PD
MCID: PRK002
MIFTS: 92

Parkinson's Disease (PD) malady

Neuronal diseases category

Summaries for Parkinson's Disease

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Sources:
8Disease Ontology, 42NIH Rare Diseases, 33MedlinePlus, 43NINDS, 21Genetics Home Reference, 63Wikipedia, 46OMIM, 19GeneReviews, 32MalaCards
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MedlinePlus:33 Parkinson's disease (pd) is a type of movement disorder. it happens when nerve cells in the brain don't produce enough of a brain chemical called dopamine. sometimes it is genetic, but most cases do not seem to run in families. exposure to chemicals in the environment might play a role. symptoms begin gradually, often on one side of the body. later they affect both sides. they include trembling of hands, arms, legs, jaw and face stiffness of the arms, legs and trunk slowness of movement poor balance and coordination as symptoms get worse, people with the disease may have trouble walking, talking, or doing simple tasks. they may also have problems such as depression, sleep problems, or trouble chewing, swallowing, or speaking. there is no lab test for pd, so it can be difficult to diagnose. doctors use a medical history and a neurological examination to diagnose it. pd usually begins around age 60, but it can start earlier. it is more common in men than in women. there is no cure for pd. a variety of medicines sometimes help symptoms dramatically. surgery and deep brain stimulation (dbs) can help severe cases. with dbs, electrodes are surgically implanted in the brain. they send electrical pulses to stimulate the parts of the brain that control movement. nih: national institute of neurological disorders and stroke

MalaCards: Parkinson's Disease, also known as parkinson disease, is related to pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration and dementia. An important gene associated with Parkinson's Disease is MAPT (microtubule-associated protein tau), and among its related pathways are Respiratory electron transport, ATP synthesis by chemiosmotic coupling, and heat production by uncoupling proteins. and Neuroscience. The drugs amantadine and trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride and the compounds dopamine and cysteine have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, testes and subthalamic nucleus, and related mouse phenotypes are nervous system and behavior/neurological.

Disease Ontology:8 A neurodegenerative disease that has material basis in degeneration of the central nervous system that often impairs the sufferer's motor skills, speech, and other functions.

NIH Rare Diseases:42 Parkinson disease belongs to a group of conditions called movement disorders. the four main symptoms are tremor, or trembling in hands, arms, legs, jaw, or head; rigidity, or stiffness of the limbs and trunk; bradykinesia, or slowness of movement; and postural instability, or impaired balance. these symptoms usually begin gradually and worsen with time.  as they become more pronounced, patients may have difficulty walking, talking, or completing other simple tasks.  not everyone with one or more of these symptoms has parkinson disease, as the symptoms sometimes appear in other diseases as well. parkinson disease affects about 1 to 2 percent of people over the age of 60 years and the chance of developing parkinson disease increases as we age. although some parkinson disease cases appear to be hereditary, and a few can be traced to specific genetic mutations, most cases are sporadic and occur in people with no apparent history of the disorder in their family.  many researchers now believe that parkinson disease results from a combination of genetic susceptibility and exposure to one or more environmental factors that trigger the disease.  last updated: 10/3/2011

NINDS:43 Parkinson's disease (PD) belongs to a group of conditions called motor system disorders, which are the result of the loss of dopamine-producing brain cells. The four primary symptoms of PD are tremor, or trembling in hands, arms, legs, jaw, and face; rigidity, or stiffness of the limbs and trunk; bradykinesia, or slowness of movement; and postural instability, or impaired balance and coordination. As these symptoms become more pronounced, patients may have difficulty walking, talking, or completing other simple tasks. PD usually affects people over the age of 50.

Genetics Home Reference:21 Parkinson disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system. The disorder affects several regions of the brain, especially an area called the substantia nigra that controls balance and movement.

Wikipedia:63 Parkinson\'s disease (PD also known as idiopathic or primary parkinsonism, hypokinetic rigid... more...

