MCID: MLR004
MIFTS: 73

Malaria malady

Summaries for Malaria

About this section
Sources:
8Disease Ontology, 42NIH Rare Diseases, 33MedlinePlus, 3CDC, 63Wikipedia, 46OMIM, 32MalaCards
See all sources

Fully expand this MalaCard

Export this MalaCard
MedlinePlus:33 Malaria is a serious disease caused by a parasite. you get it when an infected mosquito bites you. malaria is a major cause of death worldwide, but it is almost wiped out in the united states. the disease is mostly a problem in developing countries with warm climates. if you travel to these countries, you are at risk. there are four different types of malaria caused by four related parasites. the most deadly type occurs in africa south of the sahara desert. malaria symptoms include chills, flu-like symptoms, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and jaundice. a blood test can diagnose it. it can be life-threatening. however, you can treat malaria with drugs. the type of drug depends on which kind of malaria you have and where you were infected. malaria can be prevented. when traveling to malaria-prone regions see your doctor for medicines that protect you wear insect repellent with deet cover up sleep under mosquito netting centers for disease control and prevention

MalaCards: Malaria, also known as induced malaria, is related to plasmodium falciparum malaria and cerebral malaria. An important gene associated with Malaria is NOS2 (nitric oxide synthase 2, inducible), and among its related pathways are Malaria and Tuberculosis. The drugs hydroxychloroquine and sulfadiazine and the compounds nitric oxide and tyrosine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include testes, brain and t cells, and related mouse phenotypes are homeostasis/metabolism and hematopoietic system.

Disease Ontology:8 A parasitic protozoa infectious disease characterized as a vector-borne infectious disease caused by the presence of protozoan parasites of the genus plasmodium in the red blood cells, transmitted from an infected to an uninfected individual by the bite of anopheline mosquitoes, and characterized by periodic attacks of chills and fever that coincide with mass destruction of blood cells and the release of toxic substances by the parasite at the end of each reproductive cycle.

NIH Rare Diseases:42 Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease caused by a parasite that commonly infects a certain type of mosquito which feeds on humans. infection with malaria parasites may result in a wide variety of symptoms, ranging from absent or very mild symptoms to severe disease and even death. people who get malaria are typically very sick with high fevers, shaking chills, and flu-like illness. in general, malaria is a curable disease if diagnosed and treated promptly and correctly. treatment depends on many factors including disease severity, the species of malaria parasite causing the infection and the part of the world in which the infection was acquired. last updated: 5/12/2011

CDC:3 Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by a parasite. People with malaria often experience fever, chills, and flu-like illness. Left untreated, they may develop severe complications and die. In 2010 an estimated 219 million cases of malaria occurred worldwide and 660,000 people died, most (91%) in the African Region.

Wikipedia:63 Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by parasitic... more...

Description from OMIM:46 611162

Aliases & Classifications for Malaria

About this section
Sources:
8Disease Ontology, 42NIH Rare Diseases, 46OMIM, 10DISEASES, 44Novoseek, 33MedlinePlus, 60UMLS, 56SNOMED-CT, 34MeSH, 27ICD9CM, 39NCIt
See all sources

Aliases & Descriptions:

malaria 8 42 46 10 44 33 60
induced malaria 8 60


External Ids:

Disease Ontology8 DOID:12365
MeSH34 D008288
ICD9CM27 084.6, 084
NCIt39 C34797

Related Diseases for Malaria

About this section
Sources:
17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
See all sources

Diseases in the Malaria family:

