PD
MCID: PRK002
MIFTS: 92

Parkinson's Disease (PD) malady

Genetic diseases, Rare diseases, Neuronal diseases, Eye diseases, Mental diseases categories
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Summaries for Parkinson's Disease

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Sources:
8Disease Ontology, 43NIH Rare Diseases, 34MedlinePlus, 44NINDS, 21Genetics Home Reference, 65Wikipedia, 47OMIM, 19GeneReviews, 33MalaCards
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MedlinePlus:34 Parkinson's disease (pd) is a type of movement disorder. it happens when nerve cells in the brain don't produce enough of a brain chemical called dopamine. sometimes it is genetic, but most cases do not seem to run in families. exposure to chemicals in the environment might play a role. symptoms begin gradually, often on one side of the body. later they affect both sides. they include trembling of hands, arms, legs, jaw and face stiffness of the arms, legs and trunk slowness of movement poor balance and coordination as symptoms get worse, people with the disease may have trouble walking, talking, or doing simple tasks. they may also have problems such as depression, sleep problems, or trouble chewing, swallowing, or speaking. there is no lab test for pd, so it can be difficult to diagnose. doctors use a medical history and a neurological examination to diagnose it. pd usually begins around age 60, but it can start earlier. it is more common in men than in women. there is no cure for pd. a variety of medicines sometimes help symptoms dramatically. surgery and deep brain stimulation (dbs) can help severe cases. with dbs, electrodes are surgically implanted in the brain. they send electrical pulses to stimulate the parts of the brain that control movement. nih: national institute of neurological disorders and stroke

MalaCards: Parkinson's Disease, also known as parkinson disease, is related to dementia and multiple system atrophy. An important gene associated with Parkinson's Disease is MAPT (microtubule-associated protein tau), and among its related pathways are Parkin-Ubiquitin Proteasomal System pathway and Alpha-synuclein signaling. The drugs amantadine and trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride and the compounds tmao and thioflavin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include brain, testes and subthalamic nucleus, and related mouse phenotypes are no phenotypic analysis and normal.

Disease Ontology:8 A neurodegenerative disease that has material basis in degeneration of the central nervous system that often impairs the sufferer's motor skills, speech, and other functions.

NIH Rare Diseases:43 Parkinson disease belongs to a group of conditions called movement disorders. the four main symptoms are tremor, or trembling in hands, arms, legs, jaw, or head; rigidity, or stiffness of the limbs and trunk; bradykinesia, or slowness of movement; and postural instability, or impaired balance. these symptoms usually begin gradually and worsen with time.  as they become more pronounced, patients may have difficulty walking, talking, or completing other simple tasks.  not everyone with one or more of these symptoms has parkinson disease, as the symptoms sometimes appear in other diseases as well. parkinson disease affects about 1 to 2 percent of people over the age of 60 years and the chance of developing parkinson disease increases as we age. although some parkinson disease cases appear to be hereditary, and a few can be traced to specific genetic mutations, most cases are sporadic and occur in people with no apparent history of the disorder in their family.  many researchers now believe that parkinson disease results from a combination of genetic susceptibility and exposure to one or more environmental factors that trigger the disease.  last updated: 10/3/2011

NINDS:44 Parkinson's disease (PD) belongs to a group of conditions called motor system disorders, which are the result of the loss of dopamine-producing brain cells. The four primary symptoms of PD are tremor, or trembling in hands, arms, legs, jaw, and face; rigidity, or stiffness of the limbs and trunk; bradykinesia, or slowness of movement; and postural instability, or impaired balance and coordination. As these symptoms become more pronounced, patients may have difficulty walking, talking, or completing other simple tasks. PD usually affects people over the age of 50.

Genetics Home Reference:21 Parkinson disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system. The disorder affects several regions of the brain, especially an area called the substantia nigra that controls balance and movement.

Wikipedia:65 Parkinson\'s disease (PD also known as idiopathic or primary parkinsonism, hypokinetic rigid... more...

