PAD
MCID: PRP027
MIFTS: 67

Peripheral Vascular Disease (PAD) malady

Cardiovascular diseases category

Summaries for Peripheral Vascular Disease

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Sources:
9Disease Ontology, 35MedlinePlus, 66Wikipedia, 34MalaCards
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MedlinePlus:35 Peripheral arterial disease (pad) happens when there is a narrowing of the blood vessels outside of your heart. the cause of pad is atherosclerosis. this happens when plaque builds up on the walls of the arteries that supply blood to the arms and legs. plaque is a substance made up of fat and cholesterol. it causes the arteries to narrow or become blocked. this can reduce or stop blood flow, usually to the legs. if severe enough, blocked blood flow can cause tissue death and can sometimes lead to amputation of the foot or leg. the main risk factor for pad is smoking. other risk factors include older age and diseases like diabetes, high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke. many people who have pad don't have any symptoms. if you have symptoms, they may include pain, numbness, achiness, or heaviness in the leg muscles. this happens when walking or climbing stairs. weak or absent pulses in the legs or feet sores or wounds on the toes, feet, or legs that heal slowly, poorly, or not at all a pale or bluish color to the skin a lower temperature in one leg than the other leg poor nail growth on the toes and decreased hair growth on the legs erectile dysfunction, especially among men who have diabetes pad can increase your risk of heart attack, stroke, and transient ischemic attack. doctors diagnose pad with a physical exam and heart and imaging tests. treatments include lifestyle changes, medicines, and sometimes surgery. lifestyle changes include dietary changes, exercise, and efforts to lower high cholesterol levels and high blood pressure. nih: national heart, lung, and blood institute

MalaCards: Peripheral Vascular Disease, also known as peripheral vascular diseases, is related to vascular disease and diabetes mellitus. An important gene associated with Peripheral Vascular Disease is KLK15 (kallikrein-related peptidase 15), and among its related pathways are Lipoprotein metabolism and PPAR signaling pathway. The drugs papaverine and alteplase and the compounds sarpogrelate hydrochloride and heparin sodium have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include bone, brain and heart.

Disease Ontology:9 A vascular disease that is characterized by obstruction of larger arteries not within the coronary, aortic arch vasculature, or brain.

Wikipedia:66 Peripheral vascular disease (PVD), commonly referred to as peripheral artery disease (PAD) or peripheral... more...

Aliases & Classifications for Peripheral Vascular Disease

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Sources:
34MalaCards, 9Disease Ontology, 11DISEASES, 32LifeMap Discoveryā„¢, 35MedlinePlus, 46Novoseek, 63UMLS, 59SNOMED-CT, 28ICD9CM, 36MeSH, 26ICD10
See all sources

Classifications:

Malacards categories (disease lists): (See all malacards categories)
Anatomical: Cardiovascular diseases


Aliases & Descriptions:

peripheral vascular disease 34 9 11 32
peripheral vascular diseases 46 63
arterial occlusive diseases 46 63
peripheral arterial disease 34 35
arterial occlusive disease 34 9
peripheral occlusive disease 34
peripheral arterial diseases 63
pad mass 63
pad 34


External Ids:

Disease Ontology9 DOID:341
ICD9CM28 443.81
SNOMED-CT59 195624006, 2929001
MeSH36 D001157
ICD1026 I73.8

Related Diseases for Peripheral Vascular Disease

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Sources:
18GeneCards, 19GeneDecks
See all sources

Diseases related to Peripheral Vascular Disease via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards/GeneDecks gene sharing:

(show top 50)    (show all 163)
idRelated DiseaseScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1vascular disease31.8THBD, APOA1, F3, HTR2A
2diabetes mellitus30.7THBD, APOA1, APOA2
3coronary artery disease30.7THBD, APOA1, APOA2
4atherosclerosis30.5F3, APOA2, APOA1, THBD
5type 2 diabetes mellitus30.4THBD, APOA1, APOA2, HTR2A
6cerebrovascular disease30.4THBD, F3, HTR2A
7obesity30.3HTR2A, APOA2, APOA1
8myocardial infarction30.2APOA1, APOA2, F3, HTR2A, FGB
9lupus erythematosus30.2THBD, F3
10antiphospholipid syndrome30.0F3, THBD
11thrombophilia30.0F3, THBD
12thrombocytopenia30.0THBD, F3
13tangier disease30.0APOA2, APOA1
14venous thrombosis29.9FGB, F3, THBD
15hypercholesterolemia29.9APOA2, APOA1, THBD
16insulin resistance29.9HTR2A, APOA2, APOA1
17thromboembolism29.9F3, APOA1, THBD
18acute myocardial infarction29.8HTR2A, F3, APOA1, THBD
19artery disease10.6
20endotheliitis10.5
21cerebral artery occlusion10.4
22hypertension10.4
23cerebritis10.3
24neuropathy10.3
25erythromelalgia10.3
26thromboangiitis obliterans10.3
27abdominal aortic aneurysm10.3
28aortic aneurysm10.3
29ischemia10.3
30peritonitis10.3
31vasculitis10.3
32aneurysm10.3
33cadasil10.3
34retinal artery occlusion10.3
35retinitis10.3
36peripheral arterial occlusive disease 110.3
37angina pectoris10.2
38critical limb ischemia10.2
39carotid stenosis10.2
40kidney disease10.2
41blindness10.2
42protein s deficiency10.2
43chronic myeloid leukemia10.2
44carotid artery occlusion10.2
45protein c deficiency10.2
46cervicitis10.2
47congestive heart failure10.2
48leukemia10.2
49myeloid leukemia10.2
50myopathy10.2

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Peripheral Vascular Disease:



Diseases related to peripheral vascular disease

Symptoms for Peripheral Vascular Disease

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Drugs & Therapeutics for Peripheral Vascular Disease

About this section
Sources:
6CenterWatch, 43NIH Clinical Center, 7ClinicalTrials, 32LifeMap Discoveryā„¢, 63UMLS, 42NDF-RT
See all sources

Approved drugs:

Search CenterWatch for Peripheral Vascular Disease

Drug clinical trials:

Search ClinicalTrials for Peripheral Vascular Disease

Search NIH Clinical Center for Peripheral Vascular Disease

Search CenterWatch for Peripheral Vascular Disease

Inferred drug relations via UMLS63/NDF-RT42:

Cell-based therapeutics:


LifeMap Discovery
The database of embryonic development, stem cell research and regenerative medicine
Read about Peripheral Vascular Disease cell therapies at LifeMap Discovery.
Stem-cell-based therapeutic approaches for Peripheral Vascular Disease:
ACY001, bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells for coronary artery occlusions
ALD-301, bone marrow-derived cells for critical limb ischemia
ALD-301, bone marrow-derived cells for critical limb ischemia
Alecmestencel-T, mesenchymal stem cells for ischemic diseases
ALO212, umbilical cord blood-derived stem cell concentrate for vascular diseases
Autologus endothelial progenitor cells for the treatment of critical limb ischemia
Autologus hematopoeitic stem cells for the treatment of critical limb ischemia
Bone marrow-derived CD133+ or nucleated cells for peripheral artery disease
Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells for peripheral vascular disease
Bone marrow-derived mononuclear stem cells for treatment of critical limb ischemia
Endothelial progenitor cells for peripheral artery disease
Enriched bone marrow-derived progenitor cells for ischemic diseases
MultiStem
Peripheral blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells for leg gangrene
TGI PVG, adipose-derived stem cell-coated vascular graft for peripheral vascular disease
Embryonic/Adult Cultured Cells Related to Peripheral Vascular Disease:
Bone marrow-derived CD133+ stem cells
Bone marrow-derived ALDH+ cells (ALD), PMIDs: 10430905, 19324906
Bone marrow-derived ALDH+ cells (ALD), PMIDs: 10430905, 19324906
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (family)
Cord blood-derived hematopoietic stem cell, PMID: 19558779
Peripheral blood-derived endothelial cells, PMIDs: 19448678, 18388019
Peripheral blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells, PMID: 18388019
Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (family)
Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells
Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells
Peripheral blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells, PMID: 10725398
Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells
Bone marrow-derived adherent progenitor cells (MultiStem), PMID: 23307829
Peripheral blood-derived hematopoietic stem cells
Adipose-derived stromal cells, PMIDs: 8207032, 23350681

Genetic Tests for Peripheral Vascular Disease

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Anatomical Context for Peripheral Vascular Disease

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Sources:
32LifeMap Discoveryā„¢, 34MalaCards
See all sources

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Peripheral Vascular Disease:

34
Bone, Brain, Heart, Skin, Endothelial, Testes, Lung, Spinal cord, Kidney, Bone marrow, Pancreas, Skeletal muscle, Monocytes, Retina

LifeMap Discovery
The database of embryonic development, stem cell research and regenerative medicine

Cells/anatomical compartments in embryo or adult related to Peripheral Vascular Disease:
id TissueAnatomical CompartmentCell Relevance
1 BoneBone MarrowBone Marrow Stromal Cells Potential therapeutic candidate

Animal Models for Peripheral Vascular Disease or affiliated genes

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Publications for Peripheral Vascular Disease

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Sources:
53PubMed
See all sources

Articles related to Peripheral Vascular Disease:

(show top 50)    (show all 509)
idTitleAuthorsYear
1
Diabetes mellitus and peripheral vascular disease: diagnosis and management. (24296015)
2014
2
Intravascular brachytherapy for peripheral vascular disease. (24399686)
2014
3
Peripheral vascular disease as remote ischemic preconditioning, for acute stroke. (23958050)
2013
4
Blunted temporal activity of microvascular perfusion heterogeneity in metabolic syndrome: a new attractor for peripheral vascular disease? (23262133)
2013
5
Effect of peripheral vascular disease on kidney allograft outcomes: a study of U.S. Renal data system. (23354295)
2013
6
Initial experience with the 5 A9 300-mm Proteus embolic capture angioplasty balloon in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease. (23210883)
2012
7
Pretreatment of endothelial progenitor cells with osteopontin enhances cell therapy for peripheral vascular disease. (22304991)
2012
8
Platelet activation in patients with peripheral vascular disease: reproducibility and comparability of platelet markers. (21937092)
2012
9
An option for intraoperative placement of an intra-aortic balloon pump in patients with occlusive peripheral vascular disease. (20633901)
2011
10
Foot care for patients with peripheral vascular disease: a review of the guidelines. (22977408)
2010
11
Surgically unresectable regional melanoma metastases in a patient with renal failure and peripheral vascular disease: are there safe and potentially effective treatments? (20816500)
2010
12
Definition and evaluation of transient ischemic attack: a scientific statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council; Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; and the Interdisciplinary Council on Peripheral Vascular Disease. The American Academy of Neurology affirms the value of this statement as an educational tool for neurologists. (19423857)
2009
13
Clinical inquiries. What is the best test for peripheral vascular disease? (18544324)
2008
14
Atherosclerotic Peripheral Vascular Disease Symposium II: nomenclature for vascular diseases. (19106403)
2008
15
Differences in gait characteristics between persons with bilateral transtibial amputations, due to peripheral vascular disease and trauma, and able-bodied ambulators. (18586143)
2008
16
Fibrinogen apheresis and peripheral vascular disease: some progress? (18196897)
2007
17
Metabolic syndrome and incident end-stage peripheral vascular disease: a 14-year follow-up study in elderly Finns. (17848614)
2007
18
Peripheral vascular disease: comparison of continuous MR angiography and conventional MR angiography--pilot study. (17329687)
2007
19
Guidelines for the early management of adults with ischemic stroke: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council, Clinical Cardiology Council, Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention Council, and the Atherosclerotic Peripheral Vascular Disease and Quality of Care Outcomes in Research Interdisciplinary Working Groups: The American Academy of Neurology affirms the value of this guideline as an educational tool for neurologists. (17515473)
2007
20
Percutaneous continuous aortic flow augmentation for cardiac recovery in a chronic heart failure patient with peripheral vascular disease. (17170590)
2006
21
Evidence-based management of peripheral vascular disease. (16105478)
2005
22
Metabolic inertia in contracting skeletal muscle: a novel approach for pharmacological intervention in peripheral vascular disease. (14998419)
2004
23
Peripheral vascular disease in antiphospholipid syndrome. (15507285)
2004
24
Bivalirudin as a foundation anticoagulant in peripheral vascular disease: a safe and feasible alternative for renal and iliac interventions. (12777673)
2003
25
Effects of cilostazol on serum lipid concentrations and plasma fatty acid composition in type 2 diabetic patients with peripheral vascular disease. (12624709)
2003
26
Peripheral vascular disease and one-year mortality following percutaneous coronary revascularization. (12943879)
2003
27
C-reactive protein in stable angina patients without peripheral vascular disease. (12659995)
2003
28
Effects of simvastatin on walking performance and symptoms of intermittent claudication in hypercholesterolemic patients with peripheral vascular disease. (12714124)
2003
29
Cartilaginous metaplasia in calcified diabetic peripheral vascular disease: morphologic evidence of enchondral ossification. (12733123)
2003
30
MR angiography for assessment of peripheral vascular disease. (12171187)
2002
31
Ethnic differences in peripheral vascular disease. (12425370)
2002
32
The effect of peripheral vascular disease on the serum levels of natural anti-oxidants: bilirubin and albumin. (11941273)
2002
33
A review of the carotid and femoral intima-media thickness as an indicator of the presence of peripheral vascular disease and cardiovascular risk factors. (12031698)
2002
34
Risk of myocardial infarction and angina in patients with severe peripheral vascular disease: predictive role of C-reactive protein. (11854118)
2002
35
Peripheral vascular disease: perspectives on aortoiliac, renal, and femoral treatments using catheter-based techniques. (12053385)
2001
36
Vascular surgeons--do they make a difference in peripheral vascular disease? (11174704)
2001
37
Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA in the arterial wall of patients with peripheral vascular disease. (11545479)
2001
38
ABC of arterial and vascular disease. Secondary prevention of peripheral vascular disease. (10797042)
2000
39
Optimized diagnostic angiography in high-risk patients with severe peripheral vascular disease. (10682777)
2000
40
Arterial pulse wave velocity and risk factors for peripheral vascular disease. (10879436)
2000
41
Gene therapy for the treatment of peripheral vascular disease and coronary artery disease. (12847566)
2000
42
Peripheral vascular disease and renal transplant artery stenosis: a reappraisal of transplant renovascular disease. (10485378)
1999
43
Circulating immune complexes and complement C4 null alleles in patients in patients operated on for premature atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease. (10634214)
1999
44
Noninvasive approaches to peripheral vascular disease. What's new in evaluation and treatment? (10494265)
1999
45
Asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis associated with peripheral vascular disease: a prospective study. (10073759)
1999
46
Lifestyle changes in free-living patients with peripheral vascular disease (Fontaine stage II) related to plasma and LDL lipid composition: a 15 month follow-up study. (10601535)
1999
47
Is clopidogrel markedly superior to aspirin in patients with peripheral vascular disease? (16793749)
1998
48
Salvage of failed amputation about the hip in peripheral vascular disease by open wound care and nutritional support. (9732079)
1998
49
Epidemiology of peripheral vascular disease: a predictor of systemic vascular disease. (9697547)
1998
50
Ankle brachial index in peripheral vascular disease in diabetes mellitus. (11273339)
1998

Variations for Peripheral Vascular Disease

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Expression for genes affiliated with Peripheral Vascular Disease

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Sources:
2BioGPS, 16Gene Expression Omnibus DataSets
See all sources
Expression patterns in normal tissues for genes affiliated with Peripheral Vascular Disease

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Peripheral Vascular Disease.

Pathways for genes affiliated with Peripheral Vascular Disease

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Sources:
51PathCards, 56Reactome, 31KEGG, 39NCBI BioSystems Database, 13EMD Millipore, 52PharmGKB, 61Thomson Reuters, 54QIAGEN, 55R&D Systems
See all sources

Pathways related to Peripheral Vascular Disease according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 12)
idSuper pathways (with members indented)ScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
9.2APOA2, APOA1
2
Show member pathways
fatty acid beta-oxidation VI (peroxisome)39
9.2APOA1, APOA2
3
Show member pathways
9.2APOA2, APOA1
49.2APOA2, APOA1
5
Show member pathways
9.2APOA2, APOA1
69.2APOA1, APOA2
7
Show member pathways
9.2FGB, APOA1
8
Show member pathways
8.9THBD, F3, FGB
9
Show member pathways
8.5FGB, KLK15, F3, THBD
10
Show member pathways
Complement Activation, Classical Pathway39
Complement and Coagulation Cascades39
8.5FGB, F3, APOA2, THBD
11
Show member pathways
8.3FGB, HTR2A, APOA2, APOA1
12
Show member pathways
8.1FGB, F3, APOA1, THBD

Compounds for genes affiliated with Peripheral Vascular Disease

About this section
Sources:
46Novoseek, 12DrugBank, 52PharmGKB, 30IUPHAR, 62Tocris Bioscience, 25HMDB
See all sources

Compounds related to Peripheral Vascular Disease according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show top 50)    (show all 56)
idCompoundScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1sarpogrelate hydrochloride469.8THBD, HTR2A
2heparin sodium469.8THBD, F3
3ch 55469.8F3, THBD
4am80469.8F3, THBD
5ximelagatran46 1210.8F3, THBD
6heparinoids469.8THBD, F3
7fondaparinux469.7F3, THBD
8bivalirudin46 1210.7THBD, F3
9argatroban46 1210.7F3, THBD
10cacl2469.7F3, THBD
11gamma-carboxyglutamic acid469.7F3, THBD
12ptca469.7THBD, F3
13fluoxetine46 52 30 1212.7F3, HTR2A
14desmopressin46 62 30 1212.7F3, THBD
15iloprost62 30 46 1212.7THBD, F3
16p-opc469.7APOA1, APOA2
17cardiolipin46 1210.6F3, THBD
18dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine469.6APOA1, APOA2
19intralipid469.6APOA2, APOA1
20txb2469.6THBD, F3
21gemfibrozil30 46 1211.6APOA1, APOA2
22cholesterol ester469.6APOA2, APOA1
23dermatan sulfate469.6THBD, F3
24mspi469.6APOA1, APOA2
25bezafibrate46 30 1211.5APOA2, APOA1
26levonorgestrel46 62 30 1212.5F3, APOA1
27pentoxifylline46 1210.5THBD, F3
28fenofibrate46 52 1211.5APOA1, APOA2
29captopril46 62 52 30 1213.4APOA1, F3
30dextran sulfate469.3APOA1, F3
31warfarin46 52 25 1212.3THBD, F3
32hirudin469.3FGB, F3, THBD
33glibenclamide46 30 52 6212.3F3, APOA1
34raloxifene46 52 30 1212.3THBD, APOA1
35guanidine hydrochloride469.1F3, APOA1
36ibuprofen46 30 52 25 1213.0F3, THBD
37phosphatidylcholine469.0THBD, APOA1, APOA2
38kininogen469.0F3, APOA1, THBD
39homocysteine46 259.9F3, APOA1, THBD
40fluvastatin46 52 30 1211.9APOA1, THBD
41simvastatin46 52 62 30 25 1213.9F3, APOA1, THBD
42prostacyclin468.9F3, APOA1, THBD
43aspirin46 52 30 2511.9F3, APOA1, THBD
44heparin46 30 25 1211.9THBD, APOA2, F3, FGB
45creatinine468.6F3, APOA1, THBD
46aspartate468.6F3, APOA1, THBD
47phospholipid468.5THBD, APOA1, APOA2, F3
48retinoic acid46 259.5F3, APOA2, APOA1, THBD
49fibrinogen468.1FGB, F3, APOA2, APOA1, THBD
50serine467.7THBD, APOA1, APOA2, F3, KLK15, FGB

GO Terms for genes affiliated with Peripheral Vascular Disease

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Sources:
17Gene Ontology
See all sources

Cellular components related to Peripheral Vascular Disease according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1spherical high-density lipoprotein particleGO:0343669.4APOA2, APOA1
2very-low-density lipoprotein particleGO:0343619.4APOA2, APOA1
3high-density lipoprotein particleGO:0343649.3APOA2, APOA1
4blood microparticleGO:0725628.9APOA1, FGB, APOA2
5cell surfaceGO:0099868.8FGB, F3, THBD
6extracellular regionGO:0055768.1FGB, APOA1, APOA2, KLK15
7extracellular spaceGO:0056158.1THBD, APOA1, F3, FGB
8plasma membraneGO:0058867.5APOA1, F3, HTR2A, FGB, THBD

Biological processes related to Peripheral Vascular Disease according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 24)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1negative regulation of very-low-density lipoprotein particle remodelingGO:0109039.6APOA2, APOA1
2negative regulation of lipase activityGO:0601929.6APOA2, APOA1
3regulation of intestinal cholesterol absorptionGO:0303009.6APOA2, APOA1
4high-density lipoprotein particle assemblyGO:0343809.6APOA1, APOA2
5protein oxidationGO:0181589.6APOA1, APOA2
6negative regulation of cytokine secretion involved in immune responseGO:0027409.6APOA1, APOA2
7high-density lipoprotein particle clearanceGO:0343849.6APOA1, APOA2
8peptidyl-methionine modificationGO:0182069.6APOA1, APOA2
9positive regulation of cholesterol esterificationGO:0108739.5APOA2, APOA1
10phospholipid effluxGO:0337009.5APOA2, APOA1
11high-density lipoprotein particle remodelingGO:0343759.5APOA1, APOA2
12reverse cholesterol transportGO:0436919.5APOA2, APOA1
13cholesterol effluxGO:0333449.5APOA2, APOA1
14phosphatidylcholine biosynthetic processGO:0066569.5APOA1, APOA2
15lipoprotein metabolic processGO:0421579.4APOA2, APOA1
16organ regenerationGO:0311009.4APOA1, APOA2
17retinoid metabolic processGO:0015239.4APOA2, APOA1
18cholesterol homeostasisGO:0426329.3APOA2, APOA1
19response to estrogenGO:0436279.2APOA1, APOA2
20phototransduction, visible lightGO:0076039.2APOA2, APOA1
21cholesterol metabolic processGO:0082039.1APOA2, APOA1
22response to drugGO:0424938.9HTR2A, APOA2, APOA1
23platelet degranulationGO:0025768.9FGB, APOA1
24blood coagulationGO:0075968.4THBD, APOA1, F3, FGB

Molecular functions related to Peripheral Vascular Disease according to GeneCards/GeneDecks:

(show all 8)
idNameGO IDScoreTop Affiliating Genes
1apolipoprotein receptor bindingGO:0341909.4APOA2, APOA1
2high-density lipoprotein particle receptor bindingGO:0706539.4APOA2, APOA1
3phosphatidylcholine-sterol O-acyltransferase activator activityGO:0602289.3APOA1, APOA2
4lipase inhibitor activityGO:0551029.2APOA2, APOA1
5cholesterol bindingGO:0154859.2APOA2, APOA1
6high-density lipoprotein particle bindingGO:0080359.1APOA2, APOA1
7cholesterol transporter activityGO:0171278.9APOA2, APOA1
8phospholipid bindingGO:0055438.8F3, APOA2, APOA1

Products for genes affiliated with Peripheral Vascular Disease

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  • Antibodies
  • Proteins
  • Lysates
  • Antibodies

Sources for Peripheral Vascular Disease

About this section
4CDC
14ExPASy
15FMA
23GTR
24HGMD
25HMDB
26ICD10
27ICD10 via Orphanet
28ICD9CM
30IUPHAR
31KEGG
36MeSH
37MESH via Orphanet
38MGI
41NCIt
42NDF-RT
45NINDS
46Novoseek
48OMIM
49OMIM via Orphanet
53PubMed
54QIAGEN
60SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
63UMLS
64UMLS via Orphanet