Description from OMIM:46 168601, 606324, 556500, 600116, 168600 607688, 607060, 612953, 610297, 605543, 605909, 260300, 613643 more

GeneReviews summary for parkinson-overview

Aliases & Classifications for Parkinson's Disease

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Sources:
8Disease Ontology, 19GeneReviews, 42NIH Rare Diseases, 20GeneTests, 22GTR, 21Genetics Home Reference, 43NINDS, 46OMIM, 10DISEASES, 44Novoseek, 33MedlinePlus, 30LifeMap Discovery™, 60UMLS, 27ICD9CM, 56SNOMED-CT, 39NCIt, 34MeSH, 25ICD10
See all sources

Classifications:

Malacards categories (disease lists): (See all malacards categories)
Anatomical: Neuronal diseases


Aliases & Descriptions:

parkinson's disease 8 42 21 43 33 30
parkinson disease 19 42 20 22 21 46 44 60
primary parkinsonism 42 21
paralysis agitans 8 42
parkinson disease, late-onset 60
hallervorden-spatz syndrome 60
parkinson's disease nos 8
parkinsons disease 10
shaking palsy 42
pd 21


Related Diseases for Parkinson's Disease

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Sources:
17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
See all sources

Diseases in the Parkinson's Disease family:

Lrrk2-Related Parkinson Disease Parkinson Disease Type 3
Parkinson Disease Type 9 Park7-Related Parkinson Disease
Snca-Related Parkinson Disease Htra2-Related Parkinson Disease
Vps35-Related Parkinson Disease Fbxo7-Related Parkinson Disease
Parkinson Disease 6, Early Onset Parkinson Disease 19, Juvenile-Onset
Parkinson Disease 10 Parkinson Disease, Late-Onset
Parkinson Disease 16 Parkinson Disease 13
Parkinson Disease 11 Parkinson Disease 18
Parkinson Disease 5 Parkinson Disease 4
Parkinson Disease 1 Parkinson Disease, Juvenile, Type 2
Parkinson Disease 8 Parkinson Disease 17
Parkinson Disease 20, Early-Onset Parkinson Disease 14
Parkinson Disease 12

Diseases related to Parkinson's Disease via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards/GeneDecks gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 202)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration31.2ATP13A2
2dementia30.9COMT, SNCB, PARK2, PARK7, SLC6A3, LRRK2
3multiple system atrophy30.7PARK2, SLC6A3, LRRK2, MAPT, SNCA, SNCB
4lewy body dementia30.6SNCB, SNCA
5essential tremor30.6PARK2, SLC6A3, LRRK2, SNCA
6progressive supranuclear palsy30.6SLC6A3, MAPT
7rem sleep behavior disorder30.5SLC6A3, SNCA
8parkinson disease 130.5SNCA
9parkinson disease type 330.5PARK2, PARK7, LRRK2, MAPT, SNCA, SNCAIP
10lrrk2-related parkinson disease30.4LRRK2
11niemann-pick disease30.4MAPT, SNCA
12amyotrophic lateral sclerosis30.3SLC6A3, MAPT, SNCA
13lateral sclerosis30.3SNCA, MAPT
14frontotemporal dementia30.1SNCA, MAPT, LRRK2, PARK2
15movement disease30.0SNCA, LRRK2
16breast cancer30.0ADH1C, COMT, SNCA, MAPT, PARK7, PARK2
17tauopathy29.8SNCA, MAPT, LRRK2, PARK7, PARK2
18schizophrenia29.8COMT, SNCA, NR4A2, TBP, SLC6A3
19prion disease29.8SNCA, MAPT, SLC6A3, PARK2
20alzheimer's disease29.8COMT, UCHL1, PINK1, SNCB, SNCAIP, SNCA
21spinocerebellar ataxia type 329.8SNCA, TBP, SLC6A3
22spinocerebellar ataxia29.8MAPT, TBP, SNCA
23ischemia29.8SNCA, MAPT, SLC6A3
24striatonigral degeneration29.8SNCA, SLC6A3
25multiple sclerosis29.8COMT
26motor neuron disease29.8MAPT, SNCA
27hydrocephalus29.8MAPT
28hepatocellular carcinoma29.7PARK2
29image syndrome10.6
30adult syndrome10.6
31brain disease10.5
32pendred syndrome10.5
33pathological gambling10.5
34optic atrophy10.4
35autosomal recessive juvenile parkinson disease10.4
36parkinson disease, late-onset10.4
37neuronitis10.4
38sleep disorder10.4
39peritonitis10.3
40paralysis agitans, juvenile, of hunt10.3
41pancreas disease10.3
42parkinson disease type 910.3
43paroxysmal dyskinesia10.3
44superior mesenteric artery syndrome10.3
45eye disease10.3
46neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation disorders10.3
47enlarged vestibular aqueduct10.2
48cerebritis10.2
49apraxia10.2
50pink1 type of young-onset parkinson disease10.2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Parkinson's Disease:



Diseases related to parkinson's disease

Clinical Features for Parkinson's Disease

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Sources:
46OMIM
See all sources

Clinical features from OMIM:

168601, 606324, 556500, 600116, 168600, 607688, 607060, 612953, 610297, 605543 605909, 260300, 613643 more

Drugs & Therapeutics for Parkinson's Disease

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Sources:
5CenterWatch, 41NIH Clinical Center, 6ClinicalTrials, 30LifeMap Discovery™, 60UMLS, 40NDF-RT
See all sources

Approved drugs:

Search CenterWatch for Parkinson's Disease

Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Parkinson's Disease

Search NIH Clinical Center for Parkinson's Disease

Search CenterWatch for Parkinson's Disease

Inferred drug relations via UMLS60/NDF-RT40:

Cell-based therapeutics:


LifeMap Discovery
The database of embryonic development, stem cell research and regenerative medicine
Read about Parkinson's Disease cell therapies at LifeMap Discovery.

Genetic Tests for Parkinson's Disease

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Sources:
20GeneTests, 22GTR
See all sources

Genetic tests related to Parkinson's Disease:

id Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Parkinson Disease20 VPS35
2 Parkinson Disease, Susceptibility to20 MT-TT
3 Parkinson Disease Multi-Gene Panels20
4 Parkinson's Disease22

Anatomical Context for Parkinson's Disease

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Sources:
30LifeMap Discovery™, 32MalaCards
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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Parkinson's Disease:

32
Brain, Testes, Subthalamic nucleus, Bone, Cortex, Eye, Globus pallidus, Heart, Liver, Colon, Olfactory bulb, Thalamus, Amygdala, Caudate nucleus, Endothelial, Medulla oblongata, Skeletal muscle, Whole blood, Cerebellum, Skin, Retina, Hypothalamus, Spinal cord, Prostate, Lung, Prefrontal cortex, T cells, Monocytes, Bone marrow

LifeMap Discovery
The database of embryonic development, stem cell research and regenerative medicine

Cells/anatomical compartments in embryo or adult related to Parkinson's Disease:
id TissueAnatomical CompartmentCell Relevance
1 BrainSubstantia Nigra pars CompactaAdult Dopaminergic Neurons Potential therapeutic candidate, affected by disease
2 AdiposeSubcutaneous White AdiposeMesenchymal Stem Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
3 AdiposeSubcutaneous White AdiposeStromal Cells Potential therapeutic candidate

Animal Models for Parkinson's Disease or affiliated genes

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Sources:
36MGI
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MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Parkinson's Disease:

36
idDescriptionMGI Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MP:000363113.7PARK2, COMT, UCHL1, VPS35, PINK1, SNCB
2MP:000538613.3ATP13A2, SNCA, PINK1, VPS35, UCHL1, COMT
3MP:000537812.9UCHL1, PINK1, SNCB, SNCA, NR4A2, TBP
4MP:000537612.8NR4A2, SNCA, SNCB, PINK1, COMT, TBP
5MP:001076812.7NR4A2, SNCA, SNCB, VPS35, UCHL1, TBP
6MP:000538412.4SNCA, NR4A2, MAPT, GIGYF2, GPR37, LRRK2
7MP:000301212.1PINK1, SNCB, SNCA, TBP, MAPT, GPR37
8MP:000539410.9PINK1, SNCA, MAPT, SLC6A3