Malaria, Severe

Diseases related to Malaria via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards/GeneDecks gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 329)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1plasmodium falciparum malaria31.9IFNG, ICAM1, G6PD, CR1, CD36, SELE
2cerebral malaria31.7ICAM1, CD36
3plasmodium vivax malaria31.6G6PD, DHFR, DARC
4thrombocytopenia30.7HP, FCGR2B
5schistosomiasis30.6IL10, IFNG
6leishmaniasis30.6IFNG, DHFR, IL10
7hepatitis30.5CR1, HP
8encephalomyelitis30.4NOS2, IL10, CR1, IFNG
9blackwater fever30.4G6PD
10alpha thalassemia30.4G6PD, HBB
11pancytopenia30.2DHFR, HP
12deficiency anemia30.2SLC4A1, DHFR, HP, HBB, MIF, CR1
13tuberculosis30.2HP, CR1, HBB, MIF, IFNG, DHFR
14hemolytic anemia30.2SLC4A1, HP, HBB, CR1, G6PD
15chagas disease30.2DHFR
16retinitis30.2GYPC
17visceral leishmaniasis30.2IL10, IFNG
18sickle cell disease30.1SELE, HP, HBB, G6PD
19glomerulonephritis30.1MIF, NOS2, ICAM1, CR1
20encephalitis30.1GYPC, NOS2, DARC
21hereditary elliptocytosis30.1SLC4A1, GYPC, G6PD
22systemic lupus erythematosus30.0MIF, SELE, FCGR2B, IL10, CR1, IFNG
23burkitt's lymphoma30.0CR1, CISH, HBB, ICAM1, DHFR, IL10
24pneumonia30.0ICAM1, DHFR, GYPA, IL10, CR1
25adult respiratory distress syndrome30.0NOS2, MIF, CR1, SELE
26methemoglobinemia30.0G6PD, HP
27lupus erythematosus30.0FCGR2B
28sarcoma30.0DHFR
29myocarditis30.0NOS2
30melanoma29.9DHFR, CD36, IL10, GYPC, IFNG, ICAM1
31asthma29.9NOS2, IL10, IFNG, ICAM1, CR1, SELE
32pre-eclampsia29.9ICAM1, HBB, HP, IL10, NOS2, SELE
33influenza29.9GYPB, CR1, IFNG
34sickle cell anemia29.9HBB, G6PD, HP
35hemoglobinopathy29.9G6PD, HP, HBB
36viral hepatitis29.9G6PD, CISH
37obesity29.9SELE, CISH
38acute pancreatitis29.9IL10, MIF
39eosinophilia29.9IFNG, IL10
40pancreatitis29.9IL10, ICAM1
41vaccinia29.9DARC
42urticaria29.9SELE
43glucosephosphate dehydrogenase deficiency29.9HP, G6PD
44leukemia29.7HBB, GYPA, HP, CR1, CISH, ICAM1
45multiple sclerosis29.7IFNG, ICAM1, IL10, NOS2, CR1, MIF
46psoriasis29.7IFNG, DHFR, ICAM1, IL10, SELE
47ischemia29.7HP, ICAM1, CR1, NOS2, SELE
48atopic dermatitis29.7IL10, MIF, ICAM1, IFNG, SELE
49autoimmune hemolytic anemia29.7HP, G6PD, GYPA
50dermatitis29.7IFNG, SELE, ICAM1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Malaria:



Diseases related to malaria

Clinical Features for Malaria

About this section
Sources:
46OMIM
See all sources

Clinical features from OMIM:

611162

Drugs & Therapeutics for Malaria

About this section
Sources:
5CenterWatch, 41NIH Clinical Center, 6ClinicalTrials, 60UMLS, 40NDF-RT
See all sources

Approved drugs:

Search CenterWatch for Malaria

Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Malaria

Search NIH Clinical Center for Malaria

Search CenterWatch for Malaria

Inferred drug relations via UMLS60/NDF-RT40:

Genetic Tests for Malaria

About this section

Anatomical Context for Malaria

About this section
Sources:
32MalaCards
See all sources

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Malaria:

32
Testes, Brain, T cells, Liver, Endothelial, B cells, Monocytes, Nk cells, Spleen, Kidney, Whole blood, Placenta, Myeloid, Bone marrow, Eye, Bone, Cortex, Skin, Cardiac myocytes, Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Skeletal muscle, Heart, Lung, Temporal lobe

Animal Models for Malaria or affiliated genes

About this section
Sources:
36MGI
See all sources

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Malaria:

36 (show all 12)
idDescriptionMGI Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MP:000537614.1CD36, MIF, G6PD, ICAM1, IFNG, HBB
2MP:000539713.9SELE, IFNG, ICAM1, G6PD, MIF, CD36
3MP:000538713.9HBB, CD36, MIF, ICAM1, IFNG, HP
4MP:000538513.7CD36, G6PD, ICAM1, IFNG, HBB, HP
5MP:000538413.6IFNG, ICAM1, G6PD, MIF, CD36, HP
6MP:001076813.4CD36, G6PD, ICAM1, IFNG, HBB, HP
7MP:000537813.2IFNG, ICAM1, G6PD, CD36, HBB, IL10
8MP:000537012.8IFNG, CD36, HBB, HP, IL10, FCGR2B
9MP:000200612.0IFNG, ICAM1, MIF, HP, IL10, NOS2
10MP:000536711.7HBB, HP, FCGR2B, SLC4A1
11MP:001077111.0SLC4A1, HBB
12MP:000539010.7HBB, CD36

