PD
MCID: PRK002
MIFTS: 86

Parkinson's Disease (PD) malady

Neuronal category

Summaries for Parkinson's Disease

Sources:
8Disease Ontology, 21Genetics Home Reference, 43NIH Rare Diseases, 34MedlinePlus, 44NINDS, 64Wikipedia, 47OMIM, 19GeneReviews, 33MalaCards
See all sources

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MedlinePlus:34 Parkinson's disease (pd) is a type of movement disorder. it happens when nerve cells in the brain don't produce enough of a brain chemical called dopamine. sometimes it is genetic, but most cases do not seem to run in families. exposure to chemicals in the environment might play a role. symptoms begin gradually, often on one side of the body. later they affect both sides. they include trembling of hands, arms, legs, jaw and face stiffness of the arms, legs and trunk slowness of movement poor balance and coordination as symptoms get worse, people with the disease may have trouble walking, talking, or doing simple tasks. they may also have problems such as depression, sleep problems, or trouble chewing, swallowing, or speaking. there is no lab test for pd, so it can be difficult to diagnose. doctors use a medical history and a neurological examination to diagnose it. pd usually begins around age 60, but it can start earlier. it is more common in men than in women. there is no cure for pd. a variety of medicines sometimes help symptoms dramatically. surgery and deep brain stimulation (dbs) can help severe cases. with dbs, electrodes are surgically implanted in the brain. they send electrical pulses to stimulate the parts of the brain that control movement. nih: national institute of neurological disorders and stroke

MalaCards: Parkinson's Disease, also known as parkinson disease, is related to pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration and essential tremor. An important gene associated with Parkinson's Disease is MAPT (microtubule-associated protein tau), and among its related pathways are Respiratory electron transport, ATP synthesis by chemiosmotic coupling, and heat production by uncoupling proteins. and Neuroscience. The drugs bromocriptine and 2-bromoergocryptine mesylate and the compounds dopamine and cysteine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include skin, liver and spinal cord, and related mouse phenotypes are nervous system and behavior/neurological.

Disease Ontology:8 A neurodegenerative disease that has material basis in degeneration of the central nervous system that often impairs the sufferer's motor skills, speech, and other functions.

Genetics Home Reference:21 Parkinson disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system. The disorder affects several regions of the brain, especially an area called the substantia nigra that controls balance and movement.

NIH Rare Diseases:43 Parkinson disease belongs to a group of conditions called movement disorders. the four main symptoms are tremor, or trembling in hands, arms, legs, jaw, or head; rigidity, or stiffness of the limbs and trunk; bradykinesia, or slowness of movement; and postural instability, or impaired balance. these symptoms usually begin gradually and worsen with time.  as they become more pronounced, patients may have difficulty walking, talking, or completing other simple tasks.  not everyone with one or more of these symptoms has parkinson disease, as the symptoms sometimes appear in other diseases as well. parkinson disease affects about 1 to 2 percent of people over the age of 60 years and the chance of developing parkinson disease increases as we age. although some parkinson disease cases appear to be hereditary, and a few can be traced to specific genetic mutations, most cases are sporadic and occur in people with no apparent history of the disorder in their family.  many researchers now believe that parkinson disease results from a combination of genetic susceptibility and exposure to one or more environmental factors that trigger the disease.  last updated: 10/3/2011

NINDS:44 Parkinson's disease (PD) belongs to a group of conditions called motor system disorders, which are the result of the loss of dopamine-producing brain cells. The four primary symptoms of PD are tremor, or trembling in hands, arms, legs, jaw, and face; rigidity, or stiffness of the limbs and trunk; bradykinesia, or slowness of movement; and postural instability, or impaired balance and coordination. As these symptoms become more pronounced, patients may have difficulty walking, talking, or completing other simple tasks. PD usually affects people over the age of 50.

Wikipedia:64 Parkinson\'s disease (PD also known as idiopathic or primary parkinsonism, hypokinetic rigid... more...

Description from OMIM:47 168601, 606324, 556500, 600116, 168600 607688, 607060, 612953, 610297, 605543, 605909, 260300, 613643 more

GeneReviews summary for parkinson-overview

Aliases & Classifications for Parkinson's Disease

Sources:
8Disease Ontology, 19GeneReviews, 43NIH Rare Diseases, 20GeneTests, 22GTR, 21Genetics Home Reference, 44NINDS, 47OMIM, 10DISEASES, 45Novoseek, 34MedlinePlus, 31LifeMap Discovery™, 61UMLS, 27ICD9CM, 57SNOMED-CT, 40NCIt, 35MeSH, 25ICD10
See all sources

Classifications:

Malacards categories (disease lists): (See all malacards categories)
Anatomical: Neuronal


Aliases & Descriptions:

parkinson's disease 8 43 21 44 34 31
parkinson disease 19 43 20 22 21 47 45 61
primary parkinsonism 43 21
paralysis agitans 8 43
parkinson disease, late-onset 61
hallervorden-spatz syndrome 61
parkinson's disease nos 8
parkinsons disease 10
shaking palsy 43
pkan 19
pd 21


Related Diseases for Parkinson's Disease

Sources:
17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
See all sources

Diseases in the Parkinson's Disease family:

parkinson disease type 3 parkinson disease type 9
parkinson disease 6, early onset parkinson disease 19, juvenile-onset
parkinson disease 10 parkinson disease, late-onset
parkinson disease 16 parkinson disease 13
parkinson disease 11 parkinson disease 18
parkinson disease 5 parkinson disease 4
parkinson disease 1 parkinson disease, juvenile, type 2
parkinson disease 8 parkinson disease 17
parkinson disease 20, early-onset parkinson disease 14
parkinson disease 12

Diseases related to Parkinson's Disease via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards/GeneDecks gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 192)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration30.9ATP13A2
2essential tremor30.6PARK2, SLC6A3, LRRK2, SNCA
3alzheimer's disease30.6COMT, UCHL1, PINK1, SNCB, SNCAIP, SNCA
4parkinson disease 130.6SNCA
5progressive supranuclear palsy30.6SLC6A3, MAPT
6parkinson disease type 330.5PARK2, PARK7, LRRK2, MAPT, SNCA, SNCAIP
7lrrk2-related parkinson disease30.5LRRK2
8lewy body dementia30.4SNCB, SNCA
9pick's disease30.4MAPT, SNCA
10niemann-pick disease30.4MAPT, SNCA
11amyotrophic lateral sclerosis30.4SLC6A3, MAPT, SNCA
12lateral sclerosis30.4SNCA, MAPT
13frontotemporal dementia30.2SNCA, MAPT, LRRK2, PARK2
14spinocerebellar ataxia29.8MAPT, TBP, SNCA
15striatonigral degeneration29.8SNCA, SLC6A3
16dysautonomia29.8SNCA
17adult syndrome10.6
18pendred syndrome10.6
19brain disease10.5
20parkinson disease, late-onset10.5
21pathological gambling10.5
22autosomal recessive juvenile parkinson disease10.5
23tremor10.4
24sleep disorder10.4
25paralysis agitans, juvenile, of hunt10.4
26parkinson disease type 910.3
27paroxysmal dyskinesia10.3
28superior mesenteric artery syndrome10.3
29neuroaxonal dystrophy10.3
30niemann–pick disease10.3
31neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation disorders10.3
32acanthocytosis10.3
33young syndrome10.3
34bod syndrome10.3
35neuroaxonal dystrophy, infantile10.3
36pigmentary retinopathy10.3
37harp syndrome10.3
38chorea10.3
39enlarged vestibular aqueduct10.3
40apraxia10.2
41parkinson disease 1310.2
42pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy10.2
43progressive muscular atrophy10.2
44muscular atrophy10.2
45postencephalitic parkinson disease10.2
46autosomal recessive disease10.2
47pink1 type of young-onset parkinson disease10.2
48parkinson disease 1810.2
49parkinson disease 1710.2
50parkinson disease 20, early-onset10.2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Parkinson's Disease:



Diseases related to parkinson's disease

Clinical Features for Parkinson's Disease

Sources:
47OMIM
See all sources

Clinical features from OMIM:

168601, 606324, 556500, 600116, 168600, 607688, 607060, 612953, 610297, 605543 605909, 260300, 613643 more

Drugs & Therapeutics for Parkinson's Disease

Sources:
5CenterWatch, 42NIH Clinical Center, 6ClinicalTrials, 31LifeMap Discovery™, 61UMLS, 41NDF-RT
See all sources

Approved drugs:

Search CenterWatch for Parkinson's Disease

Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Parkinson's Disease

Search NIH Clinical Center for Parkinson's Disease

Search CenterWatch for Parkinson's Disease

Inferred drug relations via UMLS61/NDF-RT41:

Cell-based therapeutics:


LifeMap Discovery
The database of embryonic development, stem cell research and regenerative medicine
Read about Parkinson's Disease cell therapies at LifeMap Discovery.

