MCID: MCR013
MIFTS: 61

Microphthalmia

Categories: Rare diseases, Eye diseases, Fetal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Microphthalmia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Microphthalmia:

Name: Microphthalmia 12 72 49 24 28 51 14
Microphthalmos 12 24 28 41
Nanophthalmia 12 55
Isolated Anophthalmia-Microphthalmia Syndrome 49
Microphthalmia-Anophthalmia-Coloboma Spectrum 49
Isolated Anophthalmia - Microphthalmia 49
Isolated Pure Microphthalmia 49
Primitive Anophthalmia 49
Simple Microphthalmos 12
Clinical Anophthalmia 49
Nanophthalmos 12
Mac Spectrum 49

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

55
nanophthalmia
Inheritance: Autosomal dominant,Autosomal recessive,Not applicable; Age of onset: Infancy,Neonatal; Age of death: normal life expectancy;

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:10629
ICD10 32 Q11.2
MeSH 41 D008850
NCIt 46 C98989
Orphanet 55 ORPHA35612
ICD10 via Orphanet 33 Q11.2
UMLS 69 C0026010

Summaries for Microphthalmia

NIH Rare Diseases : 49 The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs.Orpha Number: 2542Disease definitionAnophthalmia and microphthalmia describe, respectively, the absence of an eye and the presence of a small eye within the orbit.EpidemiologyThe combined birth prevalence of these conditions is as high as 1/33,000, with microphthalmia reported in up to 11% of blind children.Clinical descriptionHigh-resolution cranial imaging, post-mortem examination and genetic studies suggest that these conditions represent a phenotypic continuum. Both anophthalmia and microphthalmia may occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome, as in one-third of cases.EtiologyAnophthalmia - microphthalmia have complex aetiologies with chromosomal, monogenic and environmental causes identified. Chromosomal duplications, deletions and translocations are implicated. Of the monogenic causes, only SOX2 has been identified as a major causative gene. Other linked genes include PAX6, OTX2, CHX10 and RAX. SOX2 and PAX6 mutations may act by causing lens induction failure. FOXE3 mutations, associated with lens agenesis, have been observed in a few microphthalmic patients. OTX2, CHX10 and RAX have retinal expression and may result in anophthalmia - microphthalmia through failure of retinal differentiation. Environmental factors also play a contributory role. The strongest evidence appears to be with gestational-acquired infections, but may also include maternal vitamin A deficiency, exposure to X-rays, solvent misuse and thalidomide exposure.Diagnostic methodsDiagnosis can be made pre- and postnatally using a combination of clinical features, imaging (ultrasonography and CT / MR scanning) and genetic analysis.Differential diagnosisDifferential diagnoses include cryptophthalmos, cyclopia and synophthalmia, and congenital cystic eye.Genetic counselingGenetic counselling can be challenging due to the extensive range of genes responsible and wide variation in phenotypic expression. Appropriate counselling is indicated if the mode of inheritance can be identified.Management and treatmentPatients are often managed within multidisciplinary teams consisting of ophthalmologists, paediatricians and/or clinical geneticists, especially for syndromic cases. Treatment is directed towards maximising existing vision and improving cosmesis through simultaneous stimulation of both soft tissue and bony orbital growth. Mild to moderate microphthalmia is managed conservatively with conformers. Severe microphthalmia and anophthalmia rely upon additional remodelling strategies of endoorbital volume replacement (with implants, expanders and dermis-fat grafts) and soft tissue reconstruction.PrognosisThe potential for visual development in microphthalmic patients is dependent upon retinal development and other ocular characteristics.Visit the Orphanet disease page for more resources. Last updated: 11/26/2007

MalaCards based summary : Microphthalmia, also known as microphthalmos, is related to microphthalmia, isolated, with coloboma 6 and microphthalmia, isolated 1, and has symptoms including strabismus, glaucoma and abnormality of retinal pigmentation. An important gene associated with Microphthalmia is MFRP (Membrane Frizzled-Related Protein), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Mesodermal Commitment Pathway and Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells. Affiliated tissues include eye, skin and heart, and related phenotypes are Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) and Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2)

Genetics Home Reference : 24 Microphthalmia is an eye abnormality that arises before birth. In this condition, one or both eyeballs are abnormally small. In some affected individuals, the eyeball may appear to be completely missing; however, even in these cases some remaining eye tissue is generally present. Such severe microphthalmia should be distinguished from another condition called anophthalmia, in which no eyeball forms at all. However, the terms anophthalmia and severe microphthalmia are often used interchangeably. Microphthalmia may or may not result in significant vision loss.

