MCID: NRL004
MIFTS: 41

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome malady

Categories: Rare diseases, Neuronal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

Aliases & Descriptions for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome:

Name: Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome 12 50 51 56 52 42 14 69

Characteristics:

Orphanet epidemiological data:

56
neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Prevalence: 1-5/10000 (Europe);

Classifications:

Orphanet: 56  
Rare neurological diseases


External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:14464
ICD10 33 G21.0
ICD9CM 35 333.92
MeSH 42 D009459
NCIt 47 C94829
Orphanet 56 ORPHA94093
MESH via Orphanet 43 D009459
UMLS via Orphanet 70 C0027849
ICD10 via Orphanet 34 G21.0
UMLS 69 C0027849

Summaries for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

NIH Rare Diseases : 50 neuroleptic malignant syndrome is a rare neurological condition that is caused by an adverse reaction to neuroleptic (tranquilizer) or antipsychotic drugs. these drugs are commonly prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia and other neurological, mental, or emotional disorders. affected people may experience high fever, muscle stiffness, sweating, unstable blood pressure, altered mental status, and autonomic dysfunction. in most cases, the condition develops within the first 2 weeks of treatment with the drug; however, it may develop any time during the therapy period. the exact underlying cause of neuroleptic malignant syndrome is unknown. in some cases, more than one family member can be affected which suggests there may be a genetic component. upon diagnosis of the condition, the neuroleptic or antipsychotic drug is generally discontinued under a physician's supervision. medications and/or other interventions may also be recommended to manage symptoms. last updated: 7/14/2015

MalaCards based summary : Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome is related to serotonin syndrome and vulvar vestibulitis syndrome. An important gene associated with Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome is PIK3C2A (Phosphatidylinositol-4-Phosphate 3-Kinase Catalytic Subunit Type 2 Alpha). The drugs Dopamine and Methylphenidate have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, liver and lung, and related phenotypes are behavior/neurological and homeostasis/metabolism

NINDS : 51 Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is a life-threatening, neurological disorder most often caused by an adverse reaction to neuroleptic or antipsychotic drugs. Symptoms include high fever, sweating, unstable blood pressure, stupor, muscular rigidity, and autonomic dysfunction. In most cases, the disorder develops within the first 2 weeks of treatment with the drug; however, the disorder may develop any time during the therapy period. The syndrome can also occur in people taking anti-Parkinsonism drugs known as dopaminergics if those drugs are discontinued abruptly.

Disease Ontology : 12 A nervous system disease that is characterized by hyperthermia, muscular rigidity, autonomic dysfunction and altered consciousness and is associated with administration of antipsychotic and other central dopaminergic blockers.

Wikipedia : 71 Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening neurological disorder most often caused by an... more...

