MCID: MST002
MIFTS: 50

Mast-Cell Leukemia malady

Cancer diseases category

Summaries for Mast-Cell Leukemia

About this section
Sources:
8Disease Ontology, 32MalaCards
See all sources

Fully expand this MalaCard

Export this MalaCard
Disease Ontology:8 A leukemia that results in an overwhelming number of tissue mast cells located in peripheral blood.

MalaCards: Mast-Cell Leukemia, also known as leukemia, mast-cell, is related to leukemia and systemic mastocytosis. An important gene associated with Mast-Cell Leukemia is FCER1A (Fc fragment of IgE, high affinity I, receptor for; alpha polypeptide), and among its related pathways are Regulation of KIT signaling and C-MYB transcription factor network. The compounds gm-csf and estrogen have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include peripheral blood, myeloid and bone, and related mouse phenotypes are skeleton and digestive/alimentary.

Aliases & Classifications for Mast-Cell Leukemia

About this section
Sources:
8Disease Ontology, 60UMLS, 34MeSH, 56SNOMED-CT, 39NCIt, 25ICD10
See all sources

Classifications:

Malacards categories (disease lists): (See all malacards categories)
Global: Cancer diseases


Aliases & Descriptions:

mast-cell leukemia 8
leukemia, mast-cell 60


External Ids:

Disease Ontology8 DOID:9254
MeSH34 D007946
NCIt39 C3169
ICD1025 C94.3

Related Diseases for Mast-Cell Leukemia

About this section
Sources:
17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
See all sources

Diseases related to Mast-Cell Leukemia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards/GeneDecks gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 90)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1leukemia31.4KIT, CCND1, CCL3, ISG20, KITLG
2systemic mastocytosis31.0KITLG, KIT
3acute leukemia30.6KIT, KITLG
4myeloid leukemia30.6KIT, KITLG
5urticaria30.1FCER1A
6sarcoma30.1KIT, KITLG
7urticaria pigmentosa30.1KIT, KITLG
8asthma30.1CCL1, CCL5, CCL2, CCL3, TNFRSF8, KITLG
9acute myeloid leukemia10.3
10mast-cell sarcoma10.2
11aggressive systemic mastocytosis10.2
12cutaneous mastocytosis10.2
13mast cell neoplasm10.2
14classic mast cell leukemia10.2
15aleukemic mast cell leukemia10.2
16sm-ahnmd10.1
17portal hypertension10.1
18malignant histiocytosis10.1
19histiocytosis10.1
20hypertension10.1
21monocytic leukemia10.1
22hepatitis c10.0ISG20
23rhinitis10.0CCL5
24pancreatitis10.0KITLG
25malaria10.0CCL5
26indolent systemic mastocytosis10.0ISM1
27atopy10.0CCL5
28germ cell tumors10.0KIT
29human immunodeficiency virus infectious disease10.0CCL3
30plasmacytoma10.0TNFRSF8
31mastocytosis10.0KITLG, KIT
32herpes simplex10.0ISG20, CCL5
33osteomyelitis10.0PSTPIP2
34lung cancer10.0CCND1
35osteosarcoma10.0ISG20, TNFRSF8
36gastrointestinal stromal tumor10.0KIT, KITLG
37acute myocardial infarction10.0CCL5, KITLG
38macroglobulinemia, waldenstrom, somatic10.0CCND1
39hepatitis b10.0TNFRSF8, ISG20
40peritonitis10.0CCL2
41bronchiolitis10.0CCL3, CCL5
42neurofibroma10.0KIT, KITLG
43interstitial lung disease10.0CCL2
44malignant glioma10.0ISG20, CCND1
45myocardial infarction10.0CCL3, CCL5
46desmoid tumor10.0KIT, CTNNB1
47piebaldism10.0KIT, KITLG
48retinoblastoma10.0CCND1
49mycosis fungoides10.0TNFRSF8
50diabetes mellitus10.0CCL2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Mast-Cell Leukemia:



Diseases related to mast-cell leukemia

Clinical Features for Mast-Cell Leukemia

About this section

Drugs & Therapeutics for Mast-Cell Leukemia

About this section
Sources:
5CenterWatch, 41NIH Clinical Center, 6ClinicalTrials
See all sources

Approved drugs:

Search CenterWatch for Mast-Cell Leukemia

Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Mast-Cell Leukemia

Search NIH Clinical Center for Mast-Cell Leukemia

Search CenterWatch for Mast-Cell Leukemia

Genetic Tests for Mast-Cell Leukemia

About this section

Anatomical Context for Mast-Cell Leukemia

About this section
Sources:
32MalaCards, 14FMA
See all sources

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Mast-Cell Leukemia:

32
Myeloid, Bone, Bone marrow, Monocytes, B cells

FMA organs/tissues related to Mast-Cell Leukemia:

14
Peripheral blood

Animal Models for Mast-Cell Leukemia or affiliated genes

About this section
Sources:
36MGI
See all sources

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Mast-Cell Leukemia:

36
idDescriptionMGI Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MP:00053908.9CCND1, PSTPIP2, PIK3CD, KITLG, RASGRP4
2MP:00053818.3CCND1, CCL2, CCL3, CTNNB1, PIK3CD, KITLG
3MP:00053828.3CCND1, CCL2, PSTPIP2, CTNNB1, KITLG, KIT
4MP:00036318.0PSTPIP2, SYT1, SH3KBP1, KITLG, KIT
5MP:00107717.8CCND1, CCL2, PSTPIP2, CTNNB1, SH3KBP1, KITLG
6MP:00053867.0CCL2, CCL3, PSTPIP2, CTNNB1, SYT1, SH3KBP1
7MP:00053846.6CCL5, CCND1, CCL2, CCL3, PSTPIP2, CTNNB1
8MP:00053976.3TNFRSF8, CCL3, CCL2, CCND1, CCL5, PSTPIP2
9MP:00053875.7FCER1A, CCL1, CCL5, CCND1, CCL2, CCL3

Publications for Mast-Cell Leukemia

About this section
Sources:
50PubMed
See all sources

Articles related to Mast-Cell Leukemia:

(show top 50)    (show all 76)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Characterization of bone marrow mast cells in acute myeloid leukemia with t(8;21) (q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1. (24035334)
2013
2
Sustained paranoid psychosis in a patient with mast cell leukemia and decreased serotonin level. (23793328)
2013
3
A case of de novo aleukemic mast cell leukemia without c-KIT mutations in exons 8 and 17. (24034180)
2013
4
A case of systemic mastocytosis associated with acute myeloid leukemia terminating as aleukemic mast cell leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (23483057)
2013
5
Mast cell leukemia. (23243287)
2013
6
The transcriptome of the human mast cell leukemia cells HMC-1.2: an approach to identify specific changes in the gene expression profile in KitD816V systemic mastocytosis. (23504229)
2013
7
Aleukemic variant of mast cell leukemia. (22482127)
2012
8
Mast-cell leukemia exome sequencing reveals a mutation in the IgE mast-cell receptor I^ chain and KIT V654A. (22173243)
2012
9
Systemic mastocytosis: progressive evolution of an occult disease into fatal mast cell leukemia: unique findings on an unusual hematological neoplasm. (22661384)
2012
10
Mast cell leukemia: identification of a new c-Kit mutation, dup(501-502), and response to masitinib, a c-Kit tyrosine kinase inhibitor. (22324351)
2012
11
Mast cells and eosinophils in mastocytosis, chronic eosinophilic leukemia, and non-clonal disorders. (22449623)
2012
12
Inhibition of JAK-STAT signaling by TG101348: a novel mechanism for inhibition of KITD816V-dependent growth in mast cell leukemia cells. (20485374)
2010
13
Myelomastocytic leukemia versus mast cell leukemia versus systemic mastocytosis associated with acute myeloid leukemia: a diagnostic challenge. (20658589)
2010
14
Mast cell leukemia with rapidly progressing portal hypertension. (19883434)
2009
15
Mast cell tryptase and microphthalmia transcription factor effectively discriminate cutaneous mast cell disease from myeloid leukemia cutis. (17381798)
2007
16
Aberrant mast-cell differentiation in mice lacking the stem-cell leukemia gene. (17644741)
2007
17
Hypereosinophilic syndrome, chronic eosinophilic leukemia, and mast cell disease. (18032976)
2007
18
Aleukemic mast cell leukemia with abnormal immunophenotype and c-kit mutation D816V. (15512820)
2004
19
Malignant hematopoietic cell lines: in vitro models for the study of mast cell leukemia. (12801523)
2003
20
Mast cell leukemia. (12564414)
2003
21
Rapid engraftment of mast cells of donor origin in a case of acute myeloid leukemia with mast cell leukemia after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. (12815487)
2003
22
Store depletion-activated CaT1 currents in rat basophilic leukemia mast cells are inhibited by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate. Evidence for a regulatory component that controls activation of both CaT1 and CRAC (Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) channel) channels. (12011062)
2002
23
RasGRP4, a new mast cell-restricted Ras guanine nucleotide-releasing protein with calcium- and diacylglycerol-binding motifs. Identification of defective variants of this signaling protein in asthma, mastocytosis, and mast cell leukemia patients and demonstration of the importance of RasGRP4 in mast cell development and function. (11956218)
2002
24
Mast cell leukemia--a rare form of myeloid leukemia. (12238304)
2002
25
Expression of mast cell tryptase by myeloblasts in a group of patients with acute myeloid leukemia. (11568008)
2001
26
Synaptotagmin I expression in mast cells of normal human tissues, systemic mast cell disease, and a human mast cell leukemia cell line. (11181737)
2001
27
Connective tissue-type mast cell leukemia in a dog. (10720189)
2000
28
Leukemia inhibitory factor enhances mast cell growth in a mast cell/fibroblast co-culture system through stat3 signaling pathway of fibroblasts. (11150513)
2000
29
c-kit activating mutations and mast cell proliferation in human leukemia. (9657776)
1998
30
In vivo differentiation of mast cells from acute myeloid leukemia blasts carrying a novel activating ligand-independent C-kit mutation. (9714703)
1998
31
Sequential immunophenotypic analysis of mast cells in a case of systemic mast cell disease evolving to a mast cell leukemia. (9149916)
1997
32
Effect of mast cell growth factor on clonogenic blast cell growth in acute myelogenous leukemia. (8774615)
1996
33
Expression of multiple chemokine genes by a human mast cell leukemia. (8188667)
1994
34
Effects of mast cell growth factor on acute myeloid leukemia cells in vitro: effects of combinations with other cytokines. (7680401)
1993
35
Effects of mast cell growth factor on Ara-C mediated acute myeloid leukemia cell killing. (7691332)
1993
36
Identification of mutations in the coding sequence of the proto- oncogene c-kit in a human mast cell leukemia cell line causing ligand- independent activation of c-kit product. (7691885)
1993
37
Circulating mast cells in acute myelomonocytic leukemia with eosinophilia. (8494002)
1993
38
Neoplastic basophil/mast cell precursors from chronic myelogenous leukemia display heterogeneous responses for a hematopoietic factor. (1372056)
1992
39
Mast cell growth factor, a ligand for the receptor encoded by c-kit, affects the growth in culture of the blast cells of acute myeloblastic leukemia. (1711640)
1991
40
Porcine mast cell leukemia with systemic mastocytosis. (2492400)
1989
41
Mast cell leukemia: report of a case and review of the literature. (3095598)
1986
42
The occurrence of a bilateral mandibular mast cell neoplasm in a mouse with lymphocytic leukemia. (117221)
1979
43
Chemotherapy in reticulum-cell sarcoma in five dogs and a cat and in mast-cell leukemia in a cat. (4936153)
1971
44
Canine mast cell leukemia. (4376378)
1970
45
Cellular and cell-free transmission of a canine mast cell leukemia. (5674816)
1968
46
Cytology of viable blood cells of tissue mast cell leukemia. (5322365)
1966
47
Relation of mastocytoma to mast cell leukemia, and of heparin, histamine and serotonin to mast cells. (13651348)
1959
48
Mast cell leukemia? Malignant mastocytosis with leukemia-like manifestations. (13471655)
1957
49
Mast cell leukemia presenting as urticaria pigmentosa; report of a case. (13441358)
1957
50
Urticaria pigmentosa with bone involvement; mast cell aggregates in bones and myelosclerosis found at autopsy in a case dying of monocytic leukemia. (13385542)
1956