Disease Ontology : 12 An eye disease where one or both eyeballs are abnormally small.

Wikipedia : 72 Microphthalmia (Greek: μικρός micros = small; ὀφθαλμός ophthalmos = eye), also referred as... more...

Related Diseases for Microphthalmia

Diseases related to Microphthalmia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 272)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 microphthalmia, isolated, with coloboma 6 34.0 GDF3 GDF6
2 microphthalmia, isolated 1 33.8 MFRP MITF SOX2 VSX2
3 fryns microphthalmia syndrome 33.8 OTX2 PAX6 SOX2 VSX2
4 colobomatous microphthalmia 33.7 GDF3 GDF6 STRA6 VSX2
5 coloboma of macula 32.2 ALDH1A3 GDF3 GDF6 MFRP OTX2 PAX6
6 anterior segment dysgenesis 1 31.5 PAX6 PITX3
7 sclerocornea 30.8 HCCS RAX
8 orbital cyst 30.5 GDF3 SOX2
9 microphthalmia, syndromic 1 12.4
10 microphthalmia, syndromic 9 12.4
11 microphthalmia, syndromic 8 12.3
12 bosma arhinia microphthalmia syndrome 12.3
13 microphthalmia, syndromic 5 12.3
14 microphthalmia, syndromic 3 12.2
15 microphthalmia with limb anomalies 12.2
16 microphthalmia, syndromic 6 12.2
17 microphthalmia, isolated, with cataract 1 12.2
18 microphthalmia, isolated 5 12.2
19 microphthalmia, syndromic 10 12.2
20 microphthalmia, syndromic 2 12.2
21 chondrodysplasia with platyspondyly, distinctive brachydactyly, hydrocephaly, and microphthalmia 12.2
22 microphthalmia, syndromic 13 12.2
23 microphthalmia/coloboma and skeletal dysplasia syndrome 12.1
24 microphthalmia, syndromic 12 12.1
25 microphthalmia, isolated, with coloboma 3 12.1
26 arhinia choanal atresia microphthalmia 12.1
27 microphthalmia, isolated 6 12.1
28 microphthalmia, syndromic 11 12.1
29 microphthalmia, syndromic 4 12.1
30 microphthalmia, isolated 2 12.1
31 microphthalmia, isolated 3 12.1
32 microphthalmia, isolated 7 12.1
33 microphthalmia, isolated 8 12.1
34 linear skin defects with multiple congenital anomalies 1 12.1
35 coloboma, osteopetrosis, microphthalmia, macrocephaly, albinism, and deafness 12.1
36 microphthalmia, isolated, with coloboma 5 12.1
37 microphthalmia, isolated 4 12.1
38 microphthalmia, isolated, with coloboma 7 12.1
39 microphthalmia, isolated, with coloboma 9 12.1
40 microphthalmia, isolated, with coloboma 1 12.0
41 microphthalmia, isolated, with coloboma 10 12.0
42 microcephaly microphthalmos blindness 12.0
43 dextrocardia with unusual facies and microphthalmia 11.9
44 microphthalmia microtia fetal akinesia 11.9
45 microphthalmia associated with colobomatous cyst 11.9
46 microphthalmia, isolated, with coloboma 4 11.9
47 microphthalmia, isolated, with coloboma 2 11.9
48 macrosomia with microphthalmia, lethal 11.8
49 microphthalmia, isolated, with corectopia 11.8
50 cataract, congenital, with microcornea or slight microphthalmia 11.7