Genetic Tests for Parkinson's Disease

Sources:
20GeneTests, 22GTR
See all sources

Genetic tests related to Parkinson's Disease:

id Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Parkinson Disease20 VPS35
2 Parkinson Disease, Susceptibility To20 MT-TT
3 Parkinson Disease Multi-gene Panels20
4 Parkinson's Disease22

Anatomical Context for Parkinson's Disease

Sources:
31LifeMap Discovery™, 33MalaCards
See all sources

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Parkinson's Disease:

33
Skin, Liver, Spinal cord, Brain, Lung, Bone marrow, Whole blood, Cortex, Heart, Smooth muscle, Skeletal muscle, Small intestine, Colon, Salivary gland, Adrenal gland, Prostate, Monocytes, Nk cells, T cells, B cells, Endothelial, Fetal brain, Prefrontal cortex, Cingulate cortex, Globus pallidus, Olfactory bulb, Thalamus, Subthalamic nucleus, Caudate nucleus, Amygdala, Medulla oblongata, Cardiac myocytes, Fetal liver, Fetal lung, Adrenal cortex

LifeMap Discovery
The database of embryonic development, stem cell research and regenerative medicine

Cells/anatomical compartments in embryo or adult related to Parkinson's Disease:
id TissueAnatomical CompartmentCell Relevance
1 BrainSubstantia Nigra pars CompactaAdult Dopaminergic Neurons Potential therapeutic candidate, affected by disease
2 AdiposeSubcutaneous White AdiposeMesenchymal Stem Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
3 AdiposeSubcutaneous White AdiposeStromal Cells Potential therapeutic candidate

Animal Models for Parkinson's Disease or affiliated genes

Sources:
37MGI, 28inGenious Targeting Laboratory
See all sources

Publications for Parkinson's Disease

Sources:
51PubMed
See all sources

Articles related to Parkinson's Disease:

(show top 50)    (show all 2481)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Interactions between Tau and I+-Synuclein Augment Neurotoxicity in a Drosophila Model of Parkinson's Disease. (24430504)
2014
2
n-Butylidenephthalide Protects against Dopaminergic Neuron Degeneration and I+-Synuclein Accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans Models of Parkinson's Disease. (24416384)
2014
3
Heat Shock Protein 70 Reduces I+-Synuclein-Induced Predegenerative Neuronal Dystrophy in the I+-Synuclein Viral Gene Transfer Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease. (24279716)
2014
4
Parkinson's disease and risk of mortality: meta-analysis and systematic review. (24256347)
2014
5
Subthalamotomy in the treatment of Parkinson's disease: clinical aspects and mechanisms of action. (24205909)
2014
6
The Relative Contribution of Physical and Cognitive Fall Risk Factors in People With Parkinson's Disease: A Large Prospective Cohort Study. (24243915)
2013
7
Implicit task sequence learning in patients with Parkinson's disease, frontal lesions and amnesia: the critical role of frontoa89striatal loops. (24436969)
2013
8
Calpastatin gene (CAST) is not associated with late onset sporadic Parkinson's disease in the Han Chinese population. (23951044)
2013
9
Genetic analysis of the fused in sarcoma gene in Chinese Han patients with Parkinson's disease. (24080306)
2013
10
Occlusal treatment with bite splint improves dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease patient: a case report. (24334629)
2013
11
The invisible and visible stigmatization of Parkinson's disease. (24170489)
2013
12
Association between fatigue and other motor and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease patients. (24375016)
2013
13
Thalamic stimulation alleviates levodopa-resistant rigidity in a patient with non-Parkinson's disease parkinsonian syndrome. (24291482)
2013
14
Safety and efficacy of recombinant human erythropoietin treatment of non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. (24289887)
2013
15
Correlational study of the serum levels of the glial fibrillary acidic protein and neurofilament proteins in Parkinson's disease patients. (22206859)
2012
16
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome associated with bromocriptine withdrawal in Parkinson's disease--a case report. (21601731)
2011
17
Lrrk2 S1647T and BDNF V66M interact with environmental factors to increase risk of Parkinson's disease. (21167764)
2011
18
Decreased expression of lysosomal alpha-galactosiase A gene in sporadic Parkinson's disease. (21643977)
2011
19
Cardiac 123I-MIBG uptake is reduced more markedly in patients with REM sleep behavior disorder than in those with early stage Parkinson's disease. (20097595)
2010
20
Combined striatal binding and cerebral influx analysis of dynamic 11C-raclopride PET improves early differentiation between multiple-system atrophy and Parkinson disease. (20237023)
2010
21
Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta is associated with Parkinson's disease. (19007860)
2009
22
Lrrk2 R1441G-related Parkinson's disease: evidence of a common founding event in the seventh century in Northern Spain. (19308469)
2009
23
Speech and swallowing disorders in Parkinson disease. (18475072)
2008
24
The proNGF-p75NTR-sortilin signalling complex as new target for the therapeutic treatment of Parkinson's disease. (19128208)
2008
25
Expression of Cbl-interacting protein of 85 kDa in MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium ion-treated dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells. (18535749)
2008
26
Hypocretin (orexin) loss and sleep disturbances in Parkinson's Disease. (17898003)
2008
27
Improved accuracy of brain MRI/SPECT registration using a two-cluster SPECT normalization algorithm and a combinative similarity measure: application to the evaluation of Parkinson's disease. (17581718)
2007
28
Is neuromelanin changed in Parkinson's disease? Investigations by magnetic spectroscopies. (16755381)
2006
29
Shedding light into the role of BDNF in the pharmacotherapy of Parkinson's disease. (16402079)
2006
30
Transient striatal delivery of GDNF via encapsulated cells leads to sustained behavioral improvement in a bilateral model of Parkinson disease. (16300956)
2006
31
TAU haplotype and the Saitohin Q7R gene polymorphism do not influence CSF Tau in Alzheimer's disease and are not associated with frontotemporal dementia or Parkinson's disease. (16909000)
2005
32
Association between the neuron-specific RNA-binding protein ELAVL4 and Parkinson disease. (15827745)
2005
33
Cardiac involvement in malignant syndrome in Parkinson's disease. (16145285)
2005
34
The alpha-synuclein gene microsatellite polymorphism and late-onset sporadic Parkinson's disease susceptibility]. (15300629)
2004
35
Alpha-synuclein, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. (15109581)
2004
36
Efficient induction of dopaminergic neurons from embryonic stem cells for application to Parkinson's disease. (15250046)
2004
37
An Ile93Met substitution in the UCH-L1 gene is not a disease-causing mutation for idiopathic Parkinson's disease. (12775255)
2003
38
Aggregation of alpha-synuclein in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. (14579119)
2003
39
Downregulation of striatal dopamine D2 receptors in advanced Parkinson's disease contributes to the development of motor fluctuation. (11844900)
2002
40
Comparison of striatal dopamine D2 receptors in Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy patients using [123I] iodobenzofuran single-photon emission computed tomography. (12380478)
2002
41
Association study for Parkinson's disease and a dopamine transporter gene polymorphism (1215A/G). (12422069)
2002
42
Imaging of dopamine transporters with [123I]FP-CIT SPECT does not suggest a significant effect of age on the symptomatic threshold of disease in Parkinson's disease. (11180497)
2001
43
The ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase-L1 gene S18Y polymorphism does not confer protection against idiopathic Parkinson's disease. (11027850)
2000
44
Cellular co-localization of phosphorylated tau- and NACP/alpha-synuclein-epitopes in lewy bodies in sporadic Parkinson's disease and in dementia with Lewy bodies. (10528110)
1999
45
Specific A10 dopaminergic nuclei in the midbrain degenerate in Parkinson's disease. (9126172)
1997
46
Oxidative stress and antioxidant therapy in Parkinson's disease. (8830346)
1996
47
Dopamine agonists used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and their selectivity for the D1, D2, and D3 dopamine receptors in human striatum. (8787038)
1995
48
Cholinergic transmitter and neurotrophic activities in Lewy body dementia: similarity to Parkinson's and distinction from Alzheimer disease. (8347330)
1993
49
Serum antioxidant enzyme activity in Parkinson's disease. (1584206)
1992
50
Anatomic and disease specificity of NADH CoQ1 reductase (complex I) deficiency in Parkinson's disease. (2121905)
1990

Genetic Variations for Parkinson's Disease

Expression for genes affiliated with Parkinson's Disease

Sources:
1BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
See all sources
Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Parkinson's Disease

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Parkinson's Disease.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Parkinson's Disease

Sources:
54Reactome, 30KEGG, 38NCBI BioSystems Database, 4Cell Signaling Technology, 52QIAGEN, 12EMD Millipore
See all sources

Compounds for genes affiliated with Parkinson's Disease

Sources:
45Novoseek, 29IUPHAR, 11DrugBank, 24HMDB, 60Tocris Bioscience, 50PharmGKB
See all sources

