MCID: PRN011
MIFTS: 50

Pernicious Anemia

Categories: Rare diseases, Metabolic diseases

Aliases & Classifications for Pernicious Anemia

MalaCards integrated aliases for Pernicious Anemia:

Name: Pernicious Anemia 53 12 72 49 14 59
Anemia, Pernicious 72 41 69
Anemia Pernicious 12 51
Juvenile Onset Pernicious Anemia 49
Acquired Pernicious Anemia 49
Addison-Biermer Anemia 49
Addison's Anaemia 12
Addisonian Anemia 49
Biermer's Disease 49
Biermer's Anemia 12
Biermer Anemia 49

Characteristics:

OMIM:

53
Inheritance:
? autosomal dominant


Classifications:



External Ids:

OMIM 53 170900
Disease Ontology 12 DOID:13381
ICD10 32 D51.0
ICD9CM 34 281.0
MeSH 41 D000752
NCIt 46 C2871
MedGen 39 C0002892
SNOMED-CT via HPO 65 53165003
UMLS 69 C0002892

Summaries for Pernicious Anemia

PubMed Health : 59
About pernicious anemia: Pernicious anemia (per-NISH-us uh-NEE-me-uh) is a condition in which the body can't make enough healthy red blood cells because it doesn't have enough vitamin B12.Vitamin B12 is a nutrient found in some foods. The body needs this nutrient to make healthy red blood cells and to keep its nervous system working properly.People who have pernicious anemia can't absorb enough vitamin B12 from food. This is because they lack intrinsic (in-TRIN-sik) factor, a protein made in the stomach. A lack of this protein leads to vitamin B12 deficiency.Other conditions and factors also can cause vitamin B12 deficiency. Examples include infections, surgery, medicines, and diet. Technically, the term "pernicious anemia" refers to vitamin B12 deficiency due to a lack of intrinsic factor. Often though, vitamin B12 deficiency due to other causes also is called pernicious anemia.This article discusses pernicious anemia due to a lack of intrinsic factor and other causes.

MalaCards based summary : Pernicious Anemia, also known as anemia, pernicious, is related to intrinsic factor deficiency and diphyllobothriasis, and has symptoms including megaloblastic anemia and malabsorption of vitamin b12. An important gene associated with Pernicious Anemia is GIF (Gastric Intrinsic Factor), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Selenium Micronutrient Network and Vitamin digestion and absorption. The drugs Hydroxocobalamin and Cyanocobalamin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include skin, tongue and testes.

NIH Rare Diseases : 49 Biermer's disease, also called acquired pernicious anemia, is a condition in which the body is unable to properly utilize vitamin B12. Because vitamin B12 is essential for the formation of red blood cells, this condition is primarily characterized by anemia (too few red blood cells). Affected people may also experience gastrointestinal issues and neurological abnormalities (such as paresthesia, weakness, and clumsiness). Biermer's disease and other forms of pernicious anemia are thought to be autoimmune conditions which occur when the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue. Treatment generally consists of large doses of vitamin B12, usually as an injection. Last updated: 9/11/2015

Wikipedia : 72 Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia, of which pernicious anemia is a type, is a disease in which not enough... more...

Description from OMIM: 170900

Related Diseases for Pernicious Anemia

Diseases related to Pernicious Anemia via text searches within MalaCards or GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