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Microphthalmia:



Diseases related to Microphthalmia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Microphthalmia

Human phenotypes related to Microphthalmia:

55 31 (show all 8)
# Description HPO Frequency Orphanet Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 strabismus 55 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0000486
2 glaucoma 55 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0000501
3 microphthalmia 55 31 hallmark (90%) Very frequent (99-80%) HP:0000568
4 abnormality of retinal pigmentation 55 31 occasional (7.5%) Occasional (29-5%) HP:0007703
5 abnormality of the choroid 55 Very frequent (99-80%)
6 high-grade hypermetropia 55 Very frequent (99-80%)
7 abnormal choroid morphology 31 hallmark (90%) HP:0000610
8 high hypermetropia 31 hallmark (90%) HP:0008499

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Microphthalmia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

25 (show all 25)
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-113 9.78 MITF
2 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-115 9.78 HCCS
3 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-12 9.78 VSX2
4 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-125 9.78 OTX2
5 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-127 9.78 MITF
6 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-128 9.78 MITF
7 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-135 9.78 MITF
8 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-152 9.78 HCCS
9 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-161 9.78 VSX2
10 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-166 9.78 HCCS
11 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-169 9.78 OTX2
12 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-177 9.78 BCOR
13 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-194 9.78 OTX2
14 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-2 9.78 OTX2
15 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-202 9.78 MITF
16 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-210 9.78 BCOR
17 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-214 9.78 HCCS MITF OTX2 VSX2 BCOR
18 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-22 9.78 MITF
19 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-25 9.78 BCOR
20 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-42 9.78 HCCS
21 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-54 9.78 HCCS
22 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-57 9.78 HCCS
23 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-79 9.78 BCOR
24 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-9 9.78 VSX2
25 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-99 9.78 OTX2

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Microphthalmia:

43 (show all 13)
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cellular MP:0005384 10.34 ALDH1A3 BCOR BMP4 GDF3 HCCS MITF
2 growth/size/body region MP:0005378 10.32 TMEM98 ALDH1A3 BCOR BMP4 GDF3 GDF6
3 mortality/aging MP:0010768 10.28 VSX2 ALDH1A3 BCOR BMP4 GDF3 GDF6
4 embryo MP:0005380 10.27 RAX SMCHD1 SOX2 STRA6 ALDH1A3 BCOR
5 nervous system MP:0003631 10.22 STRA6 VSX2 BCOR BMP4 GDF6 MFRP
6 craniofacial MP:0005382 10.16 ALDH1A3 BMP4 GDF6 MITF OTX2 PAX6
7 normal MP:0002873 9.97 ALDH1A3 BMP4 GDF3 HCCS MITF OTX2
8 hearing/vestibular/ear MP:0005377 9.93 BMP4 GDF6 MITF OTX2 PAX6 SOX2
9 no phenotypic analysis MP:0003012 9.91 SOX2 STRA6 VSX2 BMP4 MITF PITX3
10 pigmentation MP:0001186 9.91 MFRP MITF OTX2 PAX6 PITX3 SMCHD1
11 reproductive system MP:0005389 9.76 BMP4 MITF OTX2 PAX6 PITX3 SMCHD1
12 skeleton MP:0005390 9.61 ALDH1A3 BMP4 GDF6 MITF OTX2 PAX6
13 vision/eye MP:0005391 9.44 BMP4 GDF6 MFRP MITF OTX2 PAX6

Drugs & Therapeutics for Microphthalmia

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Phase 2 Study in Patients With MiT Tumors Completed NCT00557609 Phase 2 ARQ 197
2 Long-term Postoperative Outcomes After Bilateral Congenital Cataract Surgery in Eyes With Microphthalmos Completed NCT01818037
3 Molecular Analysis of Microphthalmia/Anophthalmia Completed NCT00011843
4 Fundus Changes in the Microphthalmy Eyes Completed NCT00811512
5 Quality of Life in Children Glaucoma and Cataract Completed NCT02490267
6 Study of Selected X-Linked Disorders: Aicardi Syndrome Recruiting NCT00697411