Description from OMIM:47 600116, 613643, 605543, 610297, 607060 605909, 606324, 612953, 556500, 260300, 168601, 607688, 168600 more

GeneReviews summary for parkinson-overview

Aliases & Classifications for Parkinson's Disease

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8Disease Ontology, 19GeneReviews, 43NIH Rare Diseases, 20GeneTests, 22GTR, 21Genetics Home Reference, 44NINDS, 47OMIM, 10DISEASES, 45Novoseek, 34MedlinePlus, 31LifeMap Discovery™, 62UMLS, 27ICD9CM, 40NCIt, 35MeSH, 58SNOMED-CT, 25ICD10
See all sources

Classifications:



Aliases & Descriptions:

parkinson's disease 8 43 21 44 34 31
parkinson disease 8 19 43 20 22 21 47 45 62
primary parkinsonism 43 21
paralysis agitans 8 43
parkinson disease, late-onset 62
hallervorden-spatz syndrome 62
parkinsons disease 10
shaking palsy 43
pd 21


Related Diseases for Parkinson's Disease

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17GeneCards, 18GeneDecks
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Diseases in the Parkinson's Disease family:

Lrrk2-Related Parkinson Disease Parkinson Disease Type 3
Parkinson Disease Type 9 Park7-Related Parkinson Disease
Snca-Related Parkinson Disease Htra2-Related Parkinson Disease
Vps35-Related Parkinson Disease Fbxo7-Related Parkinson Disease
Parkinson Disease 6, Early Onset Parkinson Disease 19, Juvenile-Onset
Parkinson Disease 10 Parkinson Disease, Late-Onset
Parkinson Disease 16 Parkinson Disease 13
Parkinson Disease 11 Parkinson Disease 18
Parkinson Disease 5 Parkinson Disease 4
Parkinson Disease 1 Parkinson Disease, Juvenile, Type 2
Parkinson Disease 8 Parkinson Disease 17
Parkinson Disease 20, Early-Onset Parkinson Disease 14
Parkinson Disease 12

Diseases related to Parkinson's Disease via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards/GeneDecks gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 195)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1dementia31.0SLC6A3, LRRK2, PARK2, PARK7, SNCA, SNCB
2multiple system atrophy30.9LRRK2, SNCA, SLC6A3, MAPT, SNCB, PARK2
3essential tremor30.7SLC6A3, SNCA, LRRK2, PARK2
4progressive supranuclear palsy30.7MAPT, SLC6A3
5rem sleep behavior disorder30.7SLC6A3, SNCA
6parkinson disease 130.7SNCA
7parkinson disease type 330.6LRRK2, PARK2, SNCA, MAPT, PARK7
8lrrk2-related parkinson disease30.6LRRK2
9lewy body dementia30.6SNCB, SNCA
10lateral sclerosis30.5SNCA, MAPT
11amyotrophic lateral sclerosis30.5SNCA, MAPT, SLC6A3
12frontotemporal dementia30.3MAPT, LRRK2, PARK2, SNCA
13breast cancer30.2SNCA, ADH1C, PARK7, COMT, PARK2, MAPT
14alzheimer's disease30.0NR4A2, PINK1, PARK2, PARK7, SNCA, SNCB
15striatonigral degeneration30.0SNCA, SLC6A3
16spinocerebellar ataxia type 330.0SLC6A3, SNCA, TBP
17tauopathy30.0SNCA, LRRK2, PARK2, PARK7, MAPT
18spinocerebellar ataxia30.0MAPT, TBP, SNCA
19schizophrenia29.9COMT, NR4A2, TBP, SLC6A3, SNCA
20pendred syndrome10.5
21pathological gambling10.4
22autosomal recessive juvenile parkinson disease10.4
23peritonitis10.4
24tremor10.4
25parkinson disease, late-onset10.4
26paralysis agitans, juvenile, of hunt10.4
27pancreas disease10.4
28neuronitis10.3
29paroxysmal dyskinesia10.3
30enlarged vestibular aqueduct10.3
31parkinson disease type 910.3
32pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy10.2
33progressive muscular atrophy10.2
34muscular atrophy10.2
35cerebritis10.2
36apraxia10.2
37pink1 type of young-onset parkinson disease10.2
38thyroiditis10.2
39postencephalitic parkinson disease10.1
40parkin type of early-onset parkinson disease10.1
41parkinson disease 19, juvenile-onset10.1
42parkinson disease 1010.1
43parkinson disease 1810.1
44parkinson disease 1710.1
45parkinson disease 20, early-onset10.1
46parkinson disease 15, autosomal recessive10.1
47focal dystonia10.1PARK2
48oppositional defiant disorder10.1SLC6A3
49movement disease10.1SNCA, LRRK2
50prion disease10.1PARK2, SNCA, MAPT, SLC6A3