Publications for Parkinson's Disease

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Sources:
50PubMed
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Articles related to Parkinson's Disease:

(show top 50)    (show all 3995)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Sexual dimorphism in xenobiotic genetic variants-mediated risk for Parkinson's disease. (24389856)
2014
2
Power spectral density analysis of physiological, rest and action tremor in Parkinson's disease patients treated with deep brain stimulation. (23834737)
2013
3
Association studies of MMP-9 in Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (24040066)
2013
4
Impulsive and Compulsive Behaviors in Parkinson's Disease. (24313567)
2013
5
Activation of microglia induces symptoms of Parkinson's disease in wild-type, but not in IL-1 knockout mice. (24289537)
2013
6
Head injury and Parkinson's disease: a population-based study. (23143933)
2012
7
Parkin in the regulation of fat uptake and mitochondrial biology: emerging links in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. (22488424)
2012
8
Mutation analysis of LRRK2, SCNA, UCHL1, HtrA2 and GIGYF2 genes in Chinese patients with autosomal dorminant Parkinson's disease. (22503729)
2012
9
LINGO1 variants in essential tremor and Parkinson's disease. (21470193)
2012
10
Contribution of glucocerebrosidase mutation in a large cohort of sporadic Parkinson's disease in Taiwan. (21338444)
2011
11
Kin-cohort analysis of LRRK2-G2019S penetrance in Parkinson's disease. (21714003)
2011
12
Alexithymia is associated with depression in de novo Parkinson's disease. (21546783)
2011
13
I+-Synuclein impairs macroautophagy: implications for Parkinson's disease. (20855506)
2010
14
Impaired mitochondrial dynamics and function in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. (19303005)
2009
15
Sleep dysfunction and role of dysautonomia in Parkinson's disease. (20083018)
2009
16
Drugs used to treat Parkinson's disease, present status and future directions. (18991661)
2008
17
Abnormal sleep and sleepiness in Parkinson's disease. (18607209)
2008
18
Poor dopaminergic response of impaired dexterity in Parkinson's disease: Bradykinesia or limb kinetic apraxia? (18649388)
2008
19
Habituation of the auditory startle response in cervical dystonia and Parkinson's disease. (18230875)
2008
20
S18Y in ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) associated with decreased risk of Parkinson's disease in Sweden. (17287139)
2007
21
LRRK2 screening in a Canadian Parkinson's disease cohort. (17803033)
2007
22
Association analysis of the parkin gene in patients with sporadic Parkinson's disease from a Han population of Sichuan province]. (17285542)
2007
23
Frequency of the LRRK2 G2019S mutation in Italian patients affected by Parkinson's disease. (17235449)
2007
24
Screening for Lrrk2 G2019S and clinical comparison of Tunisian and North American Caucasian Parkinson's disease families. (17115391)
2007
25
Rivastigmine for the treatment of dementia associated with Parkinson's disease. (19300613)
2007
26
Rotigotine for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. (17009915)
2006
27
Histamine H3 receptor agonists reduce L-dopa-induced chorea, but not dystonia, in the MPTP-lesioned nonhuman primate model of Parkinson's disease. (16532454)
2006
28
LRRK2 G2019S is a common mutation in Spanish patients with late-onset Parkinson's disease. (16298482)
2006
29
Exclusion of PINK1 as candidate gene for the late-onset form of Parkinson's disease in two European populations. (16354302)
2005
30
Statins, cholesterol, Co-enzyme Q10, and Parkinson's disease. (15734664)
2005
31
Transcriptional analysis of multiple brain regions in Parkinson's disease supports the involvement of specific protein processing, energy metabolism, and signaling pathways, and suggests novel disease mechanisms. (15965975)
2005
32
Genetic polymorphism of catechol-O-methyltransferase and levodopa pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic pattern in patients with Parkinson's disease. (15747357)
2005
33
Multigram-scale syntheses, stability, and photoreactions of A2A adenosine receptor antagonists with 8-styrylxanthine structure: potential drugs for Parkinson's disease. (15132536)
2004
34
alpha-Synuclein regulation of the dopaminergic transporter: a possible role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. (15135042)
2004
35
Increased striatal pre-proenkephalin B expression is associated with dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease. (14552886)
2003
36
Alpha synuclein promoter and risk of Parkinson's disease: microsatellite and allelic size variability. (12493604)
2003
37
Psychosis of Parkinson's disease: serotonin 2A receptor inverse agonists as potential therapeutics. (14619402)
2003
38
Arguments for the use of dopamine receptor agonists in clinical and preclinical Parkinson's disease. (12946055)
2003
39
A clinical-genetic study of Parkinson's disease in a genetically isolated community. (14504966)
2003
40
Motor learning processes in a movement-scaling task in olivopontocerebellar atrophy and Parkinson's disease. (12898095)
2003
41
CYP2D6 polymorphism in Parkinson's disease: the Rotterdam Study. (11295783)
2001
42
Nerve growth factor prevents 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced cell death via the Akt pathway by suppressing caspase-3-like activity using PC12 cells: relevance to therapeutical application for Parkinson's disease. (11223915)
2001
43
Pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. (11569943)
2001
44
The role of entacapone in the management of Parkinson's disease. (10858804)
2000
45
Mutation analysis and association studies of the UCHL1 gene in German Parkinson's disease patients. (10923647)
2000
46
Apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele and progression of cortical Lewy body pathology in Parkinson's disease. (9600590)
1998
47
Effects of nigrostriatal denervation and L-dopa therapy on the GABAergic neurons in the striatum in MPTP-treated monkeys and Parkinson's disease: an in situ hybridization study of GAD67 mRNA. (7582093)
1995
48
A correlation study of CSF neuropeptides in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. (1682848)
1991
49
Selegiline in Parkinson's disease. (2113756)
1990
50
Parkinson's disease: speech disorder and released infantile oroneuromotor activity. (5507121)
1970

