MCID: MNR002
MIFTS: 62

Meniere's Disease malady

Rare diseases, Ear diseases categories

Summaries for Meniere's Disease

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Sources:
22Genetics Home Reference, 44NIH Rare Diseases, 35MedlinePlus, 66Wikipedia, 48OMIM, 34MalaCards
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MedlinePlus:35 Meniere's disease is a disorder of the inner ear. it can cause severe dizziness, a roaring sound in your ears called tinnitus, hearing loss that comes and goes and the feeling of ear pressure or pain. it usually affects just one ear. it is a common cause of hearing loss. attacks of dizziness may come on suddenly or after a short period of tinnitus or muffled hearing. some people have single attacks of dizziness once in a while. others may have many attacks close together over several days. some people with meniere's disease have "drop attacks" during which the dizziness is so bad they lose their balance and fall. scientists don't yet know the cause. they think that it has to do with the fluid levels or the mixing of fluids in the canals of your inner ear. doctors diagnose it based on a physical exam and your symptoms. a hearing test can check to see how it has affected your hearing. there is no cure. treatments include medicines to control dizziness, limiting salt in your diet, and taking water pills. a device that fits into the outer ear and delivers air pulses to the middle ear can help. severe cases may require surgery. nih: national institute on deafness and other communication disorders

MalaCards: Meniere's Disease, also known as meniere disease, is related to menieres disease and diabetes insipidus. An important gene associated with Meniere's Disease is COCH (cochlin), and among its related pathways are OX40 Pathway and CD28 co-stimulation. The compounds hg2+ and hgcl2 have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include testes, bone and skin, and related mouse phenotypes are hearing/vestibular/ear and respiratory system.

Genetics Home Reference:22 Ménière disease is a disorder of the inner ear that affects balance and hearing. This condition is characterized by sudden episodes of extreme dizziness (vertigo), a roaring sound in the ears (tinnitus), a feeling of pressure or fullness in the ears, and fluctuations in hearing. Episodes are often associated with nausea and vomiting, and they can severely disrupt activities of daily living.

NIH Rare Diseases:44 Ménière's disease is an abnormality of the inner ear. signs and symptoms may include disabling vertigo or severe dizziness lasting from minutes to hours; tinnitus or a roaring sound in the ears; fluctuating hearing loss; and the sensation of pressure or pain in the affected ear. a small percentage people have drop attacks, also called spells of tumarkin. the disorder usually affects only one ear and is a common cause of hearing loss. some people develop symptoms in both ears many years after their initial diagnosis. the exact cause of ménière's disease is unknown, but the symptoms are thought to be associated with a change in fluid volume within a portion of the inner ear known as the labyrinth. treatment may include medications or surgery depending on the severity of the condition. last updated: 3/12/2013

Wikipedia:66 M more...

Description from OMIM:48 156000

Aliases & Classifications for Meniere's Disease

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Sources:
9Disease Ontology, 44NIH Rare Diseases, 22Genetics Home Reference, 50Orphanet, 48OMIM, 35MedlinePlus, 63UMLS, 59SNOMED-CT, 28ICD9CM, 36MeSH, 37MESH via Orphanet, 27ICD10 via Orphanet, 60SNOMED-CT via Orphanet, 64UMLS via Orphanet
See all sources

Classifications:

Malacards categories (disease lists): (See all malacards categories)
Global: Rare diseases
Anatomical: Ear diseases


Characteristics (Orphanet epidemiological data):

50
ménière disease:
Inheritance: Multigenic/multifactorial; Prevalence: 1-5/10000; Age of onset: Variable; Age of death: Normal


Aliases & Descriptions:

meniere's disease 9 44 22 35
meniere disease 9 44 22 63
ménière disease 22 50 48
ménière's disease 44 22
otogenic vertigo 9 22
ménière's vertigo 22
meniere's syndrome 22
auditory vertigo 22
mnire's vertigo 9
aural vertigo 22


External Ids:

Disease Ontology9 DOID:9849
ICD9CM28 386.0, 386.00
MeSH36 D008575
OMIM48 156000
MESH via Orphanet37 D008575
ICD10 via Orphanet27 H81.0
SNOMED-CT via Orphanet60 13445001
UMLS via Orphanet64 C0025281