Genetic Variations for Mast-Cell Leukemia

About this section

Expression for genes affiliated with Mast-Cell Leukemia

About this section
Sources:
1BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
See all sources
Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Mast-Cell Leukemia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Mast-Cell Leukemia.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Mast-Cell Leukemia

About this section
Sources:
53Reactome, 37NCBI BioSystems Database, 52R&D Systems, 12EMD Millipore, 29KEGG, 51QIAGEN, 4Cell Signaling Technology
See all sources

Pathways related to Mast-Cell Leukemia according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 29)
idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
110.0KITLG, KIT
29.8CCND1, KITLG, KIT
39.7CCND1, CTNNB1, PIK3CD
4
Development A3 receptor signaling
Hide members
9.7PIK3CD, CTNNB1, CCND1
59.7PIK3CD, CCL2, CCL5
69.7CCL2, CCL3
7
Hide members
9.6CCL2, CCL5, CCL1
89.5KIT, KITLG, PIK3CD, CCND1
9
Hide members
9.5KITLG, KIT, RASGRP4, FCER1A
10
Hide members
9.5CCND1, CTNNB1, PIK3CD, KIT
11
Hide members
9.5CCL5, CCND1, CCL2, PIK3CD
12
Hide members
9.4CCL5, CCND1, CCL3
139.4CCL3, CCL2, CCL5
149.4CCL5, CCL2, CCL3
15
Hide members
9.3PIK3CD, KITLG, KIT, RASGRP4, FCER1A
169.3CCND1, CTNNB1, PIK3CD, KITLG, KIT
17
Hide members
9.2FCER1A, SH3KBP1, PIK3CD
18
Hide members
9.2KIT, KITLG, SH3KBP1
19
Hide members
9.0PIK3CD, SH3KBP1, KITLG, KIT
209.0KIT, KITLG, SH3KBP1, CCL5
21
Hide members
8.9PIK3CD, CCL3, CCL2, CCND1, CCL5
22
Hide members
8.9CCL1, CCND1, CCL3, TNFRSF8
23
Hide members
8.9CCL1, CCL5, CCL2, CCL3, PIK3CD
24
Hide members
8.9CTNNB1, CCL3, CCL2, CCL5, CCL1
258.5PIK3CD, SYT1, SH3KBP1, KITLG, KIT
26
Hide members
8.0CCL1, CCL5, CCL2, CCL3, TNFRSF8, KITLG
27
Hide members
8.0CCL1, CCL5, CCL2, CCL3, TNFRSF8, CTNNB1
28
Hide members
7.7FCER1A, CCL1, CCL5, CCND1, CCL2, CCL3
29
Hide members
7.7CCL5, CCL2, CCL3, CTNNB1, PIK3CD, SH3KBP1

Compounds for genes affiliated with Mast-Cell Leukemia

About this section
Sources:
44Novoseek, 28IUPHAR, 59Tocris Bioscience, 49PharmGKB, 11DrugBank, 24HMDB, 2BitterDB
See all sources