Related Diseases for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

Diseases related to Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 114)
id Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 serotonin syndrome 10.3
2 vulvar vestibulitis syndrome 10.2 MB PIK3C2A
3 papillary pattern testicular yolk sac tumor 10.2 MB PIK3C2A
4 silent myocardial infarction 10.2 MB PIK3C2A
5 teratoma with malignant transformation 10.2 CYP2D6 DRD2
6 polyarteritis nodosa 10.2 MB PIK3C2A
7 anal colloid adenocarcinoma 10.2 MB PIK3C2A
8 neurofibroma 10.2 MB PIK3C2A
9 myelofibrosis 10.1 PIK3C2A RYR1
10 microphthalmia, isolated, with coloboma 7 10.1 MB PIK3C2A
11 ischemic neuropathy 10.1 CYP2D6 DRD2
12 encephalitis 10.1
13 acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy 10.1 MB PIK3C2A
14 tinea pedis 10.1 CYP2D6 HTR1A
15 overuse syndrome 10.1 DRD2 NHLRC1
16 acute lymphoblastic leukemia, childhood 10.1 MB PIK3C2A
17 soft palate cancer 10.1 MB RYR1
18 apperceptive agnosia 10.1 DRD2 HTR1A
19 waardenburg's syndrome 10.1 DRD2 HTR1A
20 allergic hypersensitivity disease 10.1 DRD2 HTR1A
21 vascular cancer 10.1 DRD2 HTR1A
22 mucinous adenocarcinoma 10.0 CYP2D6 DRD2
23 inferolateral myocardial infarct 10.0 CHKB PIK3C2A
24 cerebritis 10.0
25 dementia 10.0
26 cerebral angioma 10.0 MB PIK3C2A RYR1
27 hepatitis b reinfection following liver transplantation 10.0 CYP2D6 HTR1A
28 malignant hyperthermia 10.0
29 schizophrenia 10.0
30 porokeratosis of mibelli 10.0 CHKB MB
31 hepatitis d 10.0 CYP2D6 DRD2 HTR1A
32 urinary bladder posterior wall cancer 10.0 CHKB PIK3C2A
33 retinoblastoma 10.0 CYP2D6 DRD2 HTR1A
34 chronic conjunctivitis 10.0 CYP2D6 DRD2 HTR1A
35 personality disorder 10.0 CYP2D6 DRD2 HTR1A
36 brain injury 9.9
37 encephalopathy 9.9
38 keratosis 9.9 CYP2D6 HTR1A
39 postencephalitic parkinson disease 9.9 DRD2 HTR1A
40 ellis-van creveld syndrome 9.9 CYP2D6 DRD2 HTR1A
41 myopathy, distal, tateyama type 9.9 CHKB MB PIK3C2A
42 infiltrating ureter transitional cell carcinoma 9.9 CHKB MB PIK3C2A
43 vulvar eccrine adenocarcinoma 9.9 CHKB MB PIK3C2A
44 adult t-cell leukemia 9.9 CHKB MB PIK3C2A
45 immunodeficiency 34, mycobacteriosis, x-linked 9.9 CHKB MB PIK3C2A
46 dystonia 9.9
47 burns 9.9
48 cerebellar degeneration 9.9
49 cerebral palsy 9.9
50 status epilepticus 9.9

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome:



Diseases related to Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome:

44
id Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 behavior/neurological MP:0005386 9.63 CHKB DRD2 HTR1A NHLRC1 PIK3C2A RYR1
2 homeostasis/metabolism MP:0005376 9.5 CHKB DRD2 HTR1A MB NHLRC1 PIK3C2A
3 muscle MP:0005369 9.02 CHKB DRD2 MB NHLRC1 RYR1

Drugs & Therapeutics for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

Drugs for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 95)
id Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Dopamine Approved Phase 4,Phase 3 51-61-6, 62-31-7 681
2
Methylphenidate Approved, Investigational Phase 4 113-45-1 4158
3 Dopamine Agents Phase 4,Phase 3
4 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 4,Phase 3,Phase 2
5 Central Nervous System Stimulants Phase 4
6 Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
7 Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors Phase 4
8
Haloperidol Approved Phase 3 52-86-8 3559
9
Carbidopa Approved Phase 3 28860-95-9 34359 38101
10
Levodopa Approved Phase 3 59-92-7 6047
11
Ziprasidone Approved Phase 3 146939-27-7 60854
12
decanoic acid Experimental Phase 3 334-48-5 2969
13 Antiemetics Phase 3,Phase 2
14 Antipsychotic Agents Phase 3,Phase 2
15 Autonomic Agents Phase 3,Phase 2
16 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 3,Phase 2
17 Dopamine Antagonists Phase 3
18 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 3,Phase 2
19 Haloperidol decanoate Phase 3
20 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 3,Phase 2
21 Psychotropic Drugs Phase 3,Phase 2
22 Quetiapine Fumarate Phase 3 111974-72-2
23 Tranquilizing Agents Phase 3,Phase 2
24 Dopamine agonists Phase 3
25
Serotonin Phase 3,Phase 2 50-67-9 5202
26 Serotonin Agents Phase 3,Phase 2
27 Serotonin Antagonists Phase 3,Phase 2
28 Adjuvants, Immunologic Phase 3
29 Antiparkinson Agents Phase 3
30 Aromatic Amino Acid Decarboxylase Inhibitors Phase 3
31 Carbidopa, levodopa drug combination Phase 3
32
Ondansetron Approved Phase 2 99614-02-5 4595
33
Dasatinib Approved, Investigational Phase 2 302962-49-8 3062316
34
Lenvatinib Approved Phase 2 417716-92-8
35 Anti-Anxiety Agents Phase 2
36 Antipruritics Phase 2
37 Dermatologic Agents Phase 2
38 Protein Kinase Inhibitors Phase 2
39 Antibodies Phase 1
40 Immunoglobulin G Phase 1
41 Immunoglobulins Phase 1
42 Pharmaceutical Solutions Phase 1
43
Nicotine Approved 54-11-5 942 89594
44
Aprepitant Approved, Investigational 170729-80-3 151165 6918365
45
Busulfan Approved, Investigational 55-98-1 2478
46
Cyclophosphamide Approved, Investigational 50-18-0, 6055-19-2 2907
47
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved 50-02-2 5743
48
Fosaprepitant Approved 172673-20-0 219090
49
Menthol Approved 2216-51-5 16666
50
Benzocaine Approved 1994-09-7, 94-09-7 2337