Search NIH Clinical Center for Microphthalmia

Cochrane evidence based reviews: microphthalmos

Genetic Tests for Microphthalmia

Genetic tests related to Microphthalmia:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Microphthalmos 28
2 Microphthalmia 28

Anatomical Context for Microphthalmia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Microphthalmia:

38
Eye, Skin, Heart, Retina, Bone, Pituitary, Lymph Node

Publications for Microphthalmia

Articles related to Microphthalmia:

(show top 50) (show all 622)
# Title Authors Year
1
Microphthalmia, corneal dermoids, and congenital anomalies resembling Goldenhar syndrome in a cat. ( 29346049 )
2018
2
Microphthalmia, Dermal Aplasia, and Sclerocornea Syndrome: Endoscopic Cyclophotocoagulation in the Management of Congenital Glaucoma. ( 29088057 )
2018
3
Persistent craniopharyngeal canal, bilateral microphthalmia with colobomatous cysts, ectopic adenohypophysis with Rathke cleft cyst, and ectopic neurohypophysis: case report and review of the literature. ( 29445918 )
2018
4
Adenocarcinoma of Pigmented Ciliary Epithelium in a Child With Aicardi Syndrome and Congenital Microphthalmia With Cyst. ( 29342031 )
2018
5
Microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome: familial presentation. ( 29023962 )
2018
6
Genetic Investigation of 93 Families with Microphthalmia or Posterior Microphthalmos. ( 29450879 )
2018
7
Anterior-Segment Ocular Findings and Microphthalmia in Congenital Zika Syndrome. ( 28676282 )
2017
8
Image-guided lacrimal drainage surgery in congenital arhinia-microphthalmia syndrome. ( 28272904 )
2017
9
SMCHD1 mutations associated with a rare muscular dystrophy can also cause isolated arhinia and Bosma arhinia microphthalmia syndrome. ( 28067909 )
2017
10
Inhibition of NAT10 Suppresses Melanogenesis and Melanoma Growth by Attenuating Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor (MITF) Expression. ( 28880216 )
2017
11
LRP5-linked osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome mimicking isolated microphthalmia. ( 28111184 )
2017
12
Panel-based whole exome sequencing identifies novel mutations in microphthalmia and anophthalmia patients showing complex Mendelian inheritance patterns. ( 29178648 )
2017
13
Histiocytoid cardiomyopathy and microphthalmia with linear skin defects syndrome: phenotypes linked by truncating variants in NDUFB11. ( 28050600 )
2017
14
1-Benzyl-indole-3-carbinol is a highly potent new small molecule inhibitor of Wnt/I^-catenin signaling in melanoma cells that coordinately inhibits cell proliferation and disrupts expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor isoform-M. ( 29028954 )
2017
15
An eye on microphthalmia. ( 28116824 )
2017
16
Anti-melanogenic activity of phytosphingosine via the modulation of the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor signaling pathway. ( 28390782 )
2017
17
The transcription factors GATA2 and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor regulate Hdc gene expression in mast cells and are required for IgE/mast cell-mediated anaphylaxis. ( 29277702 )
2017
18
Clinical utility gene card for: Non-Syndromic Microphthalmia Including Next-Generation Sequencing-Based Approaches. ( 28098148 )
2017
19
Characterizing the Coding Region Determinant-Binding Protein (CRD-BP)-Microphthalmia-associated Transcription Factor (MITF) mRNA interaction. ( 28182633 )
2017
20
Corrigendum: SMCHD1 mutations associated with a rare muscular dystrophy can also cause isolated arhinia and Bosma arhinia microphthalmia syndrome. ( 28546579 )
2017
21
The master role of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor in melanocyte and melanoma biology. ( 28263292 )
2017
22
SMARCA4 inactivating mutations cause concomitant Coffin-Siris syndrome, microphthalmia and small-cell carcinoma of the ovary hypercalcaemic type. ( 28608987 )
2017
23
De novo mutations in SMCHD1 cause Bosma arhinia microphthalmia syndrome and abrogate nasal development. ( 28067911 )
2017
24
Genetic analysis of SOX2 and VSX2 genes in 27 Egyptian families with anophthalmia and microphthalmia. ( 28121235 )