(show top 50) (show all 211)
# Related Disease Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 intrinsic factor deficiency 33.5 FUT2 GIF
2 diphyllobothriasis 32.0 GAST GIF
3 vitiligo-associated multiple autoimmune disease susceptibility 1 30.4 AIRE TPO
4 alpha/beta t-cell lymphopenia with gamma/delta t-cell expansion, severe cytomegalovirus infection, and autoimmunity 30.4 AIRE TG TPO
5 zollinger-ellison syndrome 30.1 GAST SST
6 graves disease 1 30.1 TG TPO
7 thyroiditis 30.0 TG TPO
8 gastrinoma 29.9 GAST SST
9 myxedema 29.8 TG TPO
10 vitamin b12 deficiency 29.8 GIF TCN1 TCN2
11 duodenal ulcer 29.7 GAST SST
12 megaloblastic anemia 29.6 GIF TCN1 TCN2
13 autoimmune disease 29.5 AIRE TG TPO
14 hyperthyroidism 29.4 SST TG TPO
15 megaloblastic anemia 1 11.8
16 gastritis 11.4
17 stiff-person syndrome 11.1
18 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 11.1
19 congenital intrinsic factor deficiency 11.1
20 anemia, congenital dyserythropoietic, type iii 11.0
21 autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome, type i, with or without reversible metaphyseal dysplasia 11.0
22 vitamin b12 plasma level quantitative trait locus 1 11.0
23 autoimmune atrophic gastritis 11.0
24 autoimmune oophoritis 11.0
25 granulomatous gastritis 10.4 GAST GIF
26 atrophic gastritis 10.3
27 type 1 diabetes mellitus 5 10.3 AIRE FUT2
28 gastrointestinal neuroendocrine benign tumor 10.3 GAST SST
29 gastric neuroendocrine neoplasm 10.3 GAST SST
30 pylorospasm 10.3 GAST SST
31 pancreatic islet cell tumors 10.3 GAST SST
32 postcholecystectomy syndrome 10.3 GAST SST
33 hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, familial, 2 10.3 GAST SST
34 adrenal cortex disease 10.3 AIRE SST
35 retinitis pigmentosa 40 10.3 GAST SST
36 duodenogastric reflux 10.3 GAST SST
37 vipoma 10.3 GAST SST
38 pancreatic cholera 10.2 GAST SST
39 diabetes mellitus 10.2
40 pancreatic gastrinoma 10.2 GAST SST
41 mixed ductal-endocrine carcinoma 10.2 GAST SST
42 islet cell tumor 10.2 GAST SST
43 hypoadrenocorticism, familial 10.2 AIRE TPO
44 macrocytic anemia 10.2
45 serotonin syndrome 10.2 GAST SST
46 systemic lupus erythematosus 10.1
47 gastric cancer 10.1
48 mucositis 10.1
49 purpura 10.1
50 lupus erythematosus 10.1

Comorbidity relations with Pernicious Anemia via Phenotypic Disease Network (PDN): (show all 15)


Active Peptic Ulcer Disease Acute Cystitis
Alzheimer Disease Bronchitis
Decubitus Ulcer Deficiency Anemia
Familial Atrial Fibrillation Heart Disease
Hypothyroidism Iron Deficiency Anemia
Osteoporosis Parkinson Disease, Late-Onset
Protein-Energy Malnutrition Schizophreniform Disorder
Transient Cerebral Ischemia

Graphical network of the top 20 diseases related to Pernicious Anemia:



Diseases related to Pernicious Anemia

Symptoms & Phenotypes for Pernicious Anemia

Symptoms via clinical synopsis from OMIM:

53
Heme:
pernicious anemia

Lab:
decreased oral absorption of cobalt-60 labeled vitamin b12


Clinical features from OMIM:

170900

Human phenotypes related to Pernicious Anemia:

31
# Description HPO Frequency HPO Source Accession
1 megaloblastic anemia 31 HP:0001889
2 malabsorption of vitamin b12 31 HP:0200118

Drugs & Therapeutics for Pernicious Anemia

PubMedHealth treatment related to Pernicious Anemia: 59

Doctors treat pernicious anemia by replacing the missing vitamin B12 in the body. People who have pernicious anemia may need lifelong treatment.The goals of treating pernicious anemia include:Preventing or treating the anemia and its signs and symptomsPreventing or managing complications, such as heart and nerve damageTreating the cause of the pernicious anemia (if a cause can be found)

