MCID: PMP005
MIFTS: 51

Pemphigus Vulgaris malady

Categories: Rare diseases, Skin diseases, Genetic diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Pemphigus Vulgaris

Aliases & Descriptions for Pemphigus Vulgaris:

Name: Pemphigus Vulgaris 38 12 50 52 14 69
Familial Pemphigus Vulgaris 12 50
Pemphigus Vulgaris, Familial 69

Classifications:



External Ids:

Disease Ontology 12 DOID:0060851
ICD10 33 L10.0
UMLS 69 C0030809

Summaries for Pemphigus Vulgaris

NIH Rare Diseases : 50 familial pemphigus vulgaris refers to a cluster of pemphigus vulgaris within a family. pemphigus vulgaris is a rare autoimmune condition that is characterized by blisters and sores on the skin and mucus membranes. although the exact cause of familial pemphigus vulgaris is unknown, autoimmune conditions generally occur when the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue (in this case, the skin and mucus membranes). most cases of pemphigus vulgaris occur sporadically in people with no family history of the condition; however, rare reports exist of "familial" cases which affect more than one member of a single family. in these cases, the underlying genetic cause is unknown, although an association between pemphigus vulgaris and certain hla antigens has been identified. treatment generally includes medications and other strategies to decrease blister formation, prevent infections and promote healing. last updated: 12/17/2015

MalaCards based summary : Pemphigus Vulgaris, also known as familial pemphigus vulgaris, is related to herpes zoster and pompholyx, and has symptoms including feeding difficulties in infancy, abnormal blistering of the skin and weight loss. An important gene associated with Pemphigus Vulgaris is DSG3 (Desmoglein 3), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Developmental Biology and Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). The drugs Triamcinolone and Mycophenolate mofetil have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include skin, t cells and b cells, and related phenotype is integument.

Disease Ontology : 12 A pemphigus characterized by autosomal dominant blisters and erosions on the skin and mucous membranes erosions cause by autoantibodies to intercellular cement substance.

Wikipedia : 71 Pemphigus vulgaris is a rare chronic blistering skin disease and the most common form of pemphigus. It... more...

Related Diseases for Pemphigus Vulgaris

Diseases in the Pemphigus Vulgaris family:

Pemphigus Vulgaris, Familial

Diseases related to Pemphigus Vulgaris via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 157)
id Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 herpes zoster 28.9 DSC3 DSG1 DSG3 DST PPL
2 pompholyx 28.0 DSC3 DSG1 DSG2 DSG3 DSG4 DSP
3 pemphigus vulgaris, familial 12.4
4 pemphigus 11.7
5 pemphigus vegetans 11.4
6 pemphigus foliaceus 10.6
7 bullous pemphigoid 10.3
8 x-linked intellectual disability-precocious puberty-obesity syndrome 10.3 DSG3 DSP
9 mucositis 10.3
10 cardiomyopathy, dilated, 1bb 10.3 DSG1 DSP
11 branchiooculofacial syndrome 10.3 DSP JUP
12 skin fragility-woolly hair syndrome 10.2 DSP JUP
13 pneumonia caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa infection 10.2 DSG1 DSP
14 gupta patton syndrome 10.2 DSP JUP
15 immunodeficiency by defective expression of hla class 1 10.2 DSG1 DSG3
16 paraneoplastic pemphigus 10.2
17 pallister-killian syndrome 10.2 DSP JUP
18 codas syndrome 10.2 DSP JUP
19 epidermolysis bullosa, lethal acantholytic 10.2 DSP JUP
20 choanal atresia and lymphedema 10.2 DSP JUP
21 klippel-feil syndrome 2 10.2 DSP JUP
22 carotid artery thrombosis 10.2 DSG1 DSP JUP
23 sed, maroteaux type 10.1 CDH1 DSP JUP
24 chromosome 15q11-q13 duplication syndrome 10.1 DSP JUP
25 esophagitis 10.1
26 pemphigus erythematosus 10.1
27 peptidic growth factors deficiency 10.1 DST HLA-DRB1
28 myalgia-eosinophilia syndrome associated with tryptophan 10.1 DSG1 DSG3 DST
29 ventricular tachycardia, catecholaminergic polymorphic, 4 10.1 DSP JUP
30 atypical autism 10.1 DSG1 DSP DST
31 esophagus carcinoma in situ 10.0 DSG1 DSG2 DSG4
32 lipoma 10.0 CDH1 DSG1 DSP JUP
33 gingivitis 10.0
34 lichen planus 10.0
35 thyroiditis 10.0
36 paronychia 10.0
37 fibular hemimelia, bilateral 10.0 DSG2 DSP JUP
38 fibular hemimelia, unilateral 10.0 DSG2 DSP JUP
39 congenital absence of upper arm and forearm with hand present, bilateral 10.0 DSG2 DSP JUP
40 pervasive developmental disorder 10.0 DSG2 DSP JUP
41 acute eustachian salpingitis 10.0 CDH1 JUP
42 mosaic trisomy 1 10.0 DSG2 DSP
43 articulation disorder 10.0 DSG1 DSG3 HLA-DRB1 TNFSF13B
44 solitary bone cyst 10.0 DSG1 DSG3 DSG4 DST
45 familial partial lipodystrophy 10.0 DSG2 DSP JUP
46 arthritis 9.9
47 psoriasis 9.9
48 rheumatoid arthritis 9.9
49 sarcoma 9.9
50 cicatricial pemphigoid 9.9

