOS2, CR1, MIF
46psoriasis29.7IFNG, DHFR, ICAM1, IL10, SELE
47ischemia29.7HP, ICAM1, CR1, NOS2, SELE
48atopic dermatitis29.7IL10, MIF, ICAM1, IFNG, SELE
49autoimmune hemolytic anemia29.7HP, G6PD, GYPA
50dermatitis29.7IFNG, SELE, ICAM1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Malaria:



Diseases related to malaria

Clinical Features for Malaria

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46OMIM
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Clinical features from OMIM:

611162

Drugs & Therapeutics for Malaria

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Sources:
5CenterWatch, 41NIH Clinical Center, 6ClinicalTrials, 60UMLS, 40NDF-RT
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Approved drugs:

Search CenterWatch for Malaria

Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Malaria

Search NIH Clinical Center for Malaria

Search CenterWatch for Malaria

Inferred drug relations via UMLS60/NDF-RT40:

Genetic Tests for Malaria

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Anatomical Context for Malaria

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32MalaCards
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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Malaria:

32
Testes, Brain, T cells, Liver, Endothelial, B cells, Monocytes, Nk cells, Spleen, Kidney, Whole blood, Placenta, Myeloid, Bone marrow, Eye, Bone, Cortex, Skin, Cardiac myocytes, Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Skeletal muscle, Heart, Lung, Temporal lobe

Animal Models for Malaria or affiliated genes

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36MGI
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MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Malaria:

36 (show all 12)
idDescriptionMGI Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MP:000537614.1CD36, MIF, G6PD, ICAM1, IFNG, HBB
2MP:000539713.9SELE, IFNG, ICAM1, G6PD, MIF, CD36
3MP:000538713.9HBB, CD36, MIF, ICAM1, IFNG, HP
4MP:000538513.7CD36, G6PD, ICAM1, IFNG, HBB, HP
5MP:000538413.6IFNG, ICAM1, G6PD, MIF, CD36, HP
6MP:001076813.4CD36, G6PD, ICAM1, IFNG, HBB, HP
7MP:000537813.2IFNG, ICAM1, G6PD, CD36, HBB, IL10
8MP:000537012.8IFNG, CD36, HBB, HP, IL10, FCGR2B
9MP:000200612.0IFNG, ICAM1, MIF, HP, IL10, NOS2
10MP:000536711.7HBB, HP, FCGR2B, SLC4A1
11MP:001077111.0SLC4A1, HBB
12MP:000539010.7HBB, CD36

Publications for Malaria

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Sources:
50PubMed
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Articles related to Malaria:

(show top 50)    (show all 3043)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Association of inconclusive sera for human immunodeficiency virus infection with malaria and epstein-barr virus infection in central Africa. (24307653)
2014
2
Simple, sensitive and quantitative bioluminescence assay for determination of malaria pre-patent period. (24400642)
2014
3
Delayed hemolysis after treatment with parenteral artesunate in African children with severe malaria - a double-center prospective study. (24376273)
2013
4
Characterization of human placental glycosaminoglycans and regional binding to VAR2CSA in malaria infected erythrocytes. (24158546)
2013
5
G6PD testing in support of treatment and elimination of malaria: recommendations for evaluation of G6PD tests. (24188096)
2013
6
Malaria control in South Sudan, 2006-2013: strategies, progress and challenges. (24160336)
2013
7
Effect of malaria on HIV/AIDS transmission and progression. (23327493)
2013
8
Water vapour is a pre-oviposition attractant for the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. (24120083)
2013
9
Genetic evidence of regulatory gene variants of the STAT6, IL10R and FOXP3 locus as a susceptibility factor in uncomplicated malaria and parasitaemia in Congolese children. (23297791)
2013
10
Modulation of Malaria Infection in Anopheles gambiae Mosquitoes Exposed to Natural Midgut Bacteria. (24324714)
2013
11
FcI^RIIa polymorphism and anti-malaria-specific IgG and IgG subclass responses in populations differing in susceptibility to malaria in Burkina Faso. (22268665)
2012
12
IFN-I^-producing CD4+ T cells promote experimental cerebral malaria by modulating CD8+ T cell accumulation within the brain. (22723523)
2012
13
Association between the haptoglobin and heme oxygenase 1 genetic profiles and soluble CD163 in susceptibility to and severity of human malaria. (22290142)
2012
14
A better biomarker for cerebral malaria: in the eye of the beheld?*. (22343865)
2012
15
Postmortem characterization of patients with clinical diagnosis of Plasmodium vivax malaria: to what extent does this parasite kill? (22772803)
2012
16
Formal modeling and analysis of the MAL-associated biological regulatory network: insight into cerebral malaria. (22479409)
2012
17
Risk analysis of the re-emergence of Plasmodium vivax malaria in Japan using a stochastic transmission model. (21431796)
2011
18
Association of ABO blood group and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Dore Bafeno Area, Southern Ethiopia. (23569777)
2011
19
Childhood Plasmodium falciparum malaria complicated by acute pancreatitis. (20555053)
2010
20
Child hospitalization due to severe malaria is associated with the ICAM-1Kilifi allele but not adherence patterns of Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells to ICAM-1. (20510872)
2010
21
Considerations on the use of adjunct red blood cell exchange transfusion in the treatment of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. (20003050)
2010
22
The role of platelets in the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria. (20091081)
2010
23
Functional analysis of the leading malaria vaccine candidate AMA-1 reveals an essential role for the cytoplasmic domain in the invasion process. (19283086)
2009
24
C5a enhances dysregulated inflammatory and angiogenic responses to malaria in vitro: potential implications for placental malaria. (19308263)
2009
25
Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. (19641202)
2009
26
Sickle cell trait is associated with a delayed onset of malaria: implications for time-to-event analysis in clinical studies of malaria. (18752444)
2008
27
Gametocyte clearance in uncomplicated and severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria after artesunate-mefloquine treatment in Thailand. (18552540)
2008
28
Purpura fulminans: an unusual manifestation of severe falciparum malaria. (17588627)
2007
29
Tafenoquine for the treatment of recurrent Plasmodium vivax malaria. (17360873)
2007
30
Detection of malaria infection via latex agglutination assay. (17511424)
2007
31
Serum antibody levels to glycosylphosphatidylinositols in specimens derived from matched Malian children with severe or uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria and healthy controls. (16896119)
2006
32
Acute respiratory distress syndrome in Plasmodium vivax malaria in traveler returning from Venezuela. (16987135)
2006
33
Host specialization and geographic localization of avian malaria parasites: a regional analysis in the Lesser Antilles. (15791538)
2005
34
Plasma zinc concentrations are depressed during the acute phase response in children with falciparum malaria. (15795438)
2005
35
Artesunate-dapsone-proguanil treatment of falciparum malaria: genotypic determinants of therapeutic response. (15607340)
2005
36
Translational up-regulation of antifolate drug targets in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum upon challenge with inhibitors. (15138068)
2004
37
Differentiating the pathologies of cerebral malaria by postmortem parasite counts. (14745442)
2004
38
Commonly recognised Plasmodium falciparum parasites cause cerebral malaria. (13680376)
2003
39
Interferon-alpha receptor-1 (IFNAR1) variants are associated with protection against cerebral malaria in the Gambia. (12761564)
2003
40
Effectiveness of primaquine terminal prophylaxis against late primary attacks of Plasmodium vivax malaria: a case-control study among troops of the Republic of Korea army. (15259477)
2003
41
Therapeutic efficacies of artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and chloroquine-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in vivax malaria pilot studies: relationship to Plasmodium vivax dhfr mutations. (12435700)
2002
42
Atypical manifestations of Plasmodium vivax malaria. (14686106)
2002
43
Plasmodium ovale malaria acquired in central Spain. (12498674)
2002
44
Cytokines and malaria parasitemia. (11465950)
2001
45
Distinct patterns of cytokine regulation in discrete clinical forms of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. (10705308)
2000
46
Removal of plasma polymorphonuclear leukocyte elastase and TNFalpha in a child with cerebral malaria by means of PD: a case report. (10433165)
1999
47
Molecular mechanisms of cytoadherence in malaria. (10362584)
1999
48
Sequence variation of the hydroxymethyldihydropterin pyrophosphokinase: dihydropteroate synthase gene in lines of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, with differing resistance to sulfadoxine. (7925353)
1994
49
Immunopathological changes in human cerebral malaria. (8100753)
1993
50
Hepatic changes in P. falciparum malaria. (1286732)
1992

Genetic Variations for Malaria

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Expression for genes affiliated with Malaria

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1BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
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Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Malaria

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Malaria.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Malaria

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Sources:
29KEGG, 12EMD Millipore, 53Reactome, 37NCBI BioSystems Database
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Compounds for genes affiliated with Malaria

