MCID: PPL021
MIFTS: 50

Papilledema

Categories: Rare diseases, Eye diseases, Neuronal diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Papilledema

MalaCards integrated aliases for Papilledema:

Name: Papilledema 12 72 49 28 51 14 69
Edema of the Optic Disc 49
Choked Disk 49

Classifications:



Summaries for Papilledema

NIH Rare Diseases : 49 Papilledema is a condition in which increased pressure in or around the brain (intracranial pressure) causes swelling of the part of the optic nerve inside the eye (optic disc). Symptoms of increased intracranial pressure include headache or nausea and vomiting. Vision problems are not common initially, but may include short flickers of gray vision, blurred or double vision, and decreased field of vision or ability to see colors. Both eyes are usually affected. Papilledema by definition is caused by increased cranial pressure. Diagnosis includes a thorough eye exam by an ophthalmologist. Brain imaging studies (for example CT scan or MRI) are used to find the cause of the increased intracranial pressure. Treatment depends on the cause of the increased pressure but may include medications, surgery and/or weight management. Last updated: 8/31/2016

MalaCards based summary : Papilledema, also known as edema of the optic disc, is related to intracranial hypertension and intracranial hypertension, idiopathic, and has symptoms including edema An important gene associated with Papilledema is TP53 (Tumor Protein P53), and among its related pathways/superpathways is IL1 and megakaryocytes in obesity. The drugs Acetazolamide and Doxycycline have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include eye, brain and ovary, and related phenotypes are Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) and Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2)

Wikipedia : 72 Papilledema (or papilloedema) is optic disc swelling that is caused by increased intracranial pressure.... more...

Related Diseases for Papilledema

Diseases related to Papilledema via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 215)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 intracranial hypertension 31.0 APOH F2
2 intracranial hypertension, idiopathic 30.1 OGG1 PCLO
3 ischemic optic neuropathy 30.0 APOH F2
4 thrombophilia due to thrombin defect 30.0 APOH F2
5 cerebral sinovenous thrombosis 29.8 APOH F2
6 retinal vascular occlusion 29.8 APOH F2
7 cinca syndrome 29.5 IL1R1 NLRP3
8 hydrocephalus 11.3
9 papilloma of choroid plexus 11.2
10 optic papillitis 11.1
11 colloid cysts of third ventricle 10.9
12 anterior cranial fossa meningioma 10.4 F2 TP53
13 spinal cord infarction 10.4 APOH F2
14 livedoid vasculopathy 10.4 APOH F2
15 splenic infarction 10.4 APOH F2
16 prothrombin deficiency, congenital 10.4 APOH F2
17 squamous cell papilloma 10.4 F2 TP53
18 ischemic colitis 10.4 APOH F2
19 sneddon syndrome 10.4 APOH F2
20 retinal artery occlusion 10.4 APOH F2
21 buerger disease 10.4 APOH F2
22 hepatic infarction 10.4 APOH F2
23 prothrombin deficiency 10.4 APOH F2
24 thrombophlebitis 10.4 APOH F2
25 antithrombin iii deficiency 10.3 APOH F2
26 peripheral vertigo 10.3 APOH F2
27 central retinal vein occlusion 10.3 APOH F2
28 branch retinal artery occlusion 10.3 APOH F2
29 portal vein thrombosis 10.3 APOH F2
30 raynaud disease 10.3 APOH IL1R1
31 protein s deficiency 10.3 APOH F2
32 placental abruption 10.3 APOH F2
33 infective endocarditis 10.3 APOH F2
34 pyoderma 10.3 APOH IL1R1
35 intermittent claudication 10.2 APOH F2
36 cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome 10.2 IL1R1 NLRP3
37 vulvar vestibulitis syndrome 10.2 IL1R1 NLRP3
38 cholecystitis 10.2 F2 TP53
39 cold urticaria 10.2 IL1R1 NLRP3
40 familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome 1 10.2 IL1R1 NLRP3
41 retinal vein occlusion 10.2 APOH F2
42 schnitzler syndrome 10.2 IL1R1 NLRP3
43 thrombophilia due to activated protein c resistance 10.2 APOH F2
44 barrett's adenocarcinoma 10.2 OGG1 TP53
45 aseptic meningitis 10.2 IL1R1 NLRP3
46 muckle-wells syndrome 10.2 IL1R1 NLRP3
47 wells syndrome 10.1 IL1R1 NLRP3
48 familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome 10.1 IL1R1 NLRP3
49 cerebritis 10.1
50 headache 10.1