Related Diseases for Meniere's Disease

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Sources:
18GeneCards, 19GeneDecks
See all sources

Diseases related to Meniere's Disease via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards/GeneDecks gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 92)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1menieres disease30.6COCH, MIP, AQP6, HSPA4, HSPA8
2diabetes insipidus10.1AQP2, AQP6
3acute disseminated encephalomyelitis10.1AQP4
4diabetic ketoacidosis10.1CTLA4
5leprosy10.1HLA-DRB1
6vogt-koyanagi-harada disease10.1HLA-DRB1
7idiopathic edema10.1AQP1, AQP2
8endolymphatic hydrops10.1AQP7, AQP2, MIP
9nephrogenic diabetes insipidus10.1AQP2, AQP1, MIP
10brain edema10.1AQP4, AQP1, MIP
11aspergillosis10.1IFNG
12auditory system disease10.1HSPA8, HSPA4
13hepatic encephalopathy10.1AQP4, CSN1S1
14periapical granuloma10.1IL4
15rheumatoid arthritis10.1PTPN22, HLA-DRB1
16oral lichen planus10.1HSPA8, HSPA4
17stroke, ischemic10.0HSPA8, HSPA4, AQP4
18celiac disease10.0CTLA4, CSN1S1, PTPN22
19liver cirrhosis10.0HLA-DRB1, AQP2, MIP
20pneumonia10.0MIP, HSPA4
21glaucoma10.0PTGFR, AQP4, AQP1, MIP, COCH
22food allergy10.0CSN1S1, IL4
23primary hyperoxaluria10.0CSN1S1, MIP, AQP2
24lepromatous leprosy10.0IL4, IFNG
25autosomal dominant hyper ige syndrome10.0IL4, IFNG
26visceral leishmaniasis10.0IL4, IFNG
27cutaneous leishmaniasis10.0IL4, IFNG
28psoriatic arthritis10.0PTPN22, HLA-DRB1, HLA-C
29cerebrovascular disease10.0HSPA8, HSPA4, AQP4, MIP
30hydrocephalus10.0AQP1, AQP4
31cystic fibrosis10.0HSPA8, AQP2, AQP5, AQP1, MIP
32active vestibular meniere's disease10.0
33active cochlear meniere's disease10.0
34active cochleovestibular meniere's disease10.0
35hypoparathyroidism10.0
36hepatitis b10.0CTLA4, IFNG, HLA-DRB1
37acute graft versus host disease10.0IFNG, IL4
38plasmodium falciparum malaria10.0HLA-DRB1, HSPA8, IFNG
39lymphopenia10.0PTPN22, IFNG, IL4
40sezary's disease10.0IFNG, IL4
41leishmaniasis10.0HSPA4, IFNG, IL4
42tetanus10.0CSN1S1, IL4, IFNG
43myasthenia gravis10.0IFNG, IL4, CTLA4
44galactosemia10.0CTLA4, MIP, AQP1, AQP2, HLA-DRB1
45vascular disease10.0CSN1S1, HSPA4, HLA-C
46dermatitis10.0CTLA4, IL4, IFNG
47thyroiditis10.0HLA-C, HLA-DRB1, PTPN22, CTLA4
48allergic rhinitis10.0IFNG, IL4, CTLA4
49hyperthyroidism10.0CTLA4, PTPN22, HLA-DRB1, HLA-C
50allergic asthma10.0IFNG, IL4, CTLA4

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Meniere's Disease:



Diseases related to meniere's disease

Symptoms for Meniere's Disease

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Sources:
48OMIM
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Symptoms by clinical synopsis from OMIM:

156000

Clinical features from OMIM:

156000

Drugs & Therapeutics for Meniere's Disease

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Sources:
6CenterWatch, 43NIH Clinical Center, 7ClinicalTrials
See all sources

Approved drugs:

Search CenterWatch for Meniere's Disease

Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Meniere's Disease

Search NIH Clinical Center for Meniere's Disease

Search CenterWatch for Meniere's Disease

Genetic Tests for Meniere's Disease

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Anatomical Context for Meniere's Disease