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Pemphigus Vulgaris:



Diseases related to Pemphigus Vulgaris

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Pemphigus Vulgaris

Human phenotypes related to Pemphigus Vulgaris:

32 (show all 9)
id Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 feeding difficulties in infancy 32 HP:0008872
2 abnormal blistering of the skin 32 HP:0008066
3 weight loss 32 HP:0001824
4 atypical scarring of skin 32 HP:0000987
5 autoimmunity 32 HP:0002960
6 recurrent cutaneous abscess formation 32 HP:0100838
7 urticaria 32 HP:0001025
8 abnormality of the oral cavity 32 HP:0000163
9 acantholysis 32 HP:0100792

MGI Mouse Phenotypes related to Pemphigus Vulgaris:

44
id Description MGI Source Accession Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 integument MP:0010771 9.1 CDH1 DSC3 DSG3 DSG4 DSP JUP

Drugs & Therapeutics for Pemphigus Vulgaris

Drugs for Pemphigus Vulgaris (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show top 50) (show all 76)
id Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Triamcinolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3 124-94-7 31307
2
Mycophenolate mofetil Approved, Investigational Phase 3 128794-94-5 5281078
3
Mycophenolic acid Approved Phase 3 24280-93-1 446541
4
Methylprednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3,Phase 2 83-43-2 6741
5
Prednisolone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3,Phase 2 50-24-8 5755
6
Prednisone Approved, Vet_approved Phase 3,Phase 2,Early Phase 1 53-03-2 5865
7
rituximab Approved Phase 3 174722-31-7 10201696
8
Acetaminophen Approved Phase 3 103-90-2 1983
9
Cetirizine Approved Phase 3 83881-51-0 2678
10
Histamine Approved, Investigational Phase 3 75614-87-8, 51-45-6 774
11 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 3,Phase 2
12 glucocorticoids Phase 3,Phase 2
13 Hormone Antagonists Phase 3,Phase 2
14 Hormones Phase 3,Phase 2
15 Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists Phase 3,Phase 2
16 Immunosuppressive Agents Phase 3,Phase 2,Early Phase 1
17 triamcinolone acetonide Phase 3
18 Triamcinolone diacetate Phase 3
19 Triamcinolone hexacetonide Phase 3
20 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 3,Phase 2,Early Phase 1
21 Antibiotics, Antitubercular Phase 3,Early Phase 1
22 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 3,Phase 2
23 Antibodies Phase 3,Phase 2
24 Antibodies, Monoclonal Phase 3,Phase 2
25 Immunoglobulins Phase 3,Phase 2
26 Analgesics Phase 3,Phase 2
27 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 3,Phase 2
28 Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal Phase 3,Phase 2
29 Gastrointestinal Agents Phase 3,Phase 2
30 Methylprednisolone acetate Phase 3,Phase 2
31 Methylprednisolone Hemisuccinate Phase 3,Phase 2
32 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 3,Phase 2
33 Prednisolone acetate Phase 3,Phase 2
34 Prednisolone hemisuccinate Phase 3,Phase 2
35 Prednisolone phosphate Phase 3,Phase 2
36 Anti-Allergic Agents Phase 3
37 Antiemetics Phase 3
38 Antipyretics Phase 3
39 Autonomic Agents Phase 3
40 Histamine Antagonists Phase 3
41 Histamine H1 Antagonists Phase 3
42 Histamine H1 Antagonists, Non-Sedating Phase 3
43
Histamine Phosphate Phase 3 51-74-1 65513
44 Neuroprotective Agents Phase 3
45 Neurotransmitter Agents Phase 3
46 Protective Agents Phase 3
47
Azathioprine Approved Phase 2 446-86-6 2265
48
Etanercept Approved, Investigational Phase 2 185243-69-0
49
Infliximab Approved Phase 2 170277-31-3
50
Dapsone Approved, Investigational Phase 2 80-08-0 2955

Interventional clinical trials:

(show all 18)
id Name Status NCT ID Phase
1 Comparison Between Injections of Steroids and Autologous Platelet Rich Plasma in the Oral Erosions of Pemphigus Vulgaris Completed NCT02828163 Phase 3
2 A Study to Assess the Effect of CellCept (Mycophenolate Mofetil) and Reduced Corticosteroids in Patients With Active Pemphigus Vulgaris (PV) Completed NCT00683930 Phase 3
3 A Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Rituximab Versus Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF) in Participants With Pemphigus Vulgaris (PV) Recruiting NCT02383589 Phase 3
4 Efficacy and Safety of Ofatumumab in Treatment of Pemphigus Vulgaris Active, not recruiting NCT01920477 Phase 3
5 Long-Term Extension Study of Ofatumumab in Subjects With Pemphigus Vulgaris Terminated NCT02613910 Phase 3
6 Use of KC706 for the Treatment of Pemphigus Vulgaris Completed NCT00606749 Phase 2
7 Azathioprine Versus Placebo in Pemphigus Vulgaris Treated With Prednisolone Completed NCT00626678 Phase 2
8 Study of Etanercept (Enbrel) in the Treatment of Pemphigus Vulgaris Completed NCT00135720 Phase 2
9 Use of Infliximab for the Treatment of Pemphigus Vulgaris Completed NCT00283712 Phase 2
10 Study of Efficacy and Safety of VAY736 in Patients With Pemphigus Vulgaris Recruiting NCT01930175 Phase 2
11 A Study of PRN1008 in Adult Patients With Pemphigus Vulgaris Recruiting NCT02704429 Phase 2
12 Efficacy of Dapsone as a Steroid Sparing Agent in Pemphigus Vulgaris Terminated NCT00429533 Phase 2
13 Randomized Trial of IVIg With or Without Cyclophosphamide in Pemphigus Terminated NCT00483119 Phase 2
14 Safety Study of PI-0824 to Treat Pemphigus Vulgaris Completed NCT00063752 Phase 1
15 A Safety Study of SYNT001 in Subjects With Pemphigus (Vulgaris or Foliaceus) Not yet recruiting NCT03075904 Phase 1
16 Autoimmune Blistering Diseases Study Recruiting NCT02753777
17 Serum IL-21 Levels in Patients With Pemphigus Vulgaris Not yet recruiting NCT03177213
18 Evaluating Sirolimus to Treat Autoimmune Blistering Dermatosis Pemphigus Terminated NCT01313923 Early Phase 1

Search NIH Clinical Center for Pemphigus Vulgaris

Cell-based therapeutics:


LifeMap Discovery
Data from LifeMap, the Embryonic Development and Stem Cells Database
Read about Pemphigus Vulgaris cell therapies at LifeMap Discovery.
Stem-cell-based therapeutic approaches for Pemphigus Vulgaris:
Hematopoietic stem cells for pemphigus

Genetic Tests for Pemphigus Vulgaris

Anatomical Context for Pemphigus Vulgaris

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Pemphigus Vulgaris:

39
Skin, T Cells, B Cells, Thyroid, Testes, Neutrophil, Eye

Publications for Pemphigus Vulgaris

Articles related to Pemphigus Vulgaris:

(show top 50) (show all 865)
id Title Authors Year
1
Pregnancy outcome after rituximab treatment before conception in patients affected by severe pemphigus vulgaris/superficialis. ( 28079925 )
2017
2
Oral mucous membrane pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris- a retrospective two-center cohort study. ( 28084005 )
2017
3
A reciprocal HLA-Disease Association in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Pemphigus Vulgaris. ( 27814654 )
2017
4
Salivary Samples for the Diagnosis of Pemphigus vulgaris Using the BIOCHIP Approach: a Pilot Study. ( 28064226 )
2017
5
Efficacy of Dapsone in the Treatment of Pemphigus Vulgaris: A Single-Center Case Study. ( 27698327 )
2016
6
Relapse of pemphigus vulgaris after topical application of ingenol mebutate. ( 27381839 )
2016
7
Unusual Histological Evidence of Dysplasia in a Case of Oral Pemphigus Vulgaris: A Potential Diagnostic Challenge. ( 27305938 )
2016
8
Pemphigus vulgaris and blood group antigens: no relationship. ( 27334804 )
2016
9
A possible interaction between periostin and CD163+ skin-resident macrophages in pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid. ( 27501402 )
2016
10
Oral pemphigus vulgaris: A case report with direct immunofluorescence study. ( 27721634 )
2016
11
Determinants of VH1-46 Cross-Reactivity to Pemphigus Vulgaris Autoantigen Desmoglein 3 and Rotavirus Antigen VP6. ( 27402694 )
2016
12
Induction of T regulatory cells by the superagonistic anti-CD28 antibody D665 leads to decreased pathogenic IgG autoantibodies against desmoglein 3 in a HLA-transgenic mouse model of pemphigus vulgaris. ( 26661498 )
2016
13
Zeitlicher Verlauf der avaskulAoren Nekrose des HA1ftkopfes bei Patienten mit Pemphigus vulgaris. ( 27767277 )
2016
14
Human leukocyte antigen class II (DRB1 and DQB1) alleles and haplotypes frequencies in patients with pemphigus vulgaris among the Serbian population. ( 27072514 )
2016
15
Differential HLA class I and class II associations in pemphigus foliaceus and pemphigus vulgaris patients from a prevalent Southeastern Brazilian region. ( 27178774 )
2016
16
Pemphigus vulgaris successfully treated with doxycycline monotherapy. ( 27416094 )
2016
17
Loss of flotillin expression results in weakened desmosomal adhesion and Pemphigus vulgaris-like localisation of desmoglein-3 in human keratinocytes. ( 27346727 )
2016
18
Successful treatment with oral mizoribine in refractory ocular manifestation of mucosal pemphigus vulgaris: A unique response to different immunosuppressive drugs. ( 27418118 )
2016
19
Identification of a Functional Risk Variant for Pemphigus Vulgaris in the ST18 Gene. ( 27148741 )
2016
20
Paronychia and onychomadesis due to pemphigus vulgaris. ( 27506502 )
2016
21
Recurrent venous thrombosis in an adequately anticoagulated patient with pemphigus vulgaris. ( 26949375 )
2016
22
Assessment of the Effects of Rituximab Monotherapy on Different Subsets of Circulating T-Regulatory Cells and Clinical Disease Severity in Severe Pemphigus Vulgaris. ( 27576321 )
2016
23
Half and half blisters in pemphigus vulgaris: A diagnostic quandary. ( 27559521 )
2016
24
Endoplasmic Reticulum stress is associated with the pathogenesis of Pemphigus Vulgaris. ( 27060358 )
2016
25
Confirmation of association between Lewis blood group antigens and secretor status in pemphigus vulgaris. ( 27488459 )
2016
26
Temporal course of avascular femoral head necrosis in patients with pemphigus vulgaris. ( 27767268 )
2016
27
Detection of apoptosis in pemphigus vulgaris by TUNEL technique. ( 27438195 )
2016
28
Evaluation of exposure of pemphigus vulgaris patients to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Aspergillus fumigatus. ( 27396270 )
2016
29
Valuation of pemphigus vulgaris and foliaceus health states: a convenience sample experiment. ( 27062497 )
2016
30
Pemphigus vulgaris-associated interstitial lung disease. ( 26969825 )
2016
31
Pemphigus Vulgaris: How to Perform an Oral Biopsy Properly? ( 28005817 )
2016
32
Family study of monozygotic twins affected by pemphigus vulgaris. ( 27177496 )
2016
33
Nuclear magnetic resonance titration of the interaction between pemphigus vulgaris autoantibodies and REWVKFAKPCRE, a therapeutic desmoglein 3 peptide. ( 26936204 )
2016
34
Atypical Tzanck smear findings in pemphigus vulgaris. ( 26841121 )
2016
35
A Comparative Effectiveness Research of Azathioprine and Cyclophosphamide on the Clinical and Serological Response in Pemphigus Vulgaris. ( 27512188 )
2016
36
Risk factors in patients with oral pemphigus vulgaris: a case-control study. ( 27148665 )
2016
37
The incidence of herpes zoster in cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE), dermatomyositis (DM), pemphigus vulgaris (PV), and bullous pemphigoid (BP). ( 27317514 )
2016
38
Unexpected manifestation of naevoid basal cell carcinoma (Gorlin) syndrome with a novel mutation in the PTCH1 gene in a female patient with long-lasting pemphigus vulgaris. ( 25600101 )
2016
39
Crescendo response to rituximab in oral pemphigus vulgaris: a case with 7-year follow-up. ( 27061201 )
2016
40
Pemphigus Vulgaris: How to Perform an Oral Biopsy Properly? ( 27755423 )
2016
41
Increased oxidative stress in pemphigus vulgaris is related to disease activity and HLA-association. ( 26911801 )
2016
42
Koebner phenomenon in pemphigus vulgaris patients. ( 27872890 )
2016
43
Autoimmune bullous diseases with skin and eye involvement: Cicatricial pemphigoid, pemphigus vulgaris, and pemphigus paraneoplastica. ( 26903186 )
2016
44
Concomitant pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigoid gestationis: a case report and review of the literature. ( 26990471 )
2016
45
First line treatment of pemphigus vulgaris with a novel protocol in patients with contraindications to systemic corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents: Preliminary retrospective study with a seven year follow-up. ( 26919279 )
2016
46
Esophagitis Dissecans Superficialis Endoscopically Induced in a Patient With Pemphigus Vulgaris and Gastrointestinal Complaints. ( 27144817 )
2016
47
Familial Pemphigus Vulgaris Occured in a Father and Son as the First Confirmed Cases. ( 27403352 )
2016
48
Efficacy and safety of rituximab therapy in patients with pemphigus vulgaris: first report from Turkey. ( 27653507 )
2016
49
Successful treatment of oral pemphigus vulgaris in an insulin-dependant geriatric patient. ( 26108158 )
2016
50
Evaluation of Pharyngo-Oesophageal Involvement in Pemphigus Vulgaris and its Correlation with Disease Activity. ( 27167757 )
2016

Variations for Pemphigus Vulgaris

Expression for Pemphigus Vulgaris

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Pemphigus Vulgaris.

Pathways for Pemphigus Vulgaris

GO Terms for Pemphigus Vulgaris

Cellular components related to Pemphigus Vulgaris according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 16)
id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cell junction GO:0030054 9.85 CDH1 DSC3 DSG1 DSG2 DSG3 DSG4
2 cell-cell junction GO:0005911 9.77 DSC3 DSG1 DSG2 DSP JUP
3 intermediate filament GO:0005882 9.73 DSP DST JUP
4 intercalated disc GO:0014704 9.63 DSG2 DSP JUP
5 lateral plasma membrane GO:0016328 9.62 CDH1 DSG1 DSG2 JUP
6 cytoplasmic side of plasma membrane GO:0009898 9.61 CDH1 DSG1 JUP
7 desmosome GO:0030057 9.56 DSC3 DSG1 DSG2 DSG3 DSG4 DSP
8 integral component of lumenal side of endoplasmic reticulum membrane GO:0071556 9.55 HLA-DRB1 HLA-G
9 fascia adherens GO:0005916 9.52 DSP JUP
10 catenin complex GO:0016342 9.51 CDH1 JUP
11 hemidesmosome GO:0030056 9.49 DST JUP
12 cornified envelope GO:0001533 9.23 DSC3 DSG1 DSG2 DSG3 DSG4 DSP
13 integral component of membrane GO:0016021 10.24 CDH1 DSC3 DSG1 DSG2 DSG3 DSG4
14 membrane GO:0016020 10.22 CDH1 DSC3 DSG1 DSG2 DSG3 DSG4
15 extracellular exosome GO:0070062 10.13 CDH1 DSG1 DSG2 DSG3 DSP DST
16 plasma membrane GO:0005886 10.07 CDH1 DSC3 DSG1 DSG2 DSG3 DSG4

Biological processes related to Pemphigus Vulgaris according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show all 15)
id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cell adhesion GO:0007155 9.86 CDH1 DSC3 DSG1 DSG2 DSG3 DSG4
2 single organismal cell-cell adhesion GO:0016337 9.72 CDH1 DSG1 DSG4 DSP JUP
3 adherens junction organization GO:0034332 9.63 CDH1 DSP JUP
4 homophilic cell adhesion via plasma membrane adhesion molecules GO:0007156 9.63 CDH1 DSC3 DSG1 DSG2 DSG3 DSG4
5 regulation of heart rate by cardiac conduction GO:0086091 9.61 DSG2 DSP JUP
6 regulation of ventricular cardiac muscle cell action potential GO:0098911 9.58 DSG2 DSP JUP
7 keratinization GO:0031424 9.56 DSC3 DSG1 DSG2 DSG3 DSG4 DSP
8 establishment of protein localization to plasma membrane GO:0090002 9.55 CDH1 JUP
9 negative regulation of T cell proliferation GO:0042130 9.54 HLA-DRB1 HLA-G
10 bundle of His cell-Purkinje myocyte adhesion involved in cell communication GO:0086073 9.54 DSG2 DSP JUP
11 maternal process involved in female pregnancy GO:0060135 9.52 DSG1 DSG2
12 intermediate filament cytoskeleton organization GO:0045104 9.51 DSP DST
13 desmosome organization GO:0002934 9.49 DSG2 DSP
14 cellular response to indole-3-methanol GO:0071681 9.48 CDH1 JUP
15 cornification GO:0070268 9.23 DSC3 DSG1 DSG2 DSG3 DSG4 DSP

Molecular functions related to Pemphigus Vulgaris according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

id Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 calcium ion binding GO:0005509 9.5 CDH1 DSC3 DSG1 DSG2 DSG3 DSG4
2 cell adhesion molecule binding GO:0050839 9.46 CDH1 DSG2 DSP JUP
3 peptide antigen binding GO:0042605 9.32 HLA-DRB1 HLA-G
4 gamma-catenin binding GO:0045295 9.26 CDH1 DSG1
5 cell adhesive protein binding involved in bundle of His cell-Purkinje myocyte communication GO:0086083 8.8 DSG2 DSP JUP

Sources for Pemphigus Vulgaris

3 CDC
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10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
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33 ICD10
34 ICD10 via Orphanet
35 ICD9CM
36 IUPHAR
37 KEGG
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