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Papilledema:



Diseases related to Papilledema

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Papilledema

UMLS symptoms related to Papilledema:


edema

GenomeRNAi Phenotypes related to Papilledema according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

25 (show all 36)
# Description GenomeRNAi Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-102 10.04 PCLO
2 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-11 10.04 ARSB
3 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-110 10.04 ARSB
4 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-115 10.04 IL1R1 NLRP3 OGG1
5 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-12 10.04 OGG1
6 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-122 10.04 IL1R1 PCLO ARSB F2
7 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-123 10.04 OGG1
8 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-124 10.04 IL1R1
9 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-126 10.04 ARSB F2
10 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-127 10.04 NLRP3
11 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-133 10.04 F2
12 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-146 10.04 F2
13 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-161 10.04 F2
14 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-164 10.04 PCLO
15 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-166 10.04 PCLO
16 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-168 10.04 IL1R1
17 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-176 10.04 F2
18 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-177 10.04 NLRP3
19 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-183 10.04 IL1R1
20 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-19 10.04 OGG1
21 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-190 10.04 NLRP3
22 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-196 10.04 OGG1
23 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-198 10.04 IL1R1
24 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-202 10.04 OGG1
25 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-208 10.04 OGG1
26 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-214 10.04 PCLO NLRP3
27 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-25 10.04 IL1R1
28 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-42 10.04 ARSB
29 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-43 10.04 ARSB F2
30 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-63 10.04 PCLO
31 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-83 10.04 ARSB
32 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-9 10.04 IL1R1
33 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-90 10.04 PCLO
34 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-93 10.04 NLRP3
35 Increased shRNA abundance (Z-score > 2) GR00366-A-99 10.04 IL1R1
36 Increased proliferation GR00094-A 8.96 IL1R1 TP53

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Papilledema:

43
# Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 nervous system MP:0003631 9.5 ARSB F2 IL1R1 NLRP3 OGG1 PCLO
2 normal MP:0002873 9.1 F2 IL1R1 NLRP3 OGG1 PCLO TP53

Drugs & Therapeutics for Papilledema

Drugs for Papilledema (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 83)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Acetazolamide Approved, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3 59-66-5 1986
2
Doxycycline Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 4 564-25-0 54671203
3
Isotretinoin Approved Phase 4 4759-48-2 5282379 5538
4
Lymecycline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 992-21-2 5280963
5
Minocycline Approved, Investigational Phase 4 10118-90-8 5281021
6 Anticonvulsants Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
7 Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
8 diuretics Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
9 Natriuretic Agents Phase 4,Phase 2,Phase 3
10 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 4
11 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 4
12 Dermatologic Agents Phase 4
13
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 103-90-2 1983
14
Aspirin Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 50-78-2 2244
15
Codeine Approved, Illicit Phase 2, Phase 3 76-57-3 5284371
16
Guaifenesin Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 93-14-1 3516
17
Ibuprofen Approved Phase 2, Phase 3 15687-27-1 3672
18
Naproxen Approved, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 22204-53-1 156391 1302
19
Dexamethasone Approved, Investigational, Vet_approved Phase 2, Phase 3 50-02-2 5743
20
Warfarin Approved Phase 3 81-81-2 54678486 6691
21 Analgesics Phase 2, Phase 3
22 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 2, Phase 3
23 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 1
24 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 2, Phase 3
25 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 1
26 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
27 glucocorticoids Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 1
28 Hormone Antagonists Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 1
29 Hormones Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 1
30 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 2, Phase 3,Phase 1
31 Analgesics, Opioid Phase 2, Phase 3
32 Antipyretics Phase 2, Phase 3
33 Antitussive Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
34 Central Nervous System Depressants Phase 2, Phase 3
35 Chlorpheniramine, phenylpropanolamine drug combination Phase 2, Phase 3
36 Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors Phase 2, Phase 3
37 Fibrinolytic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
38 Narcotics Phase 2, Phase 3
39 Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors Phase 2, Phase 3
40 Respiratory System Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
41 Antiemetics Phase 2, Phase 3
42 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 2, Phase 3
43 Autonomic Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
44 BB 1101 Phase 2, Phase 3
45 Dexamethasone acetate Phase 2, Phase 3 1177-87-3
46 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 2, Phase 3
47 HIV Protease Inhibitors Phase 2, Phase 3
48
protease inhibitors Phase 2, Phase 3
49 Anticoagulants Phase 3
50 Antithrombin III Phase 3

