MCID: MLG069
MIFTS: 47

Malignant Hypertension malady

Categories: Cardiovascular diseases, Genetic diseases, Blood diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Malignant Hypertension

Aliases & Descriptions for Malignant Hypertension:

Name: Malignant Hypertension 12 14 69
Hypertension, Malignant 42
Hypertension Malignant 52

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:10824
MeSH 42 D006974
NCIt 47 C3118
UMLS 69 C0020540

Summaries for Malignant Hypertension

MalaCards based summary : Malignant Hypertension, also known as hypertension, malignant, is related to pyelonephritis and malignant hypertensive renal disease. An important gene associated with Malignant Hypertension is REN (Renin), and among its related pathways/superpathways are p70S6K Signaling and Peptide hormone metabolism. The drugs Cisplatin and Fluorouracil have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include kidney, brain and liver, and related phenotypes are cardiovascular system and homeostasis/metabolism

Related Diseases for Malignant Hypertension

Diseases in the Familial Hypertension family:

Hypertension, Essential Hypertension, Essential 7
Hypertension, Essential 8 Malignant Essential Hypertension
Malignant Hypertension Benign Essential Hypertension
Benign Secondary Hypertension Malignant Secondary Hypertension

Diseases related to Malignant Hypertension via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 198)
id Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 pyelonephritis 28.9 ACE EDN1 NPPA NPPB REN
2 malignant hypertensive renal disease 11.8
3 malignant renovascular hypertension 11.1
4 malignant secondary hypertension 10.9
5 malignant essential hypertension 10.9
6 hemolytic uremic syndrome, atypical 1 10.7
7 hypotrichosis simplex 10.3 ACE REN
8 hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, familial, 3 10.3 ACE REN
9 carbohydrate metabolic disorder 10.3 ACE REN
10 hypothyroidism, congenital nongoitrous, 5 10.3 ACE REN
11 listeriosis 10.3 ACE REN
12 dientamoebiasis 10.3 ACE REN
13 congenital nystagmus 10.2 ACE REN
14 chylocele of tunica vaginalis 10.2 ACE REN
15 penile cancer, childhood 10.2 ACE AGT
16 chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy 10.2 NPPB REN
17 autonomic neuropathy 10.2 NPPB REN
18 uterine inflammatory disease 10.1 EDN1 REN
19 hypoaldosteronism, congenital, due to cmo i deficiency 10.1 AGT REN
20 hepatic infarction 10.1 EDN1 REN
21 adenocarcinoma 10.1 EDN1 REN
22 median neuropathy 10.1 ACE NPPB
23 toxic myocarditis 10.1 ACE NPPB
24 mental retardation hypocupremia hypobetalipoproteinemia 10.1 AGT AGTR1
25 mixed germ cell-sex cord neoplasm 10.1 ACE AGTR1 REN
26 schizotypal personality disorder 10.1 ACE AGT REN
27 malignant hyperthermia susceptibility 1 10.1 ACE AGT
28 deafness, autosomal recessive 79 10.1 ACE NPPB REN
29 citrulline transport defect 10.1 EDN1 NPPB
30 hemorrhoid 10.1 EDN1 REN
31 budd-chiari syndrome 10.1 ACE AGTR1 REN
32 chronic myocardial ischemia 10.1 ACE AGT REN
33 hypertrichosis of eyelid 10.1 ACE AGTR1
34 shaken baby syndrome 10.1 NPPA REN
35 sialadenitis 10.1 AGTR1 EDN1
36 rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis 10.0 ACE NPPA
37 preaxial polydactyly of fingers 10.0 ACE AGT AGTR1
38 cetp-related hyperalphalipoproteinemia 10.0 ACE AGT AGTR1
39 achromatopsia 10.0 NPPA REN
40 joint disorders 10.0 ACE AGTR1 NPPB
41 agammaglobulinemia 6 10.0 ACE AGT AGTR1
42 ectodermal dysplasia 9, hair/nail type 10.0 EDN1 NPPB
43 limb ischemia 10.0 ACE EDN1 REN
44 systolic heart failure 10.0 ACE AGT AGTR1
45 familial nephrotic syndrome 10.0 ACE AGT AGTR1
46 episodic kinesigenic dyskinesia 2 10.0 AGT REN
47 aphasia 10.0 ACE EDN1
48 myositis fibrosa 10.0 AGTR1 EDN1
49 alpha-2-plasmin inhibitor deficiency 10.0 ACE AGTR1 EDN1
50 acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy 10.0 ACE AGTR1 EDN1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Malignant Hypertension:



Diseases related to Malignant Hypertension

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Malignant Hypertension

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Malignant Hypertension:

44
id Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cardiovascular system MP:0005385 9.8 ACE ADM AGT AGTR1 EDN1 NPPA
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 9.76 ACE ADAMTS13 ADM AGT AGTR1 EDN1
3 muscle MP:0005369 9.35 ADM AGT EDN1 NPPA REN
4 renal/urinary system MP:0005367 9.17 AGT AGTR1 EDN1 NPPA REN ACE

Drugs & Therapeutics for Malignant Hypertension

Drugs for Malignant Hypertension (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 69)
id Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Cisplatin Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 15663-27-1 84093 441203 2767
2
Fluorouracil Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 51-21-8 3385
3
Paclitaxel Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 33069-62-4 36314
4 Atorvastatin Calcium Phase 3 134523-03-8
5 Liver Extracts Phase 3
6 Antimetabolites Phase 2, Phase 3
7 Immunosuppressive Agents Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 1
8 Albumin-Bound Paclitaxel Phase 2, Phase 3
9 Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic Phase 2, Phase 3
10 Antimitotic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
11 Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic Phase 2, Phase 3
12
s 1 (combination) Phase 2, Phase 3
13
Diazoxide Approved Phase 2 364-98-7 3019
14
Bevacizumab Approved, Investigational Phase 2 216974-75-3
15
Everolimus Approved Phase 1, Phase 2 159351-69-6 6442177
16
Miconazole Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 1, Phase 2 22916-47-8 4189
17
Sirolimus Approved, Investigational Phase 1, Phase 2 53123-88-9 5284616 6436030 46835353
18
Hydroxyurea Approved Phase 2 127-07-1 3657
19
Verapamil Approved Phase 2 52-53-9 2520
20
Epinephrine Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2 51-43-4 5816
21
Dacarbazine Approved, Investigational Phase 2 4342-03-4 5351166
22
Enalapril Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2 75847-73-3 5362032 40466924
23
Enalaprilat Approved Phase 2 76420-72-9 6917719
24
Propranolol Approved, Investigational Phase 2 525-66-6 4946
25
Choline Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 2 62-49-7 305
26 Antihypertensive Agents Phase 2
27 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 2
28 Hypolipidemic Agents Phase 2
29 Lipid Regulating Agents Phase 2
30 Nootropic Agents Phase 2
31 Vasodilator Agents Phase 2
32 Angiogenesis Inhibitors Phase 2
33 Angiogenesis Modulating Agents Phase 2
34 Antibodies Phase 2
35 Antibodies, Monoclonal Phase 2
36 Immunoglobulins Phase 2
37 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
38 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 1, Phase 2
39 Antifungal Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
40 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 1, Phase 2
41 Anti-Arrhythmia Agents Phase 2
42 calcium channel blockers Phase 2
43 Calcium, Dietary Phase 2
44 Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors Phase 2
45 Epinephryl borate Phase 2
46 Racepinephrine Phase 2
47 Adrenergic Agents Phase 2
48 Adrenergic Antagonists Phase 2
49 Adrenergic beta-Antagonists Phase 2
50 Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Phase 2