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Parkinson's Disease:



Diseases related to parkinson's disease

Symptoms for Parkinson's Disease

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47OMIM
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Clinical features from OMIM:

600116, 613643, 605543, 610297, 607060, 605909, 606324, 612953, 556500, 260300 168601, 607688, 168600 more

Drugs & Therapeutics for Parkinson's Disease

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Sources:
42NIH Clinical Center, 6ClinicalTrials, 31LifeMap Discovery™, 62UMLS, 41NDF-RT
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Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Parkinson's Disease

Search NIH Clinical Center for Parkinson's Disease

Inferred drug relations via UMLS62/NDF-RT41:

Cell-based therapeutics:


LifeMap Discovery
The database of embryonic development, stem cell research and regenerative medicine
Read about Parkinson's Disease cell therapies at LifeMap Discovery.

Genetic Tests for Parkinson's Disease

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20GeneTests, 22GTR
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Genetic tests related to Parkinson's Disease:

id Genetic test Affiliating Genes
1 Parkinson Disease20 VPS35
2 Parkinson Disease, Susceptibility to20 MT-TT
3 Parkinson Disease Multi-Gene Panels20
4 Parkinson's Disease22

Anatomical Context for Parkinson's Disease

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31LifeMap Discovery™, 33MalaCards
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MalaCards organs/tissues related to Parkinson's Disease:

33
Brain, Testes, Subthalamic nucleus, Bone, Cortex, Eye, Globus pallidus, Heart, Liver, Colon, Olfactory bulb, Thalamus, Amygdala, Caudate nucleus, Endothelial, Medulla oblongata, Skeletal muscle, Whole blood, Cerebellum, Skin, Retina, Hypothalamus, Spinal cord, Prostate, Lung, Prefrontal cortex, T cells, Monocytes, Bone marrow

LifeMap Discovery
The database of embryonic development, stem cell research and regenerative medicine

Cells/anatomical compartments in embryo or adult related to Parkinson's Disease:
id TissueAnatomical CompartmentCell Relevance
1 BrainSubstantia Nigra pars CompactaAdult Dopaminergic Neurons Potential therapeutic candidate, affected by disease
2 AdiposeSubcutaneous White AdiposeMesenchymal Stem Cells Potential therapeutic candidate
3 AdiposeSubcutaneous White AdiposeStromal Cells Potential therapeutic candidate

Animal Models for Parkinson's Disease or affiliated genes

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37MGI
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MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Parkinson's Disease:

37
idDescriptionMGI Source AccessionScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1MP:000301210.3MAPT, PINK1, LRRK2, PARK2, SNCA, SNCB
2MP:000287310.3SNCB, GPR37, SLC6A3, LRRK2, VPS35, MAPT
3MP:000539410.2SNCA, MAPT, SLC6A3, PINK1
4MP:000537810.2PINK1, GPR37, PARK2, PARK7, NR4A2, SLC6A3
5MP:000537610.2COMT, PINK1, LRRK2, GPR37, SLC6A3, TBP
6MP:000538610.2COMT, PARK7, GIGYF2, SNCA, MAPT, PARK2
7MP:001076810.2SLC6A3, VPS35, GIGYF2, ADH1C, SNCA, SNCB
8MP:000538410.1SLC6A3, NR4A2, MAPT, PINK1, LRRK2, GPR37
9MP:000363110.1COMT, FGF20, SLC6A3, NR4A2, UCHL1, PINK1
10MP:001077110.0SNCA, PARK2, MAPT, LRRK2, SLC6A3, UCHL1