Genetic Variations for Parkinson's Disease

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Sources:
62UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
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Genetic disease variations for Parkinson's Disease:

62
id Symbol AA change Variation ID SNP ID
1PARK2p.Cys253TyrVAR_019749
2PARK2p.Arg256CysVAR_019750rs150562946
3PARK2p.Arg275TrpVAR_019752rs34424986
4PARK2p.Asp280AsnVAR_019753

Expression for genes affiliated with Parkinson's Disease

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Sources:
1BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
See all sources
Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Parkinson's Disease

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Parkinson's Disease.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Parkinson's Disease

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Sources:
53Reactome, 29KEGG, 37NCBI BioSystems Database, 4Cell Signaling Technology, 51QIAGEN, 12EMD Millipore
See all sources

Compounds for genes affiliated with Parkinson's Disease

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Sources:
44Novoseek, 28IUPHAR, 11DrugBank, 24HMDB, 59Tocris Bioscience, 49PharmGKB
See all sources

Compounds related to Parkinson's Disease according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 35)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1dopamine44 28 11 2416.0PARK2, COMT, UCHL1, PINK1, SNCAIP, SNCA
2cysteine4412.4COMT, UCHL1, SNCA, TBP, MAPT, SLC6A3
3serine4412.3UCHL1, PINK1, SNCA, NR4A2, TBP, MAPT
4levodopa44 1113.2COMT, PINK1, SNCA, LRRK2, SLC6A3, PARK7
56-hydroxydopamine4412.0COMT, SNCA, NR4A2, SLC6A3, PARK7, PARK2
6h2o24412.0SNCB, SNCA, MAPT, SLC6A3, PARK7, PARK2
7alanine4411.9SNCAIP, SNCA, TBP, MAPT, SLC6A3, PARK2
8choline44 11 2413.8COMT, SNCA, MAPT, SLC6A3, ADH1C
9methionine4411.8PARK7, MAPT, SNCA, PINK1, COMT
10lysine4411.7PARK2, PARK7, TBP, SNCA, UCHL1
11testosterone44 59 11 2414.7COMT, SNCA, MAPT, PARK7, PARK2
12rotenone4411.6PARK2, PARK7, SLC6A3, SNCA
13mptp4411.6COMT, SNCA, SLC6A3, PARK2
14valine4411.6SLC6A3, MAPT, SNCA, COMT
15nmda44 2812.5COMT, MAPT, SLC6A3, PARK2
16tmao4411.5SNCA, TBP, MAPT
17norepinephrine44 11 2413.4COMT, SNCA, NR4A2, SLC6A3
181 methyl 4 phenylpyridinium4411.4PARK2, SLC6A3, SNCA
19selegiline44 1112.4COMT, SNCA, SLC6A3
20apomorphine44 28 1113.4COMT, SNCA, SLC6A3
21methamphetamine44 49 1113.4COMT, SNCA, SLC6A3
221-benzyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline4411.2SNCA, SLC6A3
23lactacystin4411.2PARK2, MAPT, SNCA
24thioflavin4411.2MAPT, SNCA
25catecholamine4411.2COMT, SNCA, PARK2
266-(18f)fluoro-l-dopa4411.2PARK2, COMT