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 28)

# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 ALPI vs Medical Therapy Effects on Optic Nerve Structure & Function Unknown status NCT00485238 Phase 4 Intravenous acetazolamide
2 Pegaptanib for Retinal Edema Secondary to Diabetic Vascular Disease(Preserve) Study Completed NCT01486238 Phase 4 Macugen® pegaptanib sodium
3 Antiacne Medications Pseudotumor Cerebri Recruiting NCT02149615 Phase 4
4 Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial Completed NCT01003639 Phase 2, Phase 3 Acetazolamide;Placebo
5 Ozurdex for Macular Edema Post Membrane Peeling Completed NCT01273727 Phase 2, Phase 3 Dexamethasone;dexamethasone
6 The Efficacy and Safety of Dabigatran Etexilate for the Treatment of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis Recruiting NCT03217448 Phase 3 Dabigatran etexilate;Warfarin
7 Comparison of Intravitreal Bevacizumab and Triamcinolone With Placebo Unknown status NCT01330524 Phase 1, Phase 2 Avastin and Triamcinolone
8 Safety and Effectiveness of 11b-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Inhibitor (AZD4017) to Treat Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension. Completed NCT02017444 Phase 2 AZD4017
9 Efficacy of Biweekly Ranibizumab (0.5 mg) for Exudative Macular Degeneration Retinal Edema Refractory to Anti-VEGF Not yet recruiting NCT03071055 Phase 2 Ranibizumab Injection [Lucentis]
10 Intravitreal Aflibercept Injection for Radiation Retinopathy Trial Not yet recruiting NCT03085784 Phase 2 Aflibercept
11 Anakinra to Treat Patients With Neonatal Onset Multisystem Inflammatory Disease Terminated NCT00069329 Phase 1, Phase 2 anakinra
12 Endovascular Stenting Treatment for Patients With Internal Jugular Vein Stenosis Not yet recruiting NCT03373292 Phase 1
13 aICP in Glaucoma and Papilledema Unknown status NCT02410148
14 OCT Imaging of Papilledema in Pediatric Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Unknown status NCT02665858
15 Prolensa (Bromfenac) 0.07% QD vs. Ilevro (Nepafenac) 0.3% QD for Treatment of Ocular Inflammation Post Cataract Surgery Unknown status NCT01847638 Prolensa (bromfenac 0.07%);Ilevro (nepafenac 0.3%)
16 Assessment of Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer by Optical Coherence Tomography in Uveitis Patients With Papilloedema Completed NCT01170481
17 Digital Ocular Fundus Photography in the Emergency Department: A New Application for Telemedicine? Completed NCT00873613
18 Observe the Effectiveness and Safety of Ranibizumab in Real Life Setting Completed NCT01318941 Ranibizumab
19 Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis: Re-exploration of Clinical Assessment Scales Recruiting NCT03273179
20 Measurement of Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter in Children Without the Increased Intracranial Pressure Recruiting NCT03178760
21 An RCT of Bariatric Surgery vs a Community Weight Loss Programme for the Sustained Treatment of IIH Recruiting NCT02124486
22 Astronaut Vision Issues in a Ground Analog Population: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Recruiting NCT02896452
23 Studies of the Natural History, Pathogenesis, and Outcome of Autoinflammatory Diseases (NOMID / CAPS, DIRA, CANDLE, SAVI, CRMO, Still's Disease, Behcet's Disease, and Other Undifferentiated Autoinflammatory Diseases) Recruiting NCT00059748
24 Evaluating Raised Intracranial Pressure Using MR Elastography Recruiting NCT03096743
25 A Single-Center Trial of High Frequency Pegaptanib for Rapid Restoration of VEGF Levels in Diabetic Retinal Edema Available NCT01487044 Macugen (Pegaptanib Sodium)
26 Ocular Point of Care Ultrasound (POCUS) to Detect Optic Disc Swelling in Comparison to Ophthalmologic Examination Not yet recruiting NCT02992262
27 Operative Procedures vs. Endovascular Neurosurgery for Untreated Pseudotumor Trial Not yet recruiting NCT02513914
28 Disc Edema in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Withdrawn NCT00769834