Publications for Parkinson's Disease

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52PubMed
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Articles related to Parkinson's Disease:

(show top 50)    (show all 3929)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
The Relative Contribution of Physical and Cognitive Fall Risk Factors in People With Parkinson's Disease: A Large Prospective Cohort Study. (24243915)
2013
2
Referral to rehabilitation in Parkinson's disease: who, when and to what end? (24347018)
2013
3
MicroRNA-205 regulates the expression of Parkinson's disease-related leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 protein. (23125283)
2013
4
Monitoring mitochondrial dynamics and complex I dysfunction in neurons: implications for Parkinson's disease. (24256264)
2013
5
Differentiating symptomatic Parkin mutations carriers from patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease: contribution of automated segmentation neuroimaging method. (22445249)
2012
6
I+-Synuclein mRNA and soluble I+-synuclein protein levels in post-mortem brain from patients with Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and Alzheimer's disease. (22560502)
2012
7
Instability of syllable repetition in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia and Parkinson's disease. (22109901)
2012
8
Conditional expression of Parkinson's disease-related mutant I+-synuclein in the midbrain dopaminergic neurons causes progressive neurodegeneration and degradation of transcription factor nuclear receptor related 1. (22764233)
2012
9
Parkinson's disease involves autophagy and abnormal distribution of cathepsin L. (21134415)
2011
10
Catechol-O-methyltransferase val158met and cognitive function in Parkinson's disease. (20878993)
2010
11
Tremor in Parkinson's disease is not associated with the DRD3 Ser9Gly polymorphism. (20434388)
2010
12
A comparison of changes in proteasomal subunit expression in the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy. (20176003)
2010
13
Serotonin and dopamine transporter genes do not influence depression in Parkinson's disease. (18973248)
2009
14
Haplotype analysis of the engrailed-2 gene in young-onset Parkinson's disease. (19270442)
2009
15
Impact of newer pharmacological treatments on quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease. (18547126)
2008
16
Can overexpression of parkin provide a novel strategy for neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease? (18538324)
2008
17
Nitrated alpha-synuclein-activated microglial profiling for Parkinson's disease. (18036154)
2008
18
COMT inhibition with tolcapone in the treatment algorithm of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD): relevance for motor and non-motor features. (18728767)
2008
19
Superoxide dismutase overexpression protects dopaminergic neurons in a Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease. (18243716)
2008
20
Human neural progenitor cells over-expressing IGF-1 protect dopamine neurons and restore function in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. (18061591)
2008
21
Fibroblast growth factor 20 gene and Parkinson's disease in the Japanese population. (17515805)
2007
22
Genetic polymorphism of the angiotensin converting enzyme and L-dopa-induced adverse effects in Parkinson's disease. (17196621)
2007
23
Management of motor complications in advanced Parkinson's disease. (18175400)
2007
24
No association between Parkinson's disease and three polymorphisms in the eNOS, nNOS, and iNOS genes. (17174475)
2007
25
Merging mouse transcriptome analyses with Parkinson's disease linkage studies. (17522092)
2007
26
Parkin protects against neurotoxicity in the 6-hydroxydopamine rat model for Parkinson's disease. (16914382)
2006
27
Analysis of the polymorphic prion protein gene codon 129 in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. (15997418)
2006
28
N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) gene polymorphisms in Parkinson's disease. (16571112)
2006
29
Imaging in Parkinson's disease: the role of monoamines in behavior. (16581032)
2006
30
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2: a new player with a familiar theme for Parkinson's disease pathogenesis. (16275903)
2005
31
A comparison of degeneration in motor thalamus and cortex between progressive supranuclear palsy and Parkinson's disease. (16014651)
2005
32
Mitochondrial localization of the Parkinson's disease related protein DJ-1: implications for pathogenesis. (15944198)
2005
33
G2019S dardarin substitution is a common cause of Parkinson's disease in a Portuguese cohort. (16149095)
2005
34
A study on the relationship between polymorphism of human NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase and Parkinson's disease in Chinese]. (15079792)
2004
35
Chemokines (RANTES and MCP-1) and chemokine-receptors (CCR2 and CCR5) gene polymorphisms in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. (15488313)
2004
36
Progressive supranuclear palsy and Parkinson's disease in a family with a new mutation in the tau gene. (14991829)
2004
37
NURR1 promoter polymorphisms: Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and personality traits. (12815740)
2003
38
Striatal dopaminergic denervation in early and late onset Parkinson's disease assessed by PET and the tracer [11C]FECIT: preliminary findings in one patient with autosomal recessive parkinsonism (Park2). (12548339)
2002
39
Impaired dopamine storage resulting from alpha-synuclein mutations may contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. (12351575)
2002
40
Downregulation of striatal dopamine D2 receptors in advanced Parkinson's disease contributes to the development of motor fluctuation. (11844900)
2002
41
The UCH-L1 gene encodes two opposing enzymatic activities that affect alpha-synuclein degradation and Parkinson's disease susceptibility. (12408865)
2002
42
Subthalamic GAD gene therapy in a Parkinson's disease rat model. (12376704)
2002
43
Plasticity of afferent fibers to striatal neurons bearing D1 dopamine receptors in Parkinson's disease. (11391736)
2001
44
Mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. (9749580)
1998
45
Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. (9633680)
1998
46
A chronic MPTP model reproducing the slow evolution of Parkinson's disease: evolution of motor symptoms in the monkey. (9359593)
1997
47
Differential changes in neurochemical markers of striatal dopamine nerve terminals in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. (8797470)
1996
48
Platelet MAO activities and MAO-B protein concentrations in Parkinson's disease and controls. (8584677)
1995
49
An integrated approach to patient management in Parkinson's disease. (1350053)
1992
50
Serum levels of zinc and copper in patients with Parkinson's disease. (1469436)
1992