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Sources:
34MalaCards
See all sources

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Meniere's Disease:

34
Testes, Bone, Skin

Animal Models for Meniere's Disease or affiliated genes

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Sources:
38MGI
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Publications for Meniere's Disease

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Sources:
53PubMed
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Articles related to Meniere's Disease:

(show top 50)    (show all 207)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Endolymphatic hydrops revealed by magnetic resonance imaging in patients with atypical Meniere's disease. (23106485)
2013
2
Vestibular abnormality in patients with Meniere's disease and migrainous vertigo. (23145969)
2013
3
Factors affecting postural instability in Meniere's disease. (23980034)
2013
4
Comparison of intratympanic methylprednisolone and gentamicin for Meniere's disease may be misleading. (23818540)
2013
5
Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials to sound and vibration: characteristics in vestibular migraine that enable separation from Meniere's disease. (22259049)
2012
6
Tenotomy of the middle ear muscles causes a dramatic reduction in vertigo attacks and improves audiological function in definite Meniere's disease. (22201453)
2012
7
Meniere's disease: an evidence based approach to assessment and management. (22257041)
2012
8
Analysis of auditory and vestibular function in patients with unilateral Meniere's disease. (23039188)
2012
9
Is allergy related to Meniere's disease? (22457225)
2012
10
Comparison of noninvasive evaluation of endolymphatic hydrops in Meniere's disease and endolymphatic space in healthy volunteers using magnetic resonance imaging. (22201445)
2012
11
Endolymphatic hydrops in Meniere's disease detected by MRI after intratympanic administration of gadolinium: comparison with sudden deafness. (21344957)
2011
12
Blockage of longitudinal flow in Meniere's disease: A human temporal bone study. (21319945)
2011
13
Meniere's disease: new concepts, new treatments. (22413647)
2011
14
In vivo visualization of endolyphatic hydrops in patients with Meniere's disease: correlation with audiovestibular function. (21431434)
2011
15
The association of the plasma vasopressin level during attacks with a prognosis of Meniere's disease. (20053151)
2010
16
Magnetic resonance imaging of the inner ear in Meniere's disease. (20713245)
2010
17
Changes in endolymphatic hydrops in a patient with Meniere's disease observed using magnetic resonance imaging. (19540682)
2010
18
A serious refractive multifocal intraocular lens complication in Meniere's disease. (20375750)
2010
19
Genetic investigations of Meniere's disease. (20713249)
2010
20
Premenstrual exacerbation of Meniere's disease revisited. (20713242)
2010
21
A comparison of three methods of using transtympanic electrocochleography for the diagnosis of Meniere's disease: click summating potential measurements, tone burst summating potential amplitude measurements, and biasing of the summating potential using a low frequency tone. (19396716)
2010
22
Hypothetical mechanism for vertigo in Meniere's disease. (20713241)
2010
23
Blockage of reuniting duct in Meniere's disease. (19585278)
2010
24
Analysis of hearing preservation after endolymphatic mastoid sac surgery for Meniere's disease. (20131368)
2010
25
Does migraine-associated vertigo share a common pathophysiology with Meniere's disease? Study with vestibular-evoked myogenic potential. (19911463)
2009
26
Histopathological and ultrastructural analysis of vestibular endorgans in Meniere's disease reveals basement membrane pathology. (19493357)
2009
27
Changes in the characteristics of definite Meniere's disease over time in Japan: a long-term survey by the Peripheral Vestibular Disorder Research Committee of Japan, formerly the Meniere's Disease Research Committee of Japan. (18607900)
2009
28
Impact of bilaterality and headache on health-related quality of life in Meniere's disease. (19663372)
2009
29
Aquaporins as potential drug targets for Meniere's disease and its related diseases. (19096777)
2009
30
Utility of immunologic parameters in the evaluation of Meniere's disease. (19863304)
2009
31
Amplitude and area ratios of summating potential/action potential (SP/AP) in Meniere's disease. (19003588)
2009
32
High-dose intratympanic gentamicin instillations for treatment of Meniere's disease: long-term results. (19922092)
2009
33
Oculomotor findings mimicking a cerebellar disorder and postural control in severe Meniere's disease. (18501541)
2009
34
Inheritance of Meniere's disease in the Finnish population. (17224529)
2007
35
Implication of vibration induced nystagmus in Meniere's disease. (17882583)
2007
36
Non-specific immunological determinations in Meniere's disease: any role in clinical practice? (17033831)
2007
37
Histopathology of the vestibular end organs after intratympanic gentamicin failure for Meniere's disease. (17364327)
2007
38
Epley's maneuver in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo associated with Meniere's disease. (17923921)
2007
39
Meniere's disease: rare or underdiagnosed among Africans. (17610076)
2007
40
Evolution of audiometric pattern in Meniere's disease: long-term survey of 380 cases evaluated according to the 1995 guidelines of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. (16527013)
2006
41
Effects of intratympanic injection of latanoprost in Meniere's disease: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, pilot study. (16143197)
2005
42
The role of vestibular rehabilitation in the treatment of Meniere's disease. (16143175)
2005
43
Endolymphatic sac decompression as a treatment for Meniere's disease. (16094123)
2005
44
Meniere's disease or migraine? The clinical significance of fluctuating hearing loss with vertigo. (15897428)
2005
45
Retrosigmoid approach for vestibular neurectomy in Meniere's disease. (15618995)
2005
46
Meniere's Disease and Migraine. (15897429)
2005
47
Meniere's disease. (15865674)
2004
48
Postural instability in Meniere's disease. (15156095)
2004
49
Mutations in the COCH gene are a frequent cause of autosomal dominant progressive cochleo-vestibular dysfunction, but not of Meniere's disease. (14512963)
2003
50
Evaluation of vertigo; differential diagnosis of Meniere's disease, acute labyrinthitis, tumors of the cerebellopontine angle and insufficiency of the basilar artery. (13614054)
1958