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 36)
id Name Status NCT ID Phase
1 The Effect of Methylphenidate on Non-motor Symptoms and Postural Control in Parkinson's Disease. Terminated NCT01244269 Phase 4
2 Trial Comparing Haloperidol, Quetiapine and Placebo in the Pharmacological Treatment of Delirium Unknown status NCT01811459 Phase 3
3 A Study to Examine the Effect of Levodopa-Carbidopa Intestinal Gel (LCIG) Therapy Relative to That of Optimized Medical Treatment (OMT) on Non-motor Symptoms (NMS) Associated With Advanced Parkinson's Disease (PD) Recruiting NCT02549092 Phase 3
4 The Modifying the Impact of ICU-Associated Neurological Dysfunction-USA (MIND-USA) Study Recruiting NCT01211522 Phase 3
5 Mindfulness Based Intervention (MBI) on the Quality of Life and Non-Motor Symptoms (NMS) of Persons With PD Completed NCT01607697 Phase 2
6 Transcutaneous Non-invasive Vagus Nerve Stimulation (t-VNS) in the Treatment of Schizophrenia Completed NCT01176721 Phase 2
7 Nucleus Basalis Deep Brain Stimulation for Thinking & Memory Problems in Parkinson's. Completed NCT01701544 Phase 1, Phase 2
8 Ondansetron in Preventing Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Undergoing Stem Cell Transplant Completed NCT00795769 Phase 2
9 Discontinuation of Dasatinib in Patients With Chronic Myeloid Leukemia-CP Who Have Maintained Complete Molecular Remission for Two Years; Dasatinib Stop Trial Recruiting NCT01627132 Phase 2
10 Phase II Study Assessing the Efficacy and Safety of Lenvatinib for Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Recruiting NCT02726503 Phase 2
11 Study of NMS-1286937 in Adult Patients With Advanced/Metastatic Solid Tumors Completed NCT01014429 Phase 1
12 Safety of RG2077 in Patients With Multiple Sclerosis Completed NCT00076934 Phase 1
13 Reducing Orthostatic Intolerance With Oral Rehydration in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients Recruiting NCT02854683 Phase 1
14 Recovery of Physical Functioning After Hip Fracture Not yet recruiting NCT02780076 Phase 1
15 Study of NMS-1116354 in Solid Tumors Terminated NCT01016327 Phase 1
16 Study of NMS-1116354 in Advanced/Metastatic Solid Tumors Terminated NCT01092052 Phase 1
17 Occipital Nerve Stimulation in the Treatment of Migraine Terminated NCT01855672 Phase 1
18 The Iliac Arterio-venous Fistula for Treatment of Neurally Mediated Syncope Study Unknown status NCT02388087
19 Study of the Causes of the Breakdown of Muscle Fibers in Hospitalized Patients Unknown status NCT01022450
20 Medical and Economic Evaluation of a Magnetic Anal Sphincter for Patients With Severe Anal Incontinence Unknown status NCT01920607
21 Understanding and Appraising the New Medicine Service in England Completed NCT01635361
22 Non-interventional, Retrospective, Multi-center Study to Evaluate Non-motor Symptoms in Advanced Parkinson Disease (PD) Patients Already Treated With Rotigotine Completed NCT01504529
23 A Feasibility Study of the Impact on Blood Pressure Control of Supplementing Community Pharmacist Services With Structured Information on Blood Pressure and Its Treatment Completed NCT01939860
24 Long Time Follow up After HJ Following Iatrogenic Bile Duct Injuries Completed NCT01447030
25 rTMS Effects on Smoking Cessation and Cognition in Schizophrenia Completed NCT00736710
26 Deep TMS for the Treatment of Patients With Parkinson's Disease and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Completed NCT02734485
27 Aprepitant in Preventing Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Who Are Undergoing a Stem Cell Transplant Completed NCT00248547
28 Neuromuscular Electrostimulation in Radiocephalic Fistula Recruiting NCT02925845
29 Role of Deep Brain Stimulation on Social Cognition in Parkinsonian Patients Recruiting NCT03004573
30 Activity Dependent Rehabilitation Model to Improve Bone and Muscle Outcomes Recruiting NCT02309983
31 Incidence of Residual Neuromuscular Blockade in Intra-abdominal Surgery: A Prospective, Observational Study Active, not recruiting NCT02984839
32 The Effect of Parkinson Kinetigraph Recordings on the Management and Outcome in Parkinson's Disease Enrolling by invitation NCT03152721
33 The Response Patterns to the Electrical Stimulation of Epidural Catheters With Varying Pulse Widths in Term Pregnant Women Not yet recruiting NCT02762149
34 Incidence of Postoperative Neuromuscular Blockade in Post-Anesthesia Care Unit at Parkland Hospital: Does Size Matter? Not yet recruiting NCT03111082
35 Clonidine for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Study Terminated NCT01175668
36 Effects of Fish or Meat Consumption in Elderly Terminated NCT02045355