2017
25
Intrafamilial variability in syndromic microphthalmia type 5 caused by a novel variation in OTX2. ( 28388256 )
2017
26
Hallermann-Streiff syndrome with bilateral microphthalmia, pupillary membranes and cataract absorption. ( 28730099 )
2017
27
Scleral fixation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens combined with penetrating keratoplasty in an aphakic patient with microcornea and microphthalmia. ( 27053599 )
2016
28
Mandibular dysostosis without microphthalmia caused by OTX2 deletion. ( 27378064 )
2016
29
Suppression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, but not NF-kappa B sensitizes melanoma specific cell death. ( 27325430 )
2016
30
Trends over time in the incidence of congenital anophthalmia, microphthalmia and orbital malformation in England: database study. ( 27601422 )
2016
31
Inhibition of oncogenic BRAF activity by indole-3-carbinol disrupts microphthalmia-associated transcription factor expression and arrests melanoma cell proliferation. ( 26878440 )
2016
32
A Novel Mutation in OTX2 Causes Combined Pituitary Hormone Deficiency, Bilateral Microphthalmia, and Agenesis of the Left Internal Carotid Artery. ( 27299576 )
2016
33
Development of an HTS-Compatible Assay for Discovery of Melanoma-Related Microphthalmia Transcription Factor Disruptors Using AlphaScreen Technology. ( 27827304 )
2016
34
Cooperative antiproliferative signaling by aspirin and indole-3-carbinol targets microphthalmia-associated transcription factor gene expression and promoter activity in human melanoma cells. ( 27055402 )
2016
35
Pyruvate dehydrogenase has a major role in mast cell function, and its activity is regulated by mitochondrial microphthalmia transcription factor. ( 27871875 )
2016
36
Two missense mutations in SALL4 in a patient with microphthalmia, coloboma, and optic nerve hypoplasia. ( 27661448 )
2016
37
Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor suppresses invasion by reducing intracellular GTP pools. ( 27181209 )
2016
38
Congenital Microphthalmia, Anophthalmia and Coloboma among Live Births in Denmark. ( 27552085 )
2016
39
14q22.3 Microdeletion encompassing OTX2 in a five-generation family with microphthalmia, pituitary abnormalities, and intellectual disability. ( 26860946 )
2016
40
Abnormal corneal epithelial maintenance in mice heterozygous for the micropinna microphthalmia mutation Mp. ( 27235794 )
2016
41
Confirmation of TENM3 involvement in autosomal recessive colobomatous microphthalmia. ( 27103084 )
2016
42
Genetic Advances in Microphthalmia. ( 27895970 )
2016
43
G protein-coupled estrogen receptor enhances melanogenesis via cAMP-protein kinase (PKA) by upregulating microphthalmia-related transcription factor-tyrosinase in melanoma. ( 27378491 )
2016
44
Anti-melanogenic effect of americanin A is associated with regulation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. ( 27975637 )
2016
45
Role of microRNA508-3p in melanogenesis by targeting microphthalmia transcription factor in melanocytes of alpaca. ( 27405515 )
2016
46
An unusual presentation of Kabuki syndrome with orbital cysts, microphthalmia, and cholestasis with bile duct paucity. ( 27530281 )
2016
47
A Unique Case of Bilateral Microphthalmia that May Be Related to 14q32.33. ( 26730854 )
2016
48
Suppression of Melanin Synthesis by Americanin A in Melan-a cells via Regulation of Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor. ( 26997427 )
2016
49
Bosma arhinia microphthalmia syndrome: Clinical report and review of the literature. ( 26842768 )
2016
50
A new method for sensitive detection of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor based on "OFF-state" and "ON-state" equilibrium of a well-designed probe and duplex-specific nuclease signal amplification. ( 27573295 )
2016

Variations for Microphthalmia

Copy number variations for Microphthalmia from CNVD:

7
# CNVD ID Chromosom Start End Type Gene Symbol CNVD Disease
1 264074 X 6000000 9500000 Copy number Microphthalmia

Expression for Microphthalmia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Microphthalmia.