Compounds related to Mast-Cell Leukemia according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show top 50)    (show all 88)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1gm-csf44 2811.7CCL5
2estrogen4410.5ISG20
3sb-2167634410.2CTNNB1, CCND1
4chlorophyllin4410.2CCND1, CTNNB1
5rantes4410.1KITLG, CCL3
6monochloroacetic acid4410.1KITLG, KIT
7sdf 14410.0CCL2, CCL5
8mcp 1449.8CCL5, CCL2, CCL3
9mip 1alpha449.8CCL5, CCL2, CCL3
10gf 109203x44 5910.8CCND1, KITLG, CCL5, CTNNB1
11larc449.8CCL5, CCL3, CCL2
12mdms449.8CCL2, CCL3, CCL5
13cytochalasin d44 5910.8CCL5, KITLG, CTNNB1, CCL2
14imatinib44 49 1111.8KITLG, CTNNB1, KIT, CCND1
15egcg449.8CCL2, CTNNB1, CCND1, CCL5
16groalpha449.8CCL2, CCL3, CCL5
17anaphylatoxin449.8CCL5, CCL2, CCL3
18triptolide449.7CCL2, CCL3, CCL5
19piceatannol44 59 1111.7CCND1, CCL2, CCL3
20methylcellulose449.7KIT, CCL3, KITLG, CTNNB1
21trastuzumab44 49 1111.6KIT, CTNNB1, CCL3, CCND1
22il 10449.6CCL3, CCL2, CCL5
23serine449.6CCL5, CCND1, CCL2, CCL3
24tarc449.5CCL3, CCL1, CCL5, CCL2
25ccl344 2810.5CCL3, CCL5, CCL1, CCL2
26ccl444 2810.5CCL5, CCL1, CCL2, CCL3
27sp 60012544 5910.5CCND1, CCL3, CCL2, CCL5
28methotrexate44 49 1111.5CCL5, CCND1, KITLG, KIT
29simvastatin44 49 59 28 11 2414.5CCL2, KITLG, CCL3, CCL5
30genistein44 28 59 2 11 2414.5CTNNB1, KITLG, CCL2, CCND1, CCL5
315fluorouracil449.4CCL3, CTNNB1, KITLG, KIT, CCL2
32ribonucleic acid449.4KITLG, CCL2, CCL5, CCL3, KIT
33tgf beta1449.4CTNNB1, CCL3, CCL2, CCND1, KITLG
34aspartate449.3CTNNB1, SYT1, CCL2
35sb 20358044 5910.3CCL2, CCL3, CCND1, CCL5, CTNNB1
36paraffin449.2CCL2, CCND1, TNFRSF8, CTNNB1, KIT, KITLG
37agar449.1KITLG, CCND1, CTNNB1, CCL2
38testosterone44 59 11 2412.1CTNNB1, CCL3, CCL2, CCND1, KITLG, KIT
39histamine44 28 2411.0CCL5, FCER1A, KIT, KITLG, CTNNB1, CCL3
40thymidine44 249.9KIT, KITLG, TNFRSF8, CCL3, CTNNB1, CCND1
41pd 98,059448.9CCL3, CTNNB1, CCND1, KIT, CCL2, KITLG
42ly294002448.9CTNNB1, PIK3CD, CCL3, CCL2, CCND1, CCL5
43wortmannin448.9KITLG, CCL5, PIK3CD, CCND1, CCL3, CTNNB1
44vegf448.9CCL3, CCL2, CCND1, CCL5, CTNNB1, KITLG
45nitric oxide44 11 2410.9CCL1, CCL2, CCL3, KITLG, KIT, CCL5
46threonine448.7CTNNB1, KIT, SYT1, PIK3CD, TNFRSF8, CCND1
47phosphatidylinositol448.6CCL2, SH3KBP1, KIT, KITLG, PIK3CD, CTNNB1
48lipid448.3SYT1, KITLG, CCL5, LPXN, PIK3CD, TNFRSF8
49calcium44 49 11 2410.7PIK3CD, SYT1, KITLG, TNFRSF8, CCL3, CCL2
50tyrosine447.0PIK3CD, LPXN, CCND1, TNFRSF8, ISG20, SYT1

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Mast-Cell Leukemia

About this section
Sources:
16Gene Ontology
See all sources

Cellular components related to Mast-Cell Leukemia according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1extracellular spaceGO:0056158.6KIT, CCL1, CCL5, CCL2, CCL3, KITLG
2cytoplasmGO:0057377.3CCL2, CCL3, TNFRSF8, ISG20, CTNNB1, LPXN
3plasma membraneGO:0058866.6TNFRSF8, CTNNB1, PIK3CD, LPXN, SYT1, SH3KBP1