Search NIH Clinical Center for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 69 / NDF-RT 48 :


Cochrane evidence based reviews: neuroleptic malignant syndrome

Genetic Tests for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

Anatomical Context for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome:

39
Brain, Liver, Lung, Kidney, Breast, Tongue, Subthalamic Nucleus

Publications for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

Articles related to Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome:

(show top 50) (show all 628)
id Title Authors Year
1
Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis and Risk of Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome. ( 27836566 )
2017
2
Early introduction of clozapine after neuroleptic malignant syndrome may prevent malignant catatonia: A case report. ( 27939254 )
2017
3
Risperidone-Associated Rhabdomyolysis Without Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome: A Case Report. ( 27861195 )
2017
4
A Validation Study of the International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome. ( 28027111 )
2017
5
Acute Dystonia Versus Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Without Fever in an Eight-Year-Old Child. ( 28045840 )
2017
6
Catatonic Symptoms Appearing before Autonomic Symptoms Help Distinguish Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome from Malignant Catatonia. ( 27725556 )
2016
7
Antipsychotic-Induced Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome After Cardiac Surgery. ( 27191714 )
2016
8
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome. ( 27453870 )
2016
9
Overlapping of Serotonin Syndrome with Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome due to Linezolid-Fluoxetine and Olanzapine-Metoclopramide Interactions: A Case Report of Two Serious Adverse Drug Effects Caused by Medication Reconciliation Failure on Hospital Admission. ( 27433163 )
2016
10
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Associated with Refractory Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis. ( 27239186 )
2016
11
Psychiatric Emergencies for Clinicians: Emergency Department Management of Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome. ( 27247083 )
2016
12
Reversible splenial lesion syndrome with a hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state and neuroleptic malignant syndrome caused by olanzapine. ( 27863115 )
2016
13
Management of Serotonin Syndrome and Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome. ( 27469512 )
2016
14
Complexities of Diagnosing Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome in a Patient with Burn Injury: Could Stimulant Abuse be a Risk Factor? ( 27374755 )
2016
15
Treatment of Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome with Electroconvulsive Therapy in an Adolescent with Psychosis. ( 26886722 )
2016
16
Clinically mild encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion and nonconvulsive status epilepticus in a schizophrenic patient with neuroleptic malignant syndrome. ( 27976828 )
2016
17
Use of Expert Consultation in a Complex Case of Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Requiring Electroconvulsive Therapy. ( 27824784 )
2016
18
Atypical neuroleptic malignant syndrome in a young male precipitated by oral sodium valproate. ( 27207860 )
2016
19
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Caused by Quetiapine in an Elderly Man with Lewy Body Dementia. ( 27564641 )
2016
20
Venous Thromboembolism Following Dantrolene Treatment for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome. ( 27776396 )
2016
21
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Associated with Lithium Toxicity. ( 27403245 )
2016
22
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Review: Focus on Treatment and Rechallenge. ( 27423483 )
2016
23
Fever, confusion, acute kidney injury: is this atypical neuroleptic malignant syndrome following polypharmacy with clozapine and risperidone? ( 27194777 )
2016
24
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome and subsequent clozapine-withdrawal effects in a patient with refractory schizophrenia. ( 27099499 )
2016
25
Olanzapine Long-Acting Injections After Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome: Two Case Reports. ( 27626284 )
2016
26
Carisoprodol withdrawal syndrome resembling neuroleptic malignant syndrome: Diagnostic dilemma. ( 27625493 )
2016
27