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Sources:
44Novoseek, 11DrugBank, 24HMDB, 59Tocris Bioscience, 28IUPHAR, 2BitterDB, 49PharmGKB
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Compounds related to Malaria according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show top 50)    (show all 126)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1nitric oxide44 11 2415.9IL10, NOS2, SLC4A1, HBB, MIF, HP
2tyrosine4413.8DARC, HP, HBB, GYPB, MIF, GYPC
3lipid4413.6GYPA, SLC4A1, G6PD, MIF, GYPC, CISH
4alanine4413.3SELE, DHFR, GYPA, GYPC, MIF, HBB
5lactate4413.1DHFR, HP, MIF, G6PD, ICAM1, SLC4A1
6serine4413.0HBB, FCGR2B, HP, G6PD, SELE, CISH
7h2o24413.0HBB, CD36, HP, DHFR, NOS2, ICAM1
8vegf4413.0IFNG, ICAM1, MIF, CD36, HP, SELE
9sb 20358044 5913.8ICAM1, MIF, IL10, NOS2, SELE, IFNG
10genistein44 28 59 2 11 2417.7ICAM1, SELE, MIF, CD36, FCGR2B, NOS2
11adenylate4412.7NOS2, G6PD, CR1, SELE, HBB, HP
12herbimycin a44 5913.5ICAM1, MIF, CD36, NOS2, IFNG, SELE
13dmso4412.5CR1, CD36, HBB, IL10, SELE, G6PD
14ascorbic acid44 2413.5G6PD, HP, DHFR, NOS2, CD36, ICAM1
15actinomycin d4412.4IFNG, ICAM1, G6PD, HP, NOS2, SELE
16polymyxin b4412.3SELE, IL10, IFNG, CR1, ICAM1
17sialic acid4412.3GYPC, GYPA, GYPB, MIF, SELE
18lactose44 1113.2SELE, G6PD, MIF, HP, DHFR
19thymidine44 2413.1GYPC, FCGR2B, IL10, HBB, MIF, IFNG
20folate4412.1DHFR, SLC4A1, SELE, HP, G6PD
21glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate4412.0HBB, G6PD, SLC4A1, DARC, GYPC
22tuberculin4412.0IL10, HP, MIF, IFNG
23natalizumab44 1113.0FCGR2B, IFNG, ICAM1, IL10
24okt34411.9IL10, ICAM1, SELE, IFNG
25sulfasalazine44 28 49 1114.9G6PD, HP, SELE, ICAM1
268-isoprostane4411.9HP, IL10, SELE, ICAM1
27polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid4411.9SELE, IL10, NOS2, IFNG
28mycophenolate mofetil44 49 1113.9IFNG, IL10, CD36, SELE
29ribavirin44 49 1113.9G6PD, IL10, IFNG, HP
30neopterin4411.8ICAM1, IL10, HP, IFNG
3115-deoxy-delta-12,14-prostaglandin j24411.8IL10, CD36, IFNG, NOS2
32thalidomide44 49 59 1114.7IL10, CD36, MIF, IFNG
33rantes4411.7ICAM1, DARC, IFNG
34chloroquine44 2 49 28 1115.7IL10, G6PD, HP, DHFR
35interferon gamma4411.6IL10, ICAM1, IFNG
36cyclophosphamide44 49 1113.6DHFR, MIF, G6PD
3723-diphosphoglycerate4411.6HP, HBB, G6PD
388 methoxypsoralen4411.6ICAM1, SELE, IL10
39pentamidine44 1112.5IFNG, G6PD, DHFR
40polyethylene glycol4411.5SELE, HP, G6PD, ICAM1
41aspartate4411.5SELE, DHFR, G6PD, HBB
42endotoxin4411.5ICAM1, SELE
43ulinastatin4411.3HP, ICAM1
44pdtc4411.2NOS2, SELE
45adalimumab44 49 1113.2IL10, FCGR2B, IFNG
46cycloheximide4411.2CR1
47estrogen4411.1FCGR2B
48dexamethasone44 49 28 1114.1CISH
49hind iii4411.0CR1, HBB, HP
50pirfenidone44 5911.9CD36

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Malaria

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16Gene Ontology
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Cellular components related to Malaria according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1plasma membraneGO:00588613.3ICAM1, CR1, CISH, GYPC, GYPA, GYPB
2integral to plasma membraneGO:00588712.7ICAM1, CR1, NCR3, GYPC, GYPA, GYPB
3extracellular spaceGO:00561512.1SELE, IL10, HP, MIF, ICAM1, IFNG
4cortical cytoskeletonGO:03086311.7SELE, NOS2, SLC4A1, GYPC
5external side of plasma membraneGO:00989711.2IFNG, ICAM1, GYPA, CD36
6haptoglobin-hemoglobin complexGO:03183811.0HBB, HP

Biological processes related to Malaria according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 7)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1inflammatory responseGO:00695412.2NCR3, MIF, IL10, DARC, NOS2, SELE
2cellular response to lipopolysaccharideGO:07122212.0NOS2, IL10, CD36, ICAM1, IFNG
3defense response to bacteriumGO:04274211.5NOS2, IL10, HP, IFNG
4negative regulation of growth of symbiont in hostGO:04413011.3IFNG, CD36, IL10
5positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic processGO:04542911.2IFNG, ICAM1, HBB
6positive regulation of MHC class II biosynthetic processGO:04534811.0IL10, IFNG
7positive regulation of killing of cells of other organismGO:05171210.7NOS2, IFNG

Molecular functions related to Malaria according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1hemoglobin bindingGO:03049211.0HP, HBB

Products for genes affiliated with Malaria

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Sources for Malaria

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3CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
28IUPHAR
29KEGG
34MeSH
35MESH via Orphanet
36MGI
39NCIt
40NDF-RT
43NINDS
44Novoseek
46OMIM
47OMIM via Orphanet
50PubMed
51QIAGEN
57SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
60UMLS
61UMLS via Orphanet