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 25)
id Name Status NCT ID Phase
1 Stenting in Renal Dysfunction Caused by Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis Completed NCT00150943 Phase 3
2 Efficacy and Safety of Primovist in Chinese Patients Completed NCT00526188 Phase 3
3 Combination Treatment of S-1 With Paclitaxel in Advanced Esophageal Cancer Terminated NCT01704690 Phase 2, Phase 3
4 Diazoxide Choline in Hypertriglyceridemia Completed NCT00696475 Phase 2
5 AMG 102 and Avastin for Recurrent Malignant Glioma Completed NCT01113398 Phase 2
6 Pilot Study of Rapamycin as Treatment for Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) Completed NCT00286156 Phase 1, Phase 2
7 Combination of Hydroxyurea and Verapamil for Refractory Meningiomas Completed NCT00706810 Phase 2
8 Study of Adrenalectomy Versus Observation for Subclinical Hypercortisolism Active, not recruiting NCT02001051 Phase 2
9 Bevacizumab vs Dacarbazine in Metastatic Melanoma Terminated NCT01705392 Phase 2
10 Everolimus and Vatalanib in Treating Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors Active, not recruiting NCT00655655 Phase 1
11 Single Incision Laparoscopy Completed NCT00616616
12 Assessing Blood Pressure Remotely in Childhood Cancer Survivors Completed NCT02476162
13 Investigation of Waist Circumference and Waist/Hip Ratio as a Predictive Risk Factor for Morbidity and Mortality After Colorectal Surgery Completed NCT01737515
14 Thyrotropin Over-suppression and Heart Completed NCT02645786
15 Non Invasive Measurements of Intracranial Pressure in Patients With Malignant Glioma Recruiting NCT02520492
16 Zonulo-hyaloido-vitrectomy for Malignant Glaucoma Recruiting NCT02613143
17 Stereotactic Infarct Tissue Aspiration for Malignant Infarction of Middle Cerebral Artery Recruiting NCT02609256
18 Evaluation of Complex Renal Cyst With CEUS/Functional MRI Versus CT Recruiting NCT02371551
19 Dynamic Changes in SDF-1α Levels in Acute and Stabilized Heart Disease Recruiting NCT02702752
20 Health Status and Burden of Late Effects in Very Long-term Testicular Cancer Survivors (STANDBY-study) Recruiting NCT02572934
21 Study of Microcirculatory Effects of Bevacizumab in Patients Treated for Metastatic Colon Cancer or Glioblastoma Active, not recruiting NCT01810744
22 The TRIABETES - ARMMS-T2D Study: A Randomized Trial to Compare Surgical and Medical Treatments for Type 2 Diabetes Active, not recruiting NCT01047735
23 Relationship of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components With Thyroid Cancer Not yet recruiting NCT03006289
24 Potential Biomarkers for Bevacizumab-Induced High Blood Pressure in Patients With Solid Tumor Terminated NCT01096381
25 Disc Edema in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Withdrawn NCT00769834

Search NIH Clinical Center for Malignant Hypertension

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 69 / NDF-RT 48 :


Cochrane evidence based reviews: hypertension, malignant

Genetic Tests for Malignant Hypertension

Anatomical Context for Malignant Hypertension

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Malignant Hypertension:

39
Kidney, Brain, Liver, Endothelial, Adrenal Gland, T Cells, Heart

Publications for Malignant Hypertension

Articles related to Malignant Hypertension:

(show top 50) (show all 554)
id Title Authors Year
1
Malignant Hypertensive Retinopathy in an Infant with Mid-Aortic Occlusion. ( 27795862 )
2016
2
A global amnesia associated with the specific variant of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) that developed due to severe preeclampsia and malignant hypertension. ( 27099774 )
2016
3
Brain Natriuretic Peptide Counteracting the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System in Accelerated Malignant Hypertension. ( 27865304 )
2016
4
First reported case of khat cardiomyopathy and malignant hypertension in Australia. ( 27981767 )
2016
5
[OP.LB.02.05] A PATIENT WITH MALIGNANT HYPERTENSION SUCCESSFULLY TREATED WITH ECULIZUMAB AND BOSENTAN - SUGGESTIONS OF SIGNIFICANT INTERACTIONS OF COMPLEMENT AND THE ENDOTHELIN SYSTEM IN BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL. ( 27508801 )
2016
6
Malignant Hypertension with Thrombotic Microangiopathy. ( 27523008 )
2016
7
Intrarenal alterations of the angiotensin-converting enzyme type 2/angiotensin 1-7 complex of the renin-angiotensin system do not alter the course of malignant hypertension in Cyp1a1-Ren-2 transgenic rats. ( 26833491 )
2016
8
IMAGES IN CLINICAL MEDICINE. Reversible Loss of Vision in Malignant Hypertension. ( 27050208 )
2016
9
Malignant hypertension-associated thrombotic microangiopathy following cocaine use. ( 26787585 )
2016
10
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in malignant hypertension secondary to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. ( 27535734 )
2016
11
A case report of malignant hypertension in a young woman. ( 27389397 )
2016
12
The endothelium as the common denominator in malignant hypertension and thrombotic microangiopathy. ( 26778772 )
2016
13
Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analog attenuates the development of malignant hypertension, but does not reverse it once established: a study in Cyp1a1-Ren-2 transgenic rats. ( 27428043 )
2016
14
CD4(+)CD25(+) T Cells in primary malignant hypertension related kidney injury. ( 27278520 )
2016
15
An ectopic renin-secreting adrenal corticoadenoma in a child with malignant hypertension. ( 26997629 )
2016
16
Malignant hypertension: new aspects of an old clinical entity. ( 26658350 )
2016
17
Fenofibrate Attenuates Malignant Hypertension by Suppression of the Renin-angiotensin System: A Study in Cyp1a1-Ren-2 Transgenic Rats. ( 27916218 )
2016
18
Takayasu arteritis presenting with malignant hypertension; a rare manifestation of a rare disease: a case report and review of the literature. ( 27216226 )
2016
19
An unusual cause of malignant hypertension in young. ( 27728492 )
2016
20
SPONTANEOUS BILATERAL HEMORRHAGIC CHOROIDAL DETACHMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH MALIGNANT HYPERTENSION. ( 27177073 )
2016
21
Idiopathic midaortic syndrome with malignant hypertension in 3-year-old boy. ( 28018454 )
2016
22
Malignant hypertensive retinopathy as a presenting sign of an occult dead fetus. ( 26082609 )
2015
23
Basal transethmoidal encephalocele and malignant hypertension in a parturient with a seizure disorder. A case report. ( 25745752 )
2015
24
Tremendous result of bevacizumab in malignant hypertensive retinopathy. ( 25709280 )
2015
25
Malignant hypertension in lgA nephropathy. ( 25761814 )
2015
26
Does Anticomplement Therapy Have a Role in the Management of Malignant Hypertension? ( 26359936 )
2015
27
Malignant Hypertension: Clinical Manifestations of 7 Cases. ( 25902134 )
2015
28
Increasing trend in admissions for malignant hypertension and hypertensive encephalopathy in the United States. ( 25801877 )
2015
29
Malignant Hypertension and Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura: False Friends. ( 26083445 )
2015
30
Severe visual loss caused by unrecognized malignant hypertension in a 15-year-old girl. ( 25868960 )
2015
31
Differentiating malignant hypertension-induced thrombotic microangiopathy from thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. ( 26137201 )
2015
32
Candida-associated pseudo-aneurysm of the transplant renal artery presenting as malignant hypertension and managed successfully without nephrectomy. ( 26354578 )
2015
33
Characteristics of podocyte injury in malignant hypertensive nephropathy of rats (MSHRSP/Kpo strain). ( 26522148 )
2015
34
From malignant hypertension to hypertension-MOD: a modern definition for an old but still dangerous emergency. ( 26582411 )
2015
35
Malignant hypertension: a type of IgA nephropathy manifestation with poor prognosis. ( 25611832 )
2015
36
Bilateral exudative retinal detachment with choroidopathy in malignant hypertension. ( 27132968 )
2015
37
Inflammatory optic disc edema due to Sarcoidosis mimicking malignant hypertension. ( 25351429 )
2014
38
Atypical presentation of post infectious glomerulonephritis as malignant hypertension and thrombotic microangiopathy. ( 24701044 )
2014
39
An 18-year-old female patient with malignant hypertension masked as thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura? ( 24832123 )
2014
40
Malignant hypertension and retinopathy in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). ( 24646309 )
2014
41
Comment on: Malignant hypertension and nephrotic range proteinuria without hematuria: IgA nephropathy. ( 25120304 )
2014
42
A rare consequence of malignant hypertension. ( 25029879 )
2014
43
Renal fibromuscular dysplasia with malignant hypertension cured by balloon angioplasty with stenting. ( 24927042 )
2014
44
Author response on: Malignant hypertension and nephrotic range proteinuria without hematuria: IgA nephropathy. ( 25097347 )
2014
45
Diagnosis of malignant hypertension with ocular examination: a child case. ( 24168178 )
2014
46
Quiz page March 2014: A patient with malignant hypertension, thrombotic microangiopathy, and nephrotic-range proteinuria. ( 24560161 )
2014
47
Use of a pulsatile perfusion pump for renal autotransplantation in a patient undergoing thoracoabdominal bypass for malignant hypertension secondary to Takayasu arteritis. ( 24698771 )
2014
48
Malignant hypertension with thrombotic microangiopathy and persistent acute kidney injury (AKI). ( 25503954 )
2014
49
Adaptive optics assisted visualization of thickened retinal arterial wall in a patient with controlled malignant hypertension. ( 25336903 )
2014
50
Antihypertensive and renoprotective actions of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition in ANG II-dependent malignant hypertension are abolished by pretreatment with L-NAME. ( 23307303 )
2013

Variations for Malignant Hypertension

Expression for Malignant Hypertension

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Malignant Hypertension.