Publications for Malaria

About this section
Sources:
50PubMed
See all sources

Articles related to Malaria:

(show top 50)    (show all 3043)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Low Antibody Levels to Pregnancy-specific Malaria Antigens and Heightened Cytokine Responses Associated With Severe Malaria in Pregnancy. (24277742)
2014
2
A morphometric and histological study of placental malaria shows significant changes to villous architecture in both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infection. (24386908)
2014
3
Safety and immunogenicity of heterologous prime-boost immunisation with Plasmodium falciparum malaria candidate vaccines, ChAd63 ME-TRAP and MVA ME-TRAP, in healthy Gambian and Kenyan adults. (23526949)
2013
4
Presence of memory T cells and naturally acquired antibodies in Plasmodium vivax malaria-exposed individuals against a group of tryptophan-rich antigens with conserved sequences. (23087432)
2013
5
Psychosis following chloroquine ingestion: a 10-year comparative study from a malaria-hyperendemic district of India. (24290896)
2013
6
The clinicopathologic manifestations of Plasmodium vivax malaria in children: a growing menace. (23814729)
2013
7
Correction: Impacts of Agricultural Practices on Insecticide Resistance in the Malaria Vector Anopheles arabiensis in Khartoum State, Sudan. (24348944)
2013
8
Microvascular dysfunction in severe Plasmodium falciparum Malaria. (23136219)
2013
9
Automatic diagnosis of malaria based on complete circle-ellipse fitting search algorithm. (24102561)
2013
10
Coinfection with Plasmodium falciparum and Schistosoma haematobium: Additional Evidence of the Protective Effect of Schistosomiasis on Malaria in Senegalese Children. (24323515)
2013
11
Correction: Malaria Infection, Poor Nutrition and Indoor Air Pollution Mediate Socioeconomic Differences in Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Cape Coast, Ghana. (24386045)
2013
12
Anophelism in a former malaria area of northeastern Spain. (24409440)
2013
13
Prevalence of raised intracranial pressure in cerebral malaria detected by optic nerve sheath ultrasound. (23033398)
2012
14
Cutting edge: the membrane attack complex of complement is required for the development of murine experimental cerebral malaria. (21572031)
2011
15
Effect of acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria on reactivation and shedding of the eight human herpes viruses. (22039454)
2011
16
Amodiaquine analogues containing NO-donor substructures: synthesis and their preliminary evaluation as potential tools in the treatment of cerebral malaria. (21396743)
2011
17
Screening mosquito house entry points as a potential method for integrated control of endophagic filariasis, arbovirus and malaria vectors. (20689815)
2010
18
Artemisinin derivatives for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Sudan: too early for too much hope. (20012990)
2010
19
Plasmodium vivax clinical malaria is commonly observed in Duffy- negative Malagasy people. (20231434)
2010
20
MIG and the regulatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-I^1 correlate with malaria vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. (20838432)
2010
21
Protein kinase C I, deficiency increases resistance of C57BL/6J mice to Plasmodium berghei infection-induced cerebral malaria. (20660606)
2010
22
A rapid murine coma and behavior scale for quantitative assessment of murine cerebral malaria. (20957049)
2010
23
Acute acalculous cholecystitis complicating an imported case of mixed malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. (19932042)
2010
24
Role of CR1 Knops polymorphism in the pathophysiology of malaria: Indian scenario. (19959855)
2009
25
Whole blood angiopoietin-1 and -2 levels discriminate cerebral and severe (non-cerebral) malaria from uncomplicated malaria. (20003529)
2009
26
Thrombotic microangiopathy associated with Plasmodium vivax malaria. (18688654)
2009
27
Plasmodium falciparum malaria and atovaquone-proguanil treatment failure. (18258131)
2008
28
Three-dimensional structure of heat shock protein 90 from Plasmodium falciparum: molecular modelling approach to rational drug design against malaria. (17536172)
2007
29
Exposure to holoendemic malaria results in suppression of Epstein-Barr virus-specific T cell immunosurveillance in Kenyan children. (17299709)
2007
30
NK cells stimulate recruitment of CXCR3+ T cells to the brain during Plasmodium berghei-mediated cerebral malaria. (17442962)
2007
31
ABO blood group phenotypes and Plasmodium falciparum malaria: unlocking a pivotal mechanism. (18063095)
2007
32
Risk factors for imported fatal Plasmodium falciparum malaria, France, 1996-2003. (17553228)
2007
33
A case of autochthonous Plasmodium vivax malaria, Corsica, August 2006. (17213553)
2006
34
Randomized, controlled, double-blind trial of daily oral azithromycin in adults for the prophylaxis of Plasmodium vivax malaria in Western Thailand. (16282291)
2005
35
Analysis of IL10 haplotypic associations with severe malaria. (15933743)
2005
36
Calcium and phosphate levels in Nigerian children with malaria. (16297306)
2005
37
Case reports: pernicious complications of benign tertian malaria. (15307424)
2003
38
Acute renal failure in Plasmodium vivax malaria. (12839348)
2003
39
Resistance mutations reveal the atovaquone-binding domain of cytochrome b in malaria parasites. (10447880)
1999
40
Intrinsic efficacy of proguanil against falciparum and vivax malaria independent of the metabolite cycloguanil. (10068594)
1999
41
Field trials of a rapid test for G6PD deficiency in combination with a rapid diagnosis of malaria. (10357861)
1999
42
Do babesiosis and malaria share a common disease process? (9683899)
1998
43
Supportive pentoxifylline in falciparum malaria: no effect on tumor necrosis factor alpha levels or clinical outcome: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study. (9158047)
1997
44
Relapse of Plasmodium vivax malaria with the presence of microgametes. (9114176)
1997
45
Chloroquine-Resistant Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Borneo. (9815438)
1996
46
The resolution of acute malaria in a definitive model of B cell deficiency, the JHD mouse. (8157969)
1994
47
Selenium and sulfur in antioxidant protective systems: relationships with vitamin E and malaria. (1579591)
1992
48
Hypoxanthine depletion induced by xanthine oxidase inhibits malaria parasite growth in vitro. (1789199)
1991
49
Endomyocardial lesion and endomyocardial fibrosis in experimental malaria (Plasmodium berghei) in mice. (6337776)
1983
50
A study of 22 cases of Carrion's disease with intercurrent malaria. (15392068)
1949