Variations for Meniere's Disease

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Expression for genes affiliated with Meniere's Disease

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Sources:
2BioGPS, 16Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
See all sources
Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Meniere's Disease

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Meniere's Disease.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Meniere's Disease

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Sources:
51PathCards, 54QIAGEN, 56Reactome, 31KEGG, 58SinoBiological, 55R&D Systems, 39NCBI BioSystems Database, 61Thomson Reuters
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Pathways related to Meniere's Disease according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 19)
idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
19.6IL4, IFNG
2
Show member pathways
9.6HLA-DRB1, PTPN22, CTLA4
39.5CTLA4, HLA-DRB1, HLA-C
4
Show member pathways
9.5PARP1, TLR10, HLA-C
5
Show member pathways
9.4IL4, IFNG, TLR10
69.4CTLA4, IFNG, HLA-DRB1
7
Show member pathways
Calcium signaling in the CD4+ TCR pathway39
9.4CTLA4, IL4, IFNG
8
Show member pathways
Immune response IL 12 induced IFN gamma production61
9.3HLA-DRB1, IFNG, IL4
99.3IL4, IFNG, HLA-DRB1
10
Show member pathways
9.2IFNG, HSPA4, HSPA8
119.2AQP4, AQP1, IFNG, IL4
12
Show member pathways
9.1IL4, IFNG, TLR10, HLA-DRB1
139.1HLA-C, HLA-DRB1, HSPA8, IFNG
14
Show member pathways
9.0HLA-DRB1, HSPA8, IFNG, IL4
15
Show member pathways
8.7HLA-C, HLA-DRB1, HSPA8, IFNG, IL4
16
Show member pathways
8.6MIP, AQP7, AQP6, AQP2, AQP4, AQP5
17
Show member pathways
8.6AQP7, AQP6, AQP2, AQP4, AQP5, AQP1
18
Show member pathways
8.3HSPA4, AQP7, AQP6, AQP2, AQP4, AQP5
19
Show member pathways
7.9HLA-C, HLA-DRB1, HSPA8, HSPA4, IFNG, IL4