Search NIH Clinical Center for Papilledema

Genetic Tests for Papilledema

Genetic tests related to Papilledema:

# Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Papilledema 28

Anatomical Context for Papilledema

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Papilledema:

38
Eye, Brain, Ovary, Spinal Cord, Kidney, Retina, Liver

Publications for Papilledema

Articles related to Papilledema:

(show top 50) (show all 503)
# Title Authors Year
1
Papilledema in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension. ( 29399792 )
2018
2
Arteriovenous ratio and papilledema based hybrid decision support system for detection and grading of hypertensive retinopathy. ( 29249337 )
2018
3
Chronic papilledema in a child with classical tuberous sclerosis. ( 29283138 )
2018
4
Five-Year-Old Boy With Behavioral Changes and Papilledema. ( 28991098 )
2018
5
Headache and Papilledema in Guillain-BarrAc Syndrome. ( 29374500 )
2018
6
The efficacy of orbital ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging findings with direct measurement of intracranial pressure in distinguishing papilledema from pseudopapilledema. ( 28534259 )
2017
7
Papilledema in children with hydrocephalus: incidence and associated factors. ( 28387641 )
2017
8
Relationship between lamina cribrosa displacement and trans-laminar pressure difference in papilledema. ( 28391369 )
2017
9
Retrospective analysis of translaminar, demographic, and physiologic parameters in relation to papilledema severity. ( 28237144 )
2017
10
Hypoparathyroidism Should Always Be Checked in Papilledema. ( 28694607 )
2017
11
Papilledema: A Comprehensive Assessment. ( 29204042 )
2017
12
Vestibular Schwannoma Presenting with Bilateral Papilledema Without Hydrocephalus: Case Study. ( 29375948 )
2017
13
Myhre syndrome with novel findings: bilateral congenital cortical cataract, bilateral papilledema, accessory nipple, and adenoid hypertrophy. ( 28562390 )
2017
14
Accuracy of Diagnostic Imaging Modalities for Classifying Pediatric Eyes as Papilledema Versus Pseudopapilledema. ( 28732589 )
2017
15
Optical Coherence Tomography to Differentiate Papilledema from Pseudopapilledema. ( 28819712 )
2017
16
Accuracy of crescent sign on ocular ultrasound in diagnosing papilledema. ( 29026691 )
2017
17
Unilateral Papilledema in Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis. ( 28936083 )
2017
18
Fully automated diagnosis of papilledema through robust extraction of vascular patterns and ocular pathology from fundus photographs. ( 28270999 )
2017
19
"Twin Peaks" Papilledema. ( 28126073 )
2017
20
Utility of Intracranial Pressure Monitoring for Diagnosis of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension in the Absence of Papilledema. ( 29258930 )
2017
21
Unexpected papilledema in a young male with Type 1 diabetes. ( 28781853 )
2017
22
New-Onset Isolated Asymptomatic Papilledema in Two Patients Treated With Recombinant Growth Hormone. ( 28952359 )
2017
23
Orbital Hydatid Cyst Causing Papilledema and Proptosis in an Adult. ( 28323190 )
2017
24
The diagnostic challenge of evaluating papilledema in the pediatric patient. ( 29018749 )
2017
25
Commentary: The Dilemma of Papilledema in Chiari I Malformation. ( 29272471 )
2017
26
Clinical Reasoning: A 57-year-old man with unilateral anosmia, papilledema, and meningismus. ( 28827465 )
2017
27
Sildenafil-related cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and papilledema: a case report of a rare entity. ( 28474148 )
2017
28
Use of A-scan Ultrasound and Optical Coherence Tomography to Differentiate Papilledema From Pseudopapilledema. ( 29120977 )
2017
29
Bruch's membrane opening on optical coherence tomography in pediatric papilledema and pseudopapilledema. ( 29203329 )
2017
30
Decision Support System for Detection of Papilledema through Fundus Retinal Images. ( 28283997 )