Pathways for Microphthalmia

GO Terms for Microphthalmia

Biological processes related to Microphthalmia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 26)
# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 transcription by RNA polymerase II GO:0006366 9.95 MITF OTX2 PAX6 PITX3 RAX SOX2
2 visual perception GO:0007601 9.88 MFRP PAX6 RAX VSX2
3 positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated GO:0045893 9.8 BMP4 GDF6 MITF OTX2 PAX6 PITX3
4 animal organ morphogenesis GO:0009887 9.79 HCCS PAX6 PITX3
5 negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation GO:0050680 9.74 BMP4 PAX6 SOX2
6 SMAD protein signal transduction GO:0060395 9.73 BMP4 GDF3 GDF6
7 regulation of gene expression GO:0010468 9.72 BMP4 MITF PAX6 PITX3 SOX2
8 cell fate commitment GO:0045165 9.69 BMP4 MITF PAX6
9 blood vessel development GO:0001568 9.67 BMP4 PAX6 STRA6
10 multicellular organism development GO:0007275 9.65 BMP4 GDF3 GDF6 MITF OTX2 PAX6
11 dopaminergic neuron differentiation GO:0071542 9.63 OTX2 PITX3
12 positive regulation of pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation GO:0010862 9.63 BMP4 GDF3 GDF6
13 negative regulation of myoblast differentiation GO:0045662 9.62 BMP4 GDF3
14 negative regulation of neurogenesis GO:0050768 9.61 PAX6 PITX3
15 eye photoreceptor cell development GO:0042462 9.61 MFRP PAX6
16 smooth muscle tissue development GO:0048745 9.6 BMP4 STRA6
17 primitive streak formation GO:0090009 9.59 GDF3 OTX2
18 pulmonary valve morphogenesis GO:0003184 9.58 BMP4 STRA6
19 eye development GO:0001654 9.58 GDF3 PAX6 SOX2
20 nose development GO:0043584 9.54 ALDH1A3 SMCHD1
21 pituitary gland development GO:0021983 9.54 BMP4 PAX6 SOX2
22 telencephalon regionalization GO:0021978 9.52 BMP4 PAX6
23 forebrain development GO:0030900 9.46 BMP4 OTX2 PAX6 SOX2
24 regulation of cell fate commitment GO:0010453 9.43 BMP4 GDF3
25 camera-type eye development GO:0043010 9.1 BMP4 MITF PAX6 PRSS56 RAX STRA6
26 positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II GO:0045944 10.09 BMP4 MITF OTX2 PAX6 PITX3 RAX

Molecular functions related to Microphthalmia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 RNA polymerase II proximal promoter sequence-specific DNA binding GO:0000978 9.65 MITF OTX2 PAX6 PITX3 RAX
2 sequence-specific DNA binding GO:0043565 9.63 OTX2 PAX6 PITX3 RAX SOX2 VSX2
3 transforming growth factor beta receptor binding GO:0005160 9.13 BMP4 GDF3 GDF6
4 transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II proximal promoter sequence-specific DNA binding GO:0001077 9.1 MITF OTX2 PAX6 PITX3 RAX SOX2

Sources for Microphthalmia

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HGMD
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 MedGen
41 MeSH
42 MESH via Orphanet
43 MGI
45 NCI
46 NCIt
47 NDF-RT
50 NINDS
51 Novoseek
53 OMIM
54 OMIM via Orphanet
58 PubMed
60 QIAGEN
65 SNOMED-CT via HPO
66 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67 TGDB
68 Tocris
69 UMLS
70 UMLS via Orphanet
Content
Loading form....