27thioflavine s4411.2SNCA, MAPT
28carbidopa44 2812.1SLC6A3, COMT
29sodium dodecylsulfate4411.1SNCA, TBP, MAPT
30phosphocellulose4411.1MAPT, TBP
31dopac4411.0PARK2, COMT
32glycogen44 2411.9SNCAIP, SNCA, MAPT, PARK2
33methylphenidate44 49 1112.9SLC6A3, COMT
34maoa4410.9SLC6A3, COMT
355,6-dichloro-1-beta-d-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole4410.8SNCAIP, SNCA

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Parkinson's Disease

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Sources:
16Gene Ontology
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Cellular components related to Parkinson's Disease according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1mitochondrionGO:00573912.0PARK2, COMT, PINK1, SNCB, SNCA, LRRK2
2neuronal cell bodyGO:04302511.3UCHL1, SNCB, SNCAIP, LRRK2, SLC6A3
3growth coneGO:03042611.1MAPT, SNCA, SNCB
4axonGO:03042410.9SLC6A3, MAPT, SNCA, UCHL1

Biological processes related to Parkinson's Disease according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 14)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1cell deathGO:00821912.5PARK2, UCHL1, VPS35, PINK1, SNCAIP, TBP
2negative regulation of neuron apoptotic processGO:04352411.9PINK1, SNCB, SNCA, NR4A2, PARK7, PARK2
3adult locomotory behaviorGO:00834411.5PARK7, GIGYF2, NR4A2, SNCA
4dopamine biosynthetic processGO:04241611.3SNCA, NR4A2, SLC6A3
5negative regulation of dopamine metabolic processGO:04596311.1SNCA, COMT
6dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmissionGO:05158311.1PARK7, SNCA
7dopamine catabolic processGO:04242011.0SLC6A3, COMT
8regulation of locomotionGO:04001211.0SNCA, LRRK2
9mitochondrion degradationGO:00042211.0PINK1, PARK2
10neuron deathGO:07099710.9PARK2, LRRK2
11regulation of dopamine metabolic processGO:04205310.9SLC6A3, NR4A2
12regulation of autophagyGO:01050610.9PARK2, MAPT
13dopamine metabolic processGO:04241710.8SNCB, SNCAIP
14neurotransmitter biosynthetic processGO:04213610.6SLC6A3, COMT

Molecular functions related to Parkinson's Disease according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1protein bindingGO:00551513.0PARK2, VPS35, PINK1, SNCAIP, SNCA, ATP13A2

Products for genes affiliated with Parkinson's Disease

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  • Antibodies
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Sources for Parkinson's Disease

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3CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
28IUPHAR
29KEGG
34MeSH
35MESH via Orphanet
36MGI
39NCIt
40NDF-RT
43NINDS
44Novoseek
46OMIM
47OMIM via Orphanet
50PubMed
51QIAGEN
57SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
60UMLS
61UMLS via Orphanet