Genetic Variations for Malaria

About this section

Expression for genes affiliated with Malaria

About this section
Sources:
1BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
See all sources
Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Malaria

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Malaria.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Malaria

About this section
Sources:
29KEGG, 12EMD Millipore, 53Reactome, 37NCBI BioSystems Database
See all sources

Compounds for genes affiliated with Malaria

About this section
Sources:
44Novoseek, 11DrugBank, 24HMDB, 59Tocris Bioscience, 28IUPHAR, 2BitterDB, 49PharmGKB
See all sources

Compounds related to Malaria according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show top 50)    (show all 126)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1nitric oxide44 11 2415.9IL10, NOS2, SLC4A1, HBB, MIF, HP
2tyrosine4413.8DARC, HP, HBB, GYPB, MIF, GYPC
3lipid4413.6GYPA, SLC4A1, G6PD, MIF, GYPC, CISH
4alanine4413.3SELE, DHFR, GYPA, GYPC, MIF, HBB
5lactate4413.1DHFR, HP, MIF, G6PD, ICAM1, SLC4A1
6serine4413.0HBB, FCGR2B, HP, G6PD, SELE, CISH
7h2o24413.0HBB, CD36, HP, DHFR, NOS2, ICAM1
8vegf4413.0IFNG, ICAM1, MIF, CD36, HP, SELE
9sb 20358044 5913.8ICAM1, MIF, IL10, NOS2, SELE, IFNG
10genistein44 28 59 2 11 2417.7ICAM1, SELE, MIF, CD36, FCGR2B, NOS2
11adenylate4412.7NOS2, G6PD, CR1, SELE, HBB, HP
12herbimycin a44 5913.5ICAM1, MIF, CD36, NOS2, IFNG, SELE
13dmso4412.5CR1, CD36, HBB, IL10, SELE, G6PD
14ascorbic acid44 2413.5G6PD, HP, DHFR, NOS2, CD36, ICAM1
15actinomycin d4412.4IFNG, ICAM1, G6PD, HP, NOS2, SELE
16polymyxin b4412.3SELE, IL10, IFNG, CR1, ICAM1
17sialic acid4412.3GYPC, GYPA, GYPB, MIF, SELE
18lactose44 1113.2SELE, G6PD, MIF, HP, DHFR
19thymidine44 2413.1GYPC, FCGR2B, IL10, HBB, MIF, IFNG
20folate4412.1DHFR, SLC4A1, SELE, HP, G6PD
21glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate4412.0HBB, G6PD, SLC4A1, DARC, GYPC
22tuberculin4412.0IL10, HP, MIF, IFNG
23natalizumab44 1113.0FCGR2B, IFNG, ICAM1, IL10
24okt34411.9IL10, ICAM1, SELE, IFNG
25sulfasalazine44 28 49 1114.9G6PD, HP, SELE, ICAM1
268-isoprostane4411.9HP, IL10, SELE, ICAM1
27polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid4411.9SELE, IL10, NOS2, IFNG
28mycophenolate mofetil44 49 1113.9IFNG, IL10, CD36, SELE
29ribavirin44 49 1113.9G6PD, IL10, IFNG, HP
30neopterin4411.8ICAM1, IL10, HP, IFNG
3115-deoxy-delta-12,14-prostaglandin j24411.8IL10, CD36, IFNG, NOS2
32thalidomide44 49 59 1114.7IL10, CD36, MIF, IFNG
33rantes4411.7ICAM1, DARC, IFNG