Biological processes related to Mast-Cell Leukemia according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 33)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1mast cell differentiationGO:06037410.4PIK3CD, KIT
2germ cell programmed cell deathGO:03523410.4KITLG, KIT
3mast cell chemotaxisGO:00255110.3PIK3CD, KIT
4mast cell degranulationGO:04330310.2KIT, PIK3CD
5positive regulation of macrophage chemotaxisGO:01075910.2CCL5, CCL2
6T cell chemotaxisGO:01081810.1CCL3, PIK3CD
7positive regulation of JAK-STAT cascadeGO:04642710.0KIT, CCL5
8positive regulation of natural killer cell chemotaxisGO:200050310.0CCL5, CCL3
9astrocyte cell migrationGO:04361510.0CCL2, CCL3
10Fc-epsilon receptor signaling pathwayGO:0380959.9PIK3CD, KITLG, KIT, FCER1A
11lymphocyte chemotaxisGO:0482479.9CCL2, CCL3
12eosinophil chemotaxisGO:0482459.9CCL3, CCL5
13macrophage chemotaxisGO:0482469.8CCL3, CCL2, CCL5
14monocyte chemotaxisGO:0025489.8CCL5, CCL2, CCL3
15cellular response to interferon-gammaGO:0713469.8CCL3, CCL2, CCL5
16lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathwayGO:0316639.8CCL3, CCL2, CCL5
17cellular response to organic cyclic compoundGO:0714079.8CCL5, CCL2, CCL3
18neutrophil chemotaxisGO:0305939.8PIK3CD, CCL3, CCL2
19protein kinase B signaling cascadeGO:0434919.8CCL5, CCL2, CCL3
20cellular response to interleukin-1GO:0713479.8CCL3, CCL2, CCL5
21negative regulation by host of viral transcriptionGO:0439229.8CCL5, CCL3
22cellular response to tumor necrosis factorGO:0713569.7CCL3, CCL2, CCL5
23MAPK cascadeGO:0001659.7CCL3, CCL2, CCL5
24positive regulation of Ras protein signal transductionGO:0465799.6KITLG, RASGRP4
25cellular calcium ion homeostasisGO:0068749.5CCL3, CCL2, CCL5, CCL1
26chemotaxisGO:0069359.5CCL1, CCL5, CCL2, CCL3
27innate immune responseGO:0450879.5CTNNB1, PIK3CD, KITLG, KIT, FCER1A
28inflammatory responseGO:0069549.4CCL5, CCL2, CCL3, PIK3CD, KIT
29epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathwayGO:0071739.2PIK3CD, SH3KBP1, KITLG, KIT
30protein phosphorylationGO:0064689.2PIK3CD, CCL3, CCL2, CCL5
31regulation of cell shapeGO:0083609.0CCL2, CCL3, SH3KBP1, KIT
32cytoskeleton organizationGO:0070108.8SH3KBP1, CCL3, CCL2
33signal transductionGO:0071658.7CCL1, CCL2, TNFRSF8, PIK3CD, LPXN, KITLG

Molecular functions related to Mast-Cell Leukemia according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1CCR5 chemokine receptor bindingGO:0317309.7CCL3, CCL5
2CCR1 chemokine receptor bindingGO:0317269.7CCL3, CCL5
3phospholipase activator activityGO:0160049.4CCL3, CCL5
4chemokine activityGO:0080099.2CCL3, CCL2, CCL5, CCL1
5protein kinase activityGO:0046729.1CCL5, CCND1, CCL2, CCL3

Products for genes affiliated with Mast-Cell Leukemia

About this section
  • Antibodies
  • Proteins
  • Lysates
  • Antibodies

Sources for Mast-Cell Leukemia

About this section
3CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
28IUPHAR
29KEGG
34MeSH
35MESH via Orphanet
36MGI
39NCIt
40NDF-RT
43NINDS
44Novoseek
46OMIM
47OMIM via Orphanet
50PubMed
51QIAGEN
57SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
60UMLS
61UMLS via Orphanet