Compounds for genes affiliated with Meniere's Disease

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Sources:
46Novoseek, 12DrugBank, 52PharmGKB, 25HMDB, 30IUPHAR, 62Tocris Bioscience
See all sources

Compounds related to Meniere's Disease according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show top 50)    (show all 103)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1hg2+4610.4MIP, AQP1
2hgcl24610.2MIP, AQP1, AQP2
3chloride469.7AQP2, AQP4, AQP1, MIP
4con a469.7IFNG, IL4, CTLA4
5betaseron469.6IL4, IFNG
6manumycin469.6HSPA8, HSPA4, PARP1
7silver469.6HSPA8, HSPA4, AQP1, MIP
8il 10469.5CTLA4, IL4, IFNG
93-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide469.5PARP1, HSPA4, HSPA8
10mercury469.5HSPA4, AQP2, AQP4, AQP1, MIP
11rotenone469.5PARP1, HSPA4, HSPA8
12glatiramer acetate46 1210.4CTLA4, IL4, IFNG, HLA-DRB1
13infliximab46 52 1211.4IFNG, IL4, CTLA4
14s-nitroso-n-acetylpenicillamine469.4IFNG, PARP1, HSPA4
15tacrolimus46 52 1211.4MIP, IFNG, IL4, CTLA4
16arsenite46 2510.3HSPA8, HSPA4, PARP1, MIP
17hg2+309.3AQP7, AQP6, AQP2, AQP5, AQP1, MIP
18hydrogen46 2510.3HSPA8, HSPA4, AQP2, AQP1, MIP
19nacl469.2AQP2, AQP1, MIP, CSN1S1
20cyclosporin a46 30 6211.2HSPA8, AQP2, IFNG, IL4, CTLA4
21herbimycin a46 6210.2HSPA8, HSPA4, IFNG, IL4
22potassium46 25 1211.2HSPA8, HSPA4, AQP2, AQP4, AQP1, MIP
23sodium46 2510.2HSPA8, HSPA4, AQP2, AQP4, AQP1, MIP
24prostaglandin469.1HSPA8, HSPA4, PTGFR, AQP2
25valine469.0CSN1S1, AQP1, HSPA8, HLA-DRB1
26sodium nitroprusside469.0CSN1S1, AQP1, HSPA4, HSPA8
27urea46 25 1210.9HSPA8, AQP2, AQP4, AQP1, MIP, CSN1S1
28melphalan46 52 1210.9HSPA4, PARP1, IFNG, IL4, CTLA4
29nitric oxide46 25 1210.9HSPA8, HSPA4, AQP2, AQP1, MIP, IFNG
30quercetin46 62 25 1211.8CSN1S1, PARP1, HSPA4, HSPA8
31rantes468.8CTLA4, IL4, IFNG, HSPA8
32steroid468.7HSPA8, HSPA4, PTGFR, AQP2, AQP1, CTLA4
33mannitol46 129.6HSPA8, HSPA4, AQP4, AQP1, MIP, CSN1S1
34polyacrylamide468.5CTLA4, CSN1S1, HSPA4, HSPA8
35methionine468.5HSPA8, HSPA4, AQP2, AQP1, CSN1S1, CTLA4
36creatinine468.5CSN1S1, AQP1, AQP2, HSPA4, HSPA8
37ly294002468.4CTLA4, CSN1S1, IL4, PARP1, HSPA4
38vegf468.4HSPA8, HSPA4, AQP1, PARP1, MIP, IFNG
39adenylate468.4HSPA8, HSPA4, PTGFR, AQP2, IL4
40allergens468.3HLA-DRB1, HSPA8, IFNG, IL4, CSN1S1, CTLA4
41sb 20358046 629.3HSPA4, PARP1, IFNG, IL4, CSN1S1
42alanine468.1HLA-DRB1, HSPA8, HSPA4, AQP2, AQP1, CSN1S1
43pge2468.1HSPA8, PTGFR, AQP2, IFNG, IL4, CSN1S1
44atp46 309.1HLA-DRB1, HSPA8, HSPA4, AQP2, PARP1, MIP
45arginine468.0HLA-DRB1, PTPN22, AQP2, AQP1, MIP, IFNG
46dexamethasone46 52 30 1211.0HSPA4, AQP2, AQP4, AQP1, PARP1, MIP
47glutamate467.9HLA-DRB1, HSPA8, HSPA4, PTPN22, AQP4, MIP
48tyrosine467.6HLA-DRB1, HSPA8, PTPN22, PTGFR, MIP, IL4
49glycerol46 25 129.4CSN1S1, HSPA8, HSPA4, AQP7, MIP, AQP1
50cysteine467.2HSPA8, AQP2, AQP4, AQP1, PARP1, MIP

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Meniere's Disease

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Sources:
17Gene Ontology
See all sources

Cellular components related to Meniere's Disease according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1basolateral plasma membraneGO:0163239.8AQP1, AQP4, AQP2
2transport vesicle membraneGO:0306589.3HLA-DRB1, AQP6, AQP2
3external side of plasma membraneGO:0098978.8HLA-DRB1, AQP4, IFNG, IL4, CTLA4
4extracellular vesicular exosomeGO:0700628.0HLA-C, HLA-DRB1, HSPA8, HSPA4, AQP2, AQP5
5integral component of plasma membraneGO:0058877.4CTLA4, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1, PTGFR, AQP7, AQP6
6plasma membraneGO:0058867.1PTGFR, HSPA8, TLR10, HLA-DRB1, HLA-C, AQP7

Biological processes related to Meniere's Disease according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 21)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1renal water transportGO:00309710.3AQP1, AQP2
2cellular response to copper ionGO:07128010.3AQP1, AQP2
3renal water absorptionGO:07029510.3AQP4, AQP7
4multicellular organismal water homeostasisGO:05089110.2AQP4, AQP1
5pancreatic juice secretionGO:03015710.1AQP5, AQP1
6glycerol transportGO:01579310.1AQP7, AQP2, AQP1
7carbon dioxide transportGO:01567010.1AQP4, AQP5, AQP1
8cell volume homeostasisGO:00688410.0AQP1, AQP2
9cellular response to mercury ionGO:07128810.0IL4, AQP1, AQP2
10positive regulation of isotype switching to IgG isotypesGO:0483049.9IFNG, IL4
11positive regulation of MHC class II biosynthetic processGO:0453489.8IFNG, IL4
12odontogenesisGO:0424769.8AQP1, AQP5, AQP6
13positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic processGO:0450809.7IL4, IFNG
14defense response to protozoanGO:0428329.6IL4, IFNG
15female pregnancyGO:0075659.6AQP2, AQP4, IL4
16interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathwayGO:0603339.6IFNG, HLA-DRB1, HLA-C
17excretionGO:0075889.4AQP7, AQP6, AQP2, AQP4, AQP5
18immune responseGO:0069559.2HLA-C, HLA-DRB1, TLR10, IL4, CTLA4
19water transportGO:0068339.0MIP, AQP1, AQP5, AQP4, AQP2, AQP6
20transmembrane transportGO:0550858.9AQP7, AQP6, AQP2, AQP4, AQP5, AQP1
21response to drugGO:0424938.9IL4, IFNG, AQP1, AQP7

Molecular functions related to Meniere's Disease according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MHC class II protein complex bindingGO:0230269.8HSPA8, HLA-DRB1
2glycerol transmembrane transporter activityGO:0151689.7AQP1, AQP2
3water transmembrane transporter activityGO:0053729.7AQP2, AQP4, AQP1
4water channel activityGO:0152509.1MIP, AQP1, AQP5, AQP6, AQP7

Products for genes affiliated with Meniere's Disease

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  • Antibodies
  • Proteins
  • Lysates
  • Antibodies

Sources for Meniere's Disease

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4CDC
14ExPASy
15FMA
23GTR
24HGMD
25HMDB
26ICD10
27ICD10 via Orphanet
28ICD9CM
30IUPHAR
31KEGG
36MeSH
37MESH via Orphanet
38MGI
41NCIt
42NDF-RT
45NINDS
46Novoseek
48OMIM
49OMIM via Orphanet
53PubMed
54QIAGEN
60SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
63UMLS
64UMLS via Orphanet