34chloroquine44 2 49 28 1115.7IL10, G6PD, HP, DHFR
35interferon gamma4411.6IL10, ICAM1, IFNG
36cyclophosphamide44 49 1113.6DHFR, MIF, G6PD
3723-diphosphoglycerate4411.6HP, HBB, G6PD
388 methoxypsoralen4411.6ICAM1, SELE, IL10
39pentamidine44 1112.5IFNG, G6PD, DHFR
40polyethylene glycol4411.5SELE, HP, G6PD, ICAM1
41aspartate4411.5SELE, DHFR, G6PD, HBB
42endotoxin4411.5ICAM1, SELE
43ulinastatin4411.3HP, ICAM1
44pdtc4411.2NOS2, SELE
45adalimumab44 49 1113.2IL10, FCGR2B, IFNG
46cycloheximide4411.2CR1
47estrogen4411.1FCGR2B
48dexamethasone44 49 28 1114.1CISH
49hind iii4411.0CR1, HBB, HP
50pirfenidone44 5911.9CD36

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Malaria

About this section
Sources:
16Gene Ontology
See all sources

Cellular components related to Malaria according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1plasma membraneGO:00588613.3ICAM1, CR1, CISH, GYPC, GYPA, GYPB
2integral to plasma membraneGO:00588712.7ICAM1, CR1, NCR3, GYPC, GYPA, GYPB
3extracellular spaceGO:00561512.1SELE, IL10, HP, MIF, ICAM1, IFNG
4cortical cytoskeletonGO:03086311.7SELE, NOS2, SLC4A1, GYPC
5external side of plasma membraneGO:00989711.2IFNG, ICAM1, GYPA, CD36
6haptoglobin-hemoglobin complexGO:03183811.0HBB, HP

Biological processes related to Malaria according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 7)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1inflammatory responseGO:00695412.2NCR3, MIF, IL10, DARC, NOS2, SELE
2cellular response to lipopolysaccharideGO:07122212.0NOS2, IL10, CD36, ICAM1, IFNG
3defense response to bacteriumGO:04274211.5NOS2, IL10, HP, IFNG
4negative regulation of growth of symbiont in hostGO:04413011.3IFNG, CD36, IL10
5positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic processGO:04542911.2IFNG, ICAM1, HBB
6positive regulation of MHC class II biosynthetic processGO:04534811.0IL10, IFNG
7positive regulation of killing of cells of other organismGO:05171210.7NOS2, IFNG

Molecular functions related to Malaria according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1hemoglobin bindingGO:03049211.0HP, HBB

Products for genes affiliated with Malaria

About this section
  • Antibodies
  • Proteins
  • Lysates
  • Antibodies

Sources for Malaria

About this section
3CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
28IUPHAR
29KEGG
34MeSH
35MESH via Orphanet
36MGI
39NCIt
40NDF-RT
43NINDS
44Novoseek
46OMIM
47OMIM via Orphanet
50PubMed
51QIAGEN
57SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
60UMLS
61UMLS via Orphanet