Variations for Parkinson's Disease

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64UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, 1 National Center for Biotechnology Information (Clinvar), 7dbSNP
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UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot genetic disease variations for Parkinson's Disease:

64
id Symbol AA change Variation ID SNP ID
1PARK2p.Cys253TyrVAR_019749
2PARK2p.Arg256CysVAR_019750rs150562946
3PARK2p.Arg275TrpVAR_019752rs34424986
4PARK2p.Asp280AsnVAR_019753

Clinvar genetic disease variations for Parkinson's Disease:

1
id Gene Name Type Significance SNP ID Assembly Location
1MC1RNM_002386.3(MC1R): c.451C> T (p.Arg151Cys)single nucleotide variantPathogenic, risk factorrs1805007GRCh37Chr 16, 89986117: 89986117
2GLUD2NM_012084.3(GLUD2): c.1492T> G (p.Ser498Ala)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs9697983GRCh37Chr X, 120183030: 120183030
3GBANM_001005741.2(GBA): c.1448T> C (p.Leu483Pro)single nucleotide variantPathogenic, risk factorrs421016GRCh37Chr 1, 155205043: 155205043
4GBANM_001005741.2(GBA): c.1226A> G (p.Asn409Ser)single nucleotide variantPathogenic, risk factorrs76763715GRCh37Chr 1, 155205634: 155205634
5GBANM_001005741.2(GBA): c.1504C> T (p.Arg502Cys)single nucleotide variantPathogenic, risk factorrs80356771GRCh37Chr 1, 155204987: 155204987
6GBANM_001005741.2(GBA): c.1448T> C (p.Leu483Pro)single nucleotide variantPathogenic, risk factorrs421016GRCh37Chr 1, 155205043: 155205043
7DNAJC13NM_015268.3(DNAJC13): c.2564A> G (p.Asn855Ser)single nucleotide variantPathogenicrs387907571GRCh37Chr 3, 132196839: 132196839
8MT-ND1m.3397A> Gsingle nucleotide variantPathogenicrs199476120GRCh37Chr MT, 3397: 3397

Expression for genes affiliated with Parkinson's Disease

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2BioGPS, 15Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
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Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Parkinson's Disease