Compounds related to Parkinson's Disease according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 35)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1dopamine45 29 11 2416.0PARK2, COMT, UCHL1, PINK1, SNCAIP, SNCA
2cysteine4512.4COMT, UCHL1, SNCA, TBP, MAPT, SLC6A3
3serine4512.3UCHL1, PINK1, SNCA, NR4A2, TBP, MAPT
4levodopa45 1113.2COMT, PINK1, SNCA, LRRK2, SLC6A3, PARK7
56-hydroxydopamine4512.0COMT, SNCA, NR4A2, SLC6A3, PARK7, PARK2
6h2o24512.0SNCB, SNCA, MAPT, SLC6A3, PARK7, PARK2
7alanine4511.9SNCAIP, SNCA, TBP, MAPT, SLC6A3, PARK2
8choline45 11 2413.8COMT, SNCA, MAPT, SLC6A3, ADH1C
9methionine4511.8PARK7, MAPT, SNCA, PINK1, COMT
10lysine4511.7PARK2, PARK7, TBP, SNCA, UCHL1
11testosterone45 60 11 2414.7COMT, SNCA, MAPT, PARK7, PARK2
12rotenone4511.6PARK2, PARK7, SLC6A3, SNCA
13mptp4511.6COMT, SNCA, SLC6A3, PARK2
14valine4511.6SLC6A3, MAPT, SNCA, COMT
15nmda45 2912.5COMT, MAPT, SLC6A3, PARK2
16tmao4511.5SNCA, TBP, MAPT
17norepinephrine45 11 2413.4COMT, SNCA, NR4A2, SLC6A3
181 methyl 4 phenylpyridinium4511.4PARK2, SLC6A3, SNCA
19selegiline45 1112.4COMT, SNCA, SLC6A3
20apomorphine45 29 1113.4COMT, SNCA, SLC6A3
21methamphetamine45 50 1113.4COMT, SNCA, SLC6A3
221-benzyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline4511.2SNCA, SLC6A3
23lactacystin4511.2PARK2, MAPT, SNCA
24thioflavin4511.2MAPT, SNCA
25catecholamine4511.2COMT, SNCA, PARK2
266-(18f)fluoro-l-dopa4511.2PARK2, COMT
27thioflavine s4511.2SNCA, MAPT
28carbidopa45 2912.1SLC6A3, COMT
29sodium dodecylsulfate4511.1SNCA, TBP, MAPT
30phosphocellulose4511.1MAPT, TBP
31dopac4511.0PARK2, COMT
32glycogen45 2411.9SNCAIP, SNCA, MAPT, PARK2
33methylphenidate45 50 1112.9SLC6A3, COMT
34maoa4510.9SLC6A3, COMT
355,6-dichloro-1-beta-d-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole4510.8SNCAIP, SNCA

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Parkinson's Disease

Sources:
16Gene Ontology
See all sources

Cellular components related to Parkinson's Disease according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1mitochondrionGO:00573912.0PARK2, COMT, PINK1, SNCB, SNCA, LRRK2
2neuronal cell bodyGO:04302511.3UCHL1, SNCB, SNCAIP, LRRK2, SLC6A3
3growth coneGO:03042611.1MAPT, SNCA, SNCB
4axonGO:03042410.9SLC6A3, MAPT, SNCA, UCHL1

Biological processes related to Parkinson's Disease according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 14)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1cell deathGO:00821912.5PARK2, UCHL1, VPS35, PINK1, SNCAIP, TBP
2negative regulation of neuron apoptotic processGO:04352411.9PINK1, SNCB, SNCA, NR4A2, PARK7, PARK2
3adult locomotory behaviorGO:00834411.5PARK7, GIGYF2, NR4A2, SNCA
4dopamine biosynthetic processGO:04241611.3SNCA, NR4A2, SLC6A3
5negative regulation of dopamine metabolic processGO:04596311.1SNCA, COMT
6dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmissionGO:05158311.1PARK7, SNCA
7dopamine catabolic processGO:04242011.0SLC6A3, COMT
8regulation of locomotionGO:04001211.0SNCA, LRRK2
9mitochondrion degradationGO:00042211.0PINK1, PARK2
10neuron deathGO:07099710.9PARK2, LRRK2
11regulation of dopamine metabolic processGO:04205310.9SLC6A3, NR4A2
12regulation of autophagyGO:01050610.9PARK2, MAPT
13dopamine metabolic processGO:04241710.8SNCB, SNCAIP
14neurotransmitter biosynthetic processGO:04213610.6SLC6A3, COMT

Molecular functions related to Parkinson's Disease according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1protein bindingGO:00551513.0PARK2, VPS35, PINK1, SNCAIP, SNCA, ATP13A2

Products for genes affiliated with Parkinson's Disease

  • Antibodies
  • Proteins
  • Lysates
  • Antibodies

Sources for Parkinson's Disease

3CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
29IUPHAR
30KEGG
35MeSH
36MESH via Orphanet
37MGI
40NCIt
41NDF-RT
44NINDS
45Novoseek
47OMIM
48OMIM via Orphanet
51PubMed
52QIAGEN
58SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
61UMLS
62UMLS via Orphanet