Atypical Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Associated With Paliperidone Long-Acting Injection: A Case Report. ( 27043124 )
2016
28
Rocuronium-sugammadex for electroconvulsive therapy management in neuroleptic malignant syndrome: A case report. ( 27424873 )
2016
29
Paliperidone Inducing Concomitantly Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone, Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome, and Rhabdomyolysis. ( 27721999 )
2016
30
Atypical neuroleptic malignant syndrome. ( 27298291 )
2016
31
Malignant Catatonia and Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome in Relation to Disulfiram Overdose. ( 27570348 )
2016
32
Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A Potential Mimic of Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome. ( 27590992 )
2016
33
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (or malignant extrapyramidal authonomic syndrome): Time to revisit diagnostic criteria and terminology? ( 27565995 )
2016
34
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome in trauma patient. ( 26048132 )
2015
35
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Associated With Metoclopramide Use in a Boy: Case Report and Review of the Literature. ( 26241559 )
2015
36
1205: QUETIAPINE INDUCED ATYPICAL NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME AND HYPEROSMOLAR HYPERGLYCEMIC STATE. ( 26570866 )
2015
37
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome: A Review from a Clinically Oriented Perspective. ( 26411967 )
2015
38
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome and the catatonic dilemma. ( 25589146 )
2015
39
A Rare Case of Myxedema Coma with Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS). ( 26155541 )
2015
40
Risk of neuroleptic malignant syndrome in patients with NMDAR encephalitis. ( 25480349 )
2015
41
Quetiapine and clarithromycin-induced neuroleptic malignant syndrome. ( 25580921 )
2015
42
Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis presenting with catatonia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome in patients with intellectual disability and autism. ( 26191422 )
2015
43
Dopamine transporter single-photon emission computerized tomography supports diagnosis of akinetic crisis of parkinsonism and of neuroleptic malignant syndrome. ( 25837755 )
2015
44
Second-generation antipsychotics and neuroleptic malignant syndrome: systematic review and case report analysis. ( 25578944 )
2015
45
Improving Psychiatric Nurses' Detection of Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome. ( 26379140 )
2015
46
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome in cycloserine-induced psychosis. ( 26069374 )
2015
47
Reversible magnetic resonance imaging changes in a case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome. ( 25769796 )
2015
48
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome in a patient on long-term olanzapine treatment at a stable dose: Successful treatment with dantrolene. ( 25625410 )
2015
49
Neurotoxic syndrome induced by clomipramine plus risperidone in a patient with autistic spectrum disorder: serotonin or neuroleptic malignant syndrome? ( 26583039 )
2015
50
A Reversible Isolated Lesion in the Splenium of Corpus Callosum in a Patient with Probable Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome -- Case Report. ( 27333832 )
2015

Variations for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

Expression for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome.

Pathways for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

GO Terms for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

Biological processes related to Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol GO:0051209 8.96 DRD2 RYR1
2 response to hypoxia GO:0001666 8.8 DRD2 MB RYR1

Molecular functions related to Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 drug binding GO:0008144 8.96 CYP2D6 DRD2
2 oxygen binding GO:0019825 8.62 CYP2D6 MB

Sources for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
28 GO
29 GTR
30 HGMD
31 HMDB
32 HPO
33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
38 LifeMap
40 MedGen
42 MeSH
43 MESH via Orphanet
44 MGI
46 NCI
47 NCIt
48 NDF-RT
51 NINDS
52 Novoseek
54 OMIM
55 OMIM via Orphanet
59 PubMed
60 QIAGEN
65 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67 TGDB
68 Tocris
69 UMLS
70 UMLS via Orphanet
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