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Parkinson's Disease.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Parkinson's Disease

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50PathCards, 38NCBI BioSystems Database, 60Thomson Reuters, 55Reactome, 30KEGG, 53QIAGEN, 5Cell Signaling Technology
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Pathways related to Parkinson's Disease according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
Proteolysis Role of Parkin in the Ubiquitin Proteasomal Pathway60
10.4GPR37, PARK2, SNCA
210.3PARK7, SLC6A3, UCHL1, SNCA, PARK2
3
Show member pathways
Proteasome Degradation38
Immune response Antigen presentation by MHC class I60
10.2SLC6A3, PINK1, PARK2, PARK7, SNCA, MAPT
410.2SLC6A3, PINK1, LRRK2, GPR37, PARK2, PARK7
510.2UCHL1, SNCA, SNCB, PARK7, PARK2, LRRK2
6
Show member pathways
10.2TBP, UCHL1, SLC6A3, PARK7, LRRK2, PARK2

Compounds for genes affiliated with Parkinson's Disease

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45Novoseek, 24HMDB, 11DrugBank, 29IUPHAR, 51PharmGKB, 61Tocris Bioscience
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Compounds related to Parkinson's Disease according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 49)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1tmao4510.8TBP, MAPT, SNCA
2thioflavin4510.8SNCA, MAPT
31-benzyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline4510.8SNCA, SLC6A3
4thioflavine s4510.8SNCA, MAPT
56-(18f)fluoro-l-dopa4510.8PARK2, COMT
61 methyl 4 phenylpyridinium4510.8PARK2, SNCA, SLC6A3
73,4-Dihydroxyphenylglycol2410.8COMT, ADH1C
8rotenone4510.8PARK2, PARK7, SNCA, SLC6A3
9selegiline45 1111.8SNCA, COMT, SLC6A3
10apomorphine29 45 1112.8SLC6A3, COMT, SNCA
11phosphocellulose4510.8MAPT, TBP
12mptp4510.8PARK2, SNCA, COMT, SLC6A3
13lactacystin4510.8MAPT, SNCA, PARK2
14carbidopa45 2911.8COMT, SLC6A3
15choline45 24 1112.8ADH1C, SNCA, COMT, MAPT, SLC6A3
16methamphetamine45 51 1112.8SLC6A3, COMT, SNCA
17methionine4510.7PINK1, PARK7, SNCA, COMT, MAPT
18sodium dodecylsulfate4510.7TBP, MAPT, SNCA
19dopac4510.7COMT, PARK2
20valine4510.7SLC6A3, MAPT, COMT, SNCA
21lysine4510.7PARK2, PARK7, SNCA, UCHL1, TBP
22catecholamine4510.7PARK2, SNCA, COMT
23nmda45 2911.7PARK2, COMT, MAPT, SLC6A3
24methylphenidate45 51 1112.7SLC6A3, COMT
256-hydroxydopamine4510.7PARK2, PARK7, SNCA, COMT, NR4A2, SLC6A3
26h2o24510.7PARK2, PARK7, SNCA, SNCB, MAPT, SLC6A3
27testosterone45 61 24 1113.7PARK2, PARK7, SNCA, COMT, MAPT
28norepinephrine45 24 1112.7SLC6A3, NR4A2, COMT, SNCA
29levodopa45 1111.7PINK1, LRRK2, PARK2, PARK7, SNCA, COMT
30proline4510.7PARK2, COMT, MAPT, TBP
31glutamine4510.7PARK2, SNCA, MAPT, TBP
32cysteine4510.7PARK2, PARK7, SNCA, COMT, MAPT, UCHL1
33maoa4510.6SLC6A3, COMT
34cocaine45 1111.6SNCA, COMT, SLC6A3
35mg 13245 6111.6MAPT, SNCA, PARK2
36serine4510.6PINK1, PARK2, SNCA, MAPT, UCHL1, NR4A2
37alanine4510.6PARK2, SNCA, MAPT, TBP, SLC6A3
38iron45 2411.6PARK2, SNCA, SNCB, TBP
39pramipexole45 29 51 1113.6SLC6A3, COMT
40dopamine45 29 24 1113.6SLC6A3, PINK1, LRRK2, PARK2, PARK7, SNCA
41formaldehyde45 2411.6ADH1C, MAPT, TBP
42superoxide45 2411.6PARK2, PARK7, SNCB, UCHL1
43fluvoxamine45 51 1112.5COMT, SLC6A3
44tyramine45 29 2412.5COMT, SLC6A3
45trifluoroethanol45 1111.5ADH1C, MAPT
46glycerol45 24 1112.4TBP, MAPT, ADH1C
47venlafaxine45 51 24 1113.4SLC6A3, COMT
48nicotine45 29 51 1113.3COMT, MAPT, SLC6A3
49heroin45 51 1112.1SLC6A3, COMT