Pathways for Malignant Hypertension

GO Terms for Malignant Hypertension

Cellular components related to Malignant Hypertension according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.56 ACE ADAMTS13 ADM AGT EDN1 NPPA
2 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.23 ACE ADAMTS13 ADM AGT EDN1 NPPA

Biological processes related to Malignant Hypertension according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 46)
id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cell-cell signaling GO:0007267 9.87 ADM AGT EDN1
2 cell surface receptor signaling pathway GO:0007166 9.87 AGT EDN1 NPPB
3 response to lipopolysaccharide GO:0032496 9.85 ADM EDN1 REN
4 response to hypoxia GO:0001666 9.84 ADM EDN1 NPPA
5 positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration GO:0007204 9.81 ADM AGT AGTR1 EDN1
6 negative regulation of cell growth GO:0030308 9.8 AGT NPPA NPPB
7 kidney development GO:0001822 9.8 ACE AGT AGTR1 REN
8 female pregnancy GO:0007565 9.78 ADM AGT NPPA
9 calcium-mediated signaling GO:0019722 9.7 AGTR1 EDN1
10 positive regulation of endothelial cell migration GO:0010595 9.69 AGT EDN1
11 positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process GO:0045429 9.69 AGT EDN1
12 blood vessel remodeling GO:0001974 9.68 ACE AGT
13 positive regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process GO:2000379 9.68 AGT AGTR1
14 positive regulation of protein tyrosine kinase activity GO:0061098 9.68 ACE AGT
15 positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration involved in phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled signaling pathway GO:0051482 9.68 AGTR1 EDN1
16 positive regulation of vasodilation GO:0045909 9.67 ADM AGT
17 cGMP biosynthetic process GO:0006182 9.67 NPPA NPPB
18 vasoconstriction GO:0042310 9.66 AGT EDN1
19 positive regulation of cardiac muscle hypertrophy GO:0010613 9.65 AGT EDN1
20 peptide catabolic process GO:0043171 9.65 ACE ADAMTS13
21 response to muscle stretch GO:0035994 9.65 EDN1 NPPA
22 positive regulation of heart rate GO:0010460 9.65 ADM EDN1 NPPA
23 positive regulation of cellular protein metabolic process GO:0032270 9.64 AGT AGTR1
24 positive regulation of macrophage derived foam cell differentiation GO:0010744 9.64 AGT AGTR1
25 beta-amyloid metabolic process GO:0050435 9.63 ACE REN
26 regulation of vasodilation GO:0042312 9.63 ACE AGTR1 NPPB
27 low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling GO:0034374 9.62 AGT AGTR1
28 positive regulation of urine volume GO:0035810 9.62 EDN1 NPPB
29 receptor guanylyl cyclase signaling pathway GO:0007168 9.61 NPPA NPPB
30 positive regulation of renal sodium excretion GO:0035815 9.61 AGT EDN1 NPPB
31 body fluid secretion GO:0007589 9.6 EDN1 NPPB
32 artery smooth muscle contraction GO:0014824 9.59 AGT EDN1
33 positive regulation of cholesterol esterification GO:0010873 9.58 AGT AGTR1
34 cell growth involved in cardiac muscle cell development GO:0061049 9.58 AGT NPPA
35 angiotensin maturation GO:0002003 9.58 ACE AGT REN
36 positive regulation of NAD(P)H oxidase activity GO:0033864 9.57 AGT AGTR1
37 regulation of renal sodium excretion GO:0035813 9.56 AGT AGTR1
38 regulation of blood volume by renin-angiotensin GO:0002016 9.55 AGT REN
39 regulation of blood vessel diameter by renin-angiotensin GO:0002034 9.54 AGT AGTR1
40 regulation of blood vessel diameter GO:0097746 9.54 ACE AGTR1 NPPB
41 regulation of renal output by angiotensin GO:0002019 9.52 ACE AGT
42 regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by renin-angiotensin GO:0003081 9.5 ACE AGT AGTR1
43 regulation of vasoconstriction GO:0019229 9.46 ACE AGT AGTR1 EDN1
44 renin-angiotensin regulation of aldosterone production GO:0002018 9.43 AGT AGTR1 REN
45 regulation of blood vessel size GO:0050880 9.26 AGT EDN1 NPPA NPPB
46 regulation of blood pressure GO:0008217 9.1 ACE AGT EDN1 NPPA NPPB REN

Molecular functions related to Malignant Hypertension according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 receptor binding GO:0005102 9.35 ADM EDN1 NPPA NPPB REN
2 bradykinin receptor binding GO:0031711 9.16 ACE AGTR1
3 hormone activity GO:0005179 9.02 ADM AGT EDN1 NPPA NPPB

Sources for Malignant Hypertension

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 MedGen
42 MeSH
43 MESH via Orphanet
44 MGI
46 NCI
47 NCIt
48 NDF-RT
51 NINDS
52 Novoseek
54 OMIM
55 OMIM via Orphanet
59 PubMed
60 QIAGEN
65 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67 TGDB
68 Tocris
69 UMLS
70 UMLS via Orphanet
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