Parietal Foramina 1 malady

Categories: Genetic diseases, Bone diseases, Fetal diseases, Rare diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Parietal Foramina 1

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Aliases & Descriptions for Parietal Foramina 1:

Name: Parietal Foramina 1 51 24 69 26 12 67
Enlarged Parietal Foramina 11 23 24 25 53 69
Parietal Foramina 11 25 26 49 38 13
Symmetric Parietal Foramina 23 24 25 53
Foramina Parietalia Permagna 25 53 69
Hereditary Cranium Bifidum 11 25 53
Cranium Bifidum Occultum 24 25 69
Catlin Marks 25 53 69
Parietal Foramina, Symmetric 24 69
Fpp 25 69
Pfm 25 69
Fenestrae Parietales Symmetricae 53
Fenestrae Parietals Symmetricae 25
Msx2-Related Parietal Foramina 24
Cranium Bifidum, Hereditary 69
Giant Parietal Foramina 25
Cranium Bifidum 25
Caitlin Marks 11
Pfm1 69


Orphanet epidemiological data:

enlarged parietal foramina:
Inheritance: Autosomal dominant; Prevalence: 1-9/100000 (Europe),1-9/100000 (Worldwide); Age of onset: Antenatal,Neonatal; Age of death: normal life expectancy


parietal foramina 1:
Inheritance: autosomal dominant inheritance, heterogeneous


Penetrance: penetrance is approximately 90% overall for either msx2 or alx4 mutations. several individuals with a documented disease-causing mutation showed no radiographic evidence of enlarged parietal foramina [wilkie et al 2000, mavrogiannis et al 2001, mavrogiannis et al 2006]. ...


External Ids:

OMIM51 168500
Disease Ontology11 DOID:0060285
Orphanet53 ORPHA60015
ICD10 via Orphanet30 Q75.8

Summaries for Parietal Foramina 1

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Genetics Home Reference:25 Enlarged parietal foramina is an inherited condition of impaired skull development. It is characterized by enlarged openings (foramina) in the parietal bones, which are the two bones that form the top and sides of the skull. This condition is due to incomplete bone formation (ossification) within the parietal bones. The openings are symmetrical and circular in shape, ranging in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters wide. Parietal foramina are a normal feature of fetal development, but typically they close before the baby is born, usually by the fifth month of pregnancy. However, in people with this condition, the parietal foramina remain open throughout life.

MalaCards based summary: Parietal Foramina 1, also known as enlarged parietal foramina, is related to frontonasal dysplasia 2 and parietal foramina with cleidocranial dysplasia, and has symptoms including cleft palate, cleft upper lip and seizures. An important gene associated with Parietal Foramina 1 is MSX2 (Msh Homeobox 2). Affiliated tissues include bone, and related mouse phenotypes are craniofacial and digestive/alimentary.

UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot:69 Parietal foramina 1: Autosomal dominant disease characterized by oval defects of the parietal bones caused by deficient ossification around the parietal notch, which is normally obliterated during the fifth fetal month.

Description from OMIM:51 168500

GeneReviews for NBK1128

Related Diseases for Parietal Foramina 1

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Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Parietal Foramina 1:

Diseases related to parietal foramina 1

Symptoms for Parietal Foramina 1

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Symptoms by clinical synopsis from OMIM:


Clinical features from OMIM:


Human phenotypes related to Parietal Foramina 1:

 63 (show all 8)
id Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 cleft palate63 HP:0000175
2 cleft upper lip63 HP:0000204
3 seizures63 HP:0001250
4 encephalocele63 HP:0002084
5 headache63 HP:0002315
6 symmetrical, oval parietal bone defects63 HP:0002695
7 parietal foramina63 HP:0002697
8 aplasia cutis congenita of scalp63 HP:0007385

Drugs & Therapeutics for Parietal Foramina 1

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Interventional clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials, NIH Clinical Center for Parietal Foramina 1

Cochrane evidence based reviews: parietal foramina

Genetic Tests for Parietal Foramina 1

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Genetic tests related to Parietal Foramina 1:

id Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Parietal Foramina 126 24 MSX2
2 Parietal Foramina26
3 Enlarged Parietal Foramina24 MSX2

Anatomical Context for Parietal Foramina 1

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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Parietal Foramina 1:


Animal Models for Parietal Foramina 1 or affiliated genes

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MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Parietal Foramina 1:

idDescriptionMGI Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MP:00053828.6ALX1, ALX3, ALX4, MSX1, MSX2
2MP:00053818.6ALX1, ALX3, ALX4, MSX1, MSX2
3MP:00053718.6ALX1, ALX3, ALX4, MSX1, MSX2
4MP:00053888.5ALX1, ALX3, ALX4, MSX1, SLC35C1
5MP:00053788.2ALX1, ALX3, ALX4, MSX1, MSX2, SLC35C1
6MP:00053808.1ALX1, ALX3, ALX4, EXT2, MSX1, MSX2
7MP:00053908.0ALX1, ALX3, ALX4, EXT2, MSX1, MSX2
8MP:00053917.8ALX1, ALX3, ALX4, MSX1, MSX2
9MP:00053867.8ALX1, ALX3, ALX4, MSX1, MSX2, PHF21A
10MP:00107687.2ALX1, ALX3, ALX4, EXT2, MSX1, MSX2

Publications for Parietal Foramina 1

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Variations for Parietal Foramina 1

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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot genetic disease variations for Parietal Foramina 1:

id Symbol AA change Variation ID SNP ID

Expression for genes affiliated with Parietal Foramina 1

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Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Parietal Foramina 1.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Parietal Foramina 1

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GO Terms for genes affiliated with Parietal Foramina 1

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Biological processes related to Parietal Foramina 1 according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 26)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1activation of meiosisGO:009042710.3MSX1, MSX2
2positive regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic processGO:200105510.3MSX1, MSX2
3embryonic nail plate morphogenesisGO:003588010.3MSX1, MSX2
4stem cell differentiationGO:004886310.2MSX1, MSX2
5negative regulation of transcription regulatory region DNA bindingGO:200067810.2MSX1, MSX2
6mammary gland epithelium developmentGO:006118010.2MSX1, MSX2
7epithelial to mesenchymal transition involved in endocardial cushion formationGO:000319810.2MSX1, MSX2
8BMP signaling pathway involved in heart developmentGO:006131210.2MSX1, MSX2
9odontogenesisGO:004247610.1MSX1, MSX2
10signal transduction involved in regulation of gene expressionGO:002301910.0MSX1, MSX2
11positive regulation of BMP signaling pathwayGO:003051310.0MSX1, MSX2
12cartilage developmentGO:00512169.9MSX1, MSX2
13BMP signaling pathwayGO:00305099.8MSX1, MSX2
14ossificationGO:00015039.8EXT2, MSX2
15bone morphogenesisGO:00603499.8MSX1, MSX2
16embryonic digit morphogenesisGO:00427339.6ALX4, MSX1, MSX2
17pattern specification processGO:00073899.6ALX3, ALX4
18muscle organ developmentGO:00075179.6ALX4, MSX1
19palate developmentGO:00600219.0ALX1, ALX4, MSX1
20anterior/posterior pattern specificationGO:00099529.0ALX1, ALX4, MSX1, MSX2
21embryonic limb morphogenesisGO:00303269.0ALX1, MSX1, MSX2
22embryonic skeletal system morphogenesisGO:00487049.0ALX1, ALX3, ALX4
23embryonic forelimb morphogenesisGO:00351158.8ALX3, ALX4, MSX1, MSX2
24embryonic hindlimb morphogenesisGO:00351168.8ALX3, ALX4, MSX1, MSX2
25regulation of apoptotic processGO:00429818.6ALX3, ALX4, MSX2
26transcription from RNA polymerase II promoterGO:00063668.5ALX1, ALX4, MSX1, MSX2

Molecular functions related to Parietal Foramina 1 according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 7)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1transcription cofactor activityGO:000371210.1MSX2, PHF21A
2transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II core promoter proximal region sequence-specific bindingGO:000098210.0MSX1, MSX2
3transcriptional repressor activity, RNA polymerase II transcription regulatory region sequence-specific bindingGO:00012279.8MSX1, MSX2
4transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II transcription regulatory region sequence-specific bindingGO:00012289.3ALX1, ALX4, MSX1
5protein heterodimerization activityGO:00469829.0ALX1, ALX4, EXT2
6RNA polymerase II regulatory region sequence-specific DNA bindingGO:00009778.4ALX1, ALX4, MSX1, MSX2, PHF21A
7sequence-specific DNA bindingGO:00435657.5ALX1, ALX3, ALX4, MSX1, MSX2

Sources for Parietal Foramina 1

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30ICD10 via Orphanet
39MESH via Orphanet
52OMIM via Orphanet
62SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
66Tumor Gene Family of Databases
68UMLS via Orphanet