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Parkinson's Disease

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16Gene Ontology
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Cellular components related to Parkinson's Disease according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1axonGO:03042410.5UCHL1, LRRK2, SNCA, MAPT, SLC6A3
2neuronal cell bodyGO:04302510.3SLC6A3, UCHL1, SNCB, LRRK2
3mitochondrionGO:00573910.3LRRK2, COMT, SNCB, SNCA, PARK2, PINK1
4growth coneGO:03042610.3SNCA, SNCB, MAPT
5cytosolGO:00582910.3MAPT, COMT, SNCA, PINK1, ADH1C, PARK7
6cytoplasmGO:00573710.2TBP, NR4A2, UCHL1, SNCB, SNCA, PARK7
7inclusion bodyGO:01623410.1SNCA, LRRK2

Biological processes related to Parkinson's Disease according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 16)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1dopamine uptake involved in synaptic transmissionGO:05158310.7PARK7, SNCA
2negative regulation of dopamine metabolic processGO:04596310.6SNCA, COMT
3dopamine biosynthetic processGO:04241610.6SLC6A3, NR4A2, SNCA
4adult locomotory behaviorGO:00834410.6PARK7, GIGYF2, SNCA, NR4A2
5regulation of locomotionGO:04001210.6LRRK2, SNCA
6dopamine catabolic processGO:04242010.6SLC6A3, COMT
7mitochondrion degradationGO:00042210.6PARK2, PINK1
8negative regulation of neuron apoptotic processGO:04352410.6PINK1, PARK2, PARK7, SNCA, SNCB, NR4A2
9regulation of dopamine metabolic processGO:04205310.5SLC6A3, NR4A2
10neuron deathGO:07099710.5LRRK2, PARK2
11cell deathGO:00821910.5SLC6A3, PINK1, ATP13A2, VPS35, PARK2, PARK7
12neurotransmitter biosynthetic processGO:04213610.5SLC6A3, COMT
13regulation of autophagyGO:01050610.4MAPT, PARK2
14negative regulation of cell deathGO:06054810.4PARK7, PARK2
15synapse organizationGO:05080810.3SNCA, SNCB
16cellular response to oxidative stressGO:03459910.1SNCA, NR4A2

Molecular functions related to Parkinson's Disease according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1beta-tubulin bindingGO:04848710.4SNCB, SNCA
2alpha-tubulin bindingGO:04301410.3SNCB, SNCA
3protein bindingGO:00551510.1PARK7, LRRK2, VPS35, PARK2, PINK1, SNCA
4magnesium ion bindingGO:00028710.1COMT, PINK1, SNCA

Products for genes affiliated with Parkinson's Disease

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  • Antibodies
  • Proteins
  • Lysates
  • Antibodies

Sources for Parkinson's Disease

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4CDC
13ExPASy
14FMA
22GTR
23HGMD
24HMDB
25ICD10
26ICD10 via Orphanet
27ICD9CM
29IUPHAR
30KEGG
35MeSH
36MESH via Orphanet
37MGI
40NCIt
41NDF-RT
44NINDS
45Novoseek
47OMIM
48OMIM via Orphanet
52PubMed
53QIAGEN
59SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
62UMLS
63UMLS via Orphanet