2017
31
Factors Influencing the Incidence of Papilledema in Patients with Cerebral Venous Thrombosis. ( 29387676 )
2017
32
Complete Resolution of Papilledema in Syndromic Craniosynostosis with Posterior Cranial Vault Distraction. ( 28904587 )
2017
33
Objective Measures of Visual Function in Papilledema. ( 28451649 )
2016
34
Use of MultiColor imaging in the assessment of suspected papilledema in 20 consecutive children. ( 27816749 )
2016
35
The Optic Canal Size Is Associated With the Severity of Papilledema and Poor Visual Function in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension. ( 26580295 )
2016
36
Measuring recovery of visual function in children with papilledema using sweep visual evoked potentials. ( 27164429 )
2016
37
Papilledema and Spinal Ependymoma: When Eyes are Windows to the Spinal Cord. ( 27470690 )
2016
38
Papilledema as a Diagnostic Sign of Cerebral Edema on Postmortem Magnetic Resonance Imaging. ( 27571174 )
2016
39
Bilateral papilledema in a child with osteogenesis imperfecta. ( 27833926 )
2016
40
Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of Paton Folds in Papilledema With Retinopathy From Systemic Hypertension. ( 27737453 )
2016
41
Severe bilateral papilledema in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. ( 26873026 )
2016
42
Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension in a Prepubertal Pediatric Japanese Patient Complicated by Severe Papilledema. ( 27065853 )
2016
43
Papilledema Due to Mirtazapine. ( 27308085 )
2016
44
Papilledema secondary to a superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. Mantle cell lymphoma paraneoplastic syndrome. ( 26596713 )
2016
45
Isolated central nervous system primary acute monoblastic leukemia presenting as papilledema. ( 27569601 )
2016
46
Peripapillary retinal leukemic infiltration associated with papilledema in a T-ALL patient without cranial or optic nerve involvement. ( 26979244 )
2016
47
Gaze Evoked Deformations of the Peripapillary Retina in Papilledema and Ischemic Optic Neuropathy. ( 27661851 )
2016
48
Asymmetric Papilledema in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension: Comment. ( 26885711 )
2016
49
"Paton's Folds" Revisited: Peripapillary Wrinkles, Folds, and Creases in Papilledema. ( 26778344 )
2016
50
Abnormal transcranial Doppler cerebral blood flow velocity and blood pressure profiles in children with syndromic craniosynostosis and papilledema. ( 26857754 )
2016

Variations for Papilledema

Expression for Papilledema

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Papilledema.

Pathways for Papilledema

Pathways related to Papilledema according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 10.2 F2 IL1R1 NLRP3

GO Terms for Papilledema

Biological processes related to Papilledema according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 nucleotide-excision repair GO:0006289 9.4 OGG1 TP53
2 base-excision repair GO:0006284 9.37 OGG1 TP53
3 positive regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process GO:2000379 9.32 F2 TP53
4 regulation of blood coagulation GO:0030193 9.26 APOH F2
5 blood coagulation, intrinsic pathway GO:0007597 9.16 APOH F2
6 positive regulation of blood coagulation GO:0030194 8.96 APOH F2
7 negative regulation of fibrinolysis GO:0051918 8.62 APOH F2

Sources for Papilledema

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HGMD
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 MedGen
41 MeSH
42 MESH via Orphanet
43 MGI
45 NCI
46 NCIt
47 NDF-RT
50 NINDS
51 Novoseek
53 OMIM
54 OMIM via Orphanet
58 PubMed
60 QIAGEN
65 SNOMED-CT via HPO
66 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67 TGDB
68 Tocris
69 UMLS
70 UMLS via Orphanet
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