Drugs for Pernicious Anemia (from DrugBank, HMDB, Dgidb, PharmGKB, IUPHAR, NovoSeek, BitterDB):

(show all 33)
# Name Status Phase Clinical Trials Cas Number PubChem Id
1
Hydroxocobalamin Approved Phase 4,Phase 2 13422-51-0 5460373 44475014 11953898
2
Cyanocobalamin Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4,Phase 2 68-19-9 44176380
3
Folic Acid Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4,Phase 2 59-30-3 6037
4
Methylcobalamin Approved, Experimental, Investigational, Nutraceutical Phase 4,Phase 2 13422-55-4
5
Pyridoxal Approved, Nutraceutical Phase 4 66-72-8 1050
6
Pyridoxine Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 65-23-6 1054
7
Thiamine Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical, Vet_approved Phase 4 59-43-8 1130
8 Hematinics Phase 4,Phase 2
9 Micronutrients Phase 4,Phase 2
10 Trace Elements Phase 4,Phase 2
11 Vitamin B 12 Phase 4,Phase 2
12 Vitamin B Complex Phase 4,Phase 2
13 Vitamins Phase 4,Phase 2
14 Vitamin B 6 Phase 4
15
Cobalamin Nutraceutical Phase 4,Phase 2 13408-78-1 6438156
16 Folate Nutraceutical Phase 4,Phase 2
17 Vitamin B12 Nutraceutical Phase 4,Phase 2
18 Vitamin B9 Nutraceutical Phase 4,Phase 2
19 Thiamin Nutraceutical Phase 4
20
Apremilast Approved, Investigational Phase 2 608141-41-9 11561674
21 Analgesics Phase 2
22 Analgesics, Non-Narcotic Phase 2
23 Angiogenesis Inhibitors Phase 2
24 Angiogenesis Modulating Agents Phase 2
25 Anti-Bacterial Agents Phase 2
26 Anti-Infective Agents Phase 2
27 Anti-Inflammatory Agents Phase 2
28 Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal Phase 2
29 Antirheumatic Agents Phase 2
30 Immunosuppressive Agents Phase 2
31 Peripheral Nervous System Agents Phase 2
32 Antibodies
33 Immunoglobulins

Interventional clinical trials:


# Name Status NCT ID Phase Drugs
1 Megadose of Hydroxocobalamin for the Treatment of Pernicious Anemia Recruiting NCT03372447 Phase 4 Hydroxocobalamin 10,000mcg, Thiamin 100mg, Pyridoxine 50mg
2 Oral Vitamin B12 Administration for Vitamin B12 Deficiency After Total Gastrectomy Completed NCT00699478 Phase 2 mecobalamin
3 Combined Therapy With Narrow-Band Ultraviolet B Phototherapy and Apremilast for the Treatment of Vitiligo Recruiting NCT03123016 Phase 2 Apremilast
4 Clinical Course of Interstitial Lung Diseases: European IPF Registry and Biobank Recruiting NCT02951416

Search NIH Clinical Center for Pernicious Anemia

Inferred drug relations via UMLS 69 / NDF-RT 47 :


Cochrane evidence based reviews: anemia, pernicious

Genetic Tests for Pernicious Anemia

Anatomical Context for Pernicious Anemia

MalaCards organs/tissues related to Pernicious Anemia:

38
Skin, Tongue, Testes, Thyroid, Lung, Bone, Bone Marrow

Publications for Pernicious Anemia

Articles related to Pernicious Anemia:

(show top 50) (show all 561)
# Title Authors Year
1
Increased risk of pernicious anemia following scabies: a nationwide population-based matched-cohort study. ( 29066901 )
2017
2
Association pernicious anemia and autoimmune polyendocrinopathy: a retrospective study. ( 29362601 )
2017
3
Pseudothrombotic microangiopathy and vitamin B12 deficiency in pernicious anemia. ( 28670082 )
2017
4
HIGH-RISK GASTRIC PATHOLOGY AND PREVALENT AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES IN PATIENTS WITH PERNICIOUS ANEMIA. ( 29190137 )
2017
5
Intra-abdominal abscesses by Lactococcus lactis ssp cremoris in an immunocompetent adult with severe periodontitis and pernicious anemia. ( 28050349 )
2017
6
Challenging clinical presentations of pernicious anemia. ( 28972879 )
2017
7
Pseudo-thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura presenting as multi-organ dysfunction syndrome: A rare complication of pernicious anemia. ( 28620491 )
2017
8
Pernicious anemia: Fundamental and practical aspects in diagnosis. ( 28164751 )
2017
9
Venous thromboembolism and hyperhomocysteinemia as first manifestation of pernicious anemia: a case series. ( 28863787 )
2017
10
A case of pernicious anemia requiring differential diagnosis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia complication. ( 28948030 )
2017
11
Pernicious Anemia Associated Cobalamin Deficiency and Thrombotic Microangiopathy: Case Report and Review of the Literature. ( 28265287 )
2017
12
Acquired Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura in a Patient with Pernicious Anemia. ( 28473932 )
2017
13
Pernicious anemia and colorectal cancer risk - A nested case-control study. ( 27481584 )
2016
14
A case of asymptomatic pancytopenia with clinical features of hemolysis as a presentation of pernicious anemia. ( 27609735 )
2016
15
Differentiation of pernicious anemia from thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: The clinical value of subtle pathologic findings. ( 27765664 )
2016
16
Pernicious Anemia: Another Interesting Analytic Finding. ( 27554965 )
2016
17
Pathophysiology and laboratory diagnosis of pernicious anemia. ( 27538411 )
2016
18
Pernicious Anemia with Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: A Case Report and Literature Review. ( 27559485 )
2016
19
Oral Vitamin B12 Replacement for the Treatment of Pernicious Anemia. ( 27602354 )
2016
20
Risk of community-acquired pneumonia in patients with a diagnosis of pernicious anemia: a population-based retrospective cohort study. ( 26225868 )
2015
21
Pernicious anemia: Normal ferritin levels and possible hidden iron deficiency. ( 26298545 )
2015
22
Do all the patients with vitamin B12 deficiency have pernicious anemia? ( 25990467 )
2015
23
Hematinic deficiencies and pernicious anemia in oral mucosal disease patients withA macrocytosis. ( 25935499 )
2015
24
An Unexpected Mucosal Metaplasia at the Gastric Cardia in Longstanding Pernicious Anemia. ( 26465909 )
2015
25
COEXISTENCE OF ADDISON'S DISEASE AND PERNICIOUS ANEMIA: IS THE NEW CLASSIFICATION OF AUTOIMMUNE POLYGLANDULAR SYNDROME APPROPRIATE? ( 26415323 )
2015
26
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Pernicious Anemia in an Elderly Japanese Patient: A Case Report and Literature Review. ( 26370862 )
2015
27
Pernicious anemia presenting as catatonia: correlating vitamin B12 levels and catatonic symptoms. ( 25774050 )
2015
28
Advances in mechanisms, diagnosis, and treatment of pernicious anemia. ( 25828519 )
2015
29
Postoperative elevation of CA15-3 due to pernicious anemia in a patient without evidence of breast cancer recurrence. ( 26943450 )
2015
30
George Minot and Pernicious Anemia. ( 27604448 )
2015
31
Spurious laboratory alterations in pernicious anemia. ( 26670405 )
2015
32
Cancer Risk After Pernicious Anemia in the US Elderly Population. ( 26079040 )
2015
33
Pernicious anemia: diagnosis and course in Burkina Faso. ( 25787024 )
2015
34
Pernicious Anemia, Atrophic Gastritis, and the Risk of Cancer. ( 26192144 )
2015
35
Pernicious Anemia: Time to Justify Endoscopic Monitoring? ( 26240006 )
2015
36
Pernicious anemia. From past to present. ( 25680481 )
2015
37
Treatment of pernicious anemia: Which is the best option? ( 24657514 )
2014
38
Prevalence of pernicious anemia in patients with macrocytic anemia and low serum B12. ( 25674111 )
2014
39
Diagnosis of pernicious anemia and the risk of pancreatic cancer. ( 24622073 )
2014
40
Oral cobalamin (vitamin B12) therapy in pernicious anemia. ( 24503031 )
2014
41
Portal, superior mesenteric and splenic vein thrombosis secondary to hyperhomocysteinemia with pernicious anemia: a case report. ( 25155131 )
2014
42
Diagnosis and Classification of Pernicious Anemia. ( 24424200 )
2014
43
Pernicious anemia with spuriously normal vitamin B12 level might be misdiagnosed as myelodysplastic syndrome. ( 24630920 )
2014
44
High Percentage of Regulatory T Cells before and after Vitamin B12 Treatment in Patients with Pernicious Anemia. ( 25170761 )
2014
45
Vitamin B12 and pernicious anemia--the dawn of molecular medicine. ( 24552327 )
2014
46
CarcinoA^d tumor revealing pernicious anemia. ( 25767671 )
2014
47
Do all the patients with gastric parietal cell antibodies have pernicious anemia? ( 22957902 )
2013
48
Masked pernicious anemia: a literature review and case presentation. ( 24902327 )
2013
49
Very unusual presentation of pernicious anemia with schistocytes in peripheral blood. ( 24455779 )
2013
50
Comment to the response to "severe pernicious anemia with distinct cytogenetic and flow cytometric aberrations mimicking myelodysplastic syndrome". ( 22960851 )
2013

Variations for Pernicious Anemia

Expression for Pernicious Anemia

Search GEO for disease gene expression data for Pernicious Anemia.

Pathways for Pernicious Anemia

Pathways related to Pernicious Anemia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Super pathways Score Top Affiliating Genes
1
Show member pathways
11.83 GIF TCN1 TCN2
2 10.64 GIF TCN2
3 10.14 GIF TCN1 TCN2
4 10 GAST GIF
5 9.73 TG TPO

GO Terms for Pernicious Anemia

Cellular components related to Pernicious Anemia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 extracellular region GO:0005576 9.43 GAST GIF SST TCN1 TCN2 TG
2 extracellular space GO:0005615 9.17 GAST GIF SST TCN1 TCN2 TG

Biological processes related to Pernicious Anemia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 cobalamin metabolic process GO:0009235 9.33 GIF TCN1 TCN2
2 hormone biosynthetic process GO:0042446 9.26 TG TPO
3 cobalamin transport GO:0015889 9.13 GIF TCN1 TCN2
4 cobalt ion transport GO:0006824 8.8 GIF TCN1 TCN2

Molecular functions related to Pernicious Anemia according to GeneCards Suite gene sharing:

# Name GO ID Score Top Affiliating Genes
1 hormone activity GO:0005179 9.13 GAST SST TG
2 cobalamin binding GO:0031419 8.8 GIF TCN1 TCN2

Sources for Pernicious Anemia

3 CDC
7 CNVD
9 Cosmic
10 dbSNP
11 DGIdb
16 ExPASy
18 FMA
27 GO
28 GTR
29 HGMD
30 HMDB
31 HPO
32 ICD10
33 ICD10 via Orphanet
34 ICD9CM
35 IUPHAR
36 KEGG
37 LifeMap
39 MedGen
41 MeSH
42 MESH via Orphanet
43 MGI
45 NCI
46 NCIt
47 NDF-RT
50 NINDS
51 Novoseek
53 OMIM
54 OMIM via Orphanet
58 PubMed
60 QIAGEN
65 SNOMED-CT via HPO
66 SNOMED-CT via Orphanet
67 TGDB
68 Tocris
69 UMLS
70